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HANDBOOK 


OF   THE 


BOMBAY    PRESIDENCY. 


LONDON  : 
BRADEURV,  AQNEW,   &    CO.,   PRINTERS,  WHITEFRIARS. 


HANDBOOK 


OF   THB 


BOMBAY    PEESIDENCY, 


WITH  AN   ACCOUNT  OP 


BOMBAY     CITY. 


SECOND    EDITION. 

ICOST    CARGFUIXT    BXVISED    ON    THE    SPOT,     AKD    FOS    THE 

HOST    FABT    BEWXITTEN. 


WITH     MAPS    AND     PLAKS. 


LONDON : 

JOHN    MURRAY,  ALBEMARLE   STREET. 

1881. 

[AU  RighU  reserved  J] 


THE   ENGLISH   EDITIONS    OF    MURRAY'S"  HANDBOOKS   MAT    BE    OBTAINED 

OF   THE  FOLLOWING  AGENTS. 

Belgium^  Ilollandy  aiid  Germany, 

BROCKHAUS.— rvriETMEYEB. 
BENDER  &  FONTAINE.— LOFFLER 

—  KOTTER. 
ALCAN. 

HANZ.— ACKKRICANN. — KAISER. 
SCHRAG.— ZEI8ER. 
HABTLEBEN.  —  O.    HECKENAST 

— OSTEATAMM.— BATH. 
CALVE. 

KRAMERS.  — PETBI.--R0BBER8. 
GBUCKEB. — TBVBNEB. 
HETZLER. — NEFF. 
COEN. — SCHIMPFF. 
OEROLD. — ^BRAUMULLER. 
KREIDEL. 


AIX-LA- 

I  MATER. 

LEIPZIG     .... 

CHAPELLE 

MANNHEIM  . . 

AMSTERDAM 

MULLER.— KIRBEROER. 

ANTWERP     . . 

MERTENU. 

METZ 

BADEN-BADEN 

MARX. 

MUNICH    .... 

BERLIN     .... 

ASHER.— MITSCHER  &  ROSTELL. 

KtfRNBERG  .. 

BRUSSELS     . . 

KIESSLING. 

PESTH 

CABLSRUHE   . 

A.  BIELEFELD. 

COLOGNE  .... 

GREVEN.  — DUMONT.—  EISEN. 

PRAGUE    .... 

DRESDEN.... 

BURDACH. — PIEBSON. 

RO'rir.KDAM  . 

FRANKFURT  . 

JtfGEL. 

STRASSBURG  . 

GBATZ 

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STUTTGART  . . 

THE  HAGUE.. 

NIJHOFF. 

TRIESTE    .... 

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MAUKE  SOHNE. 

VIENNA     .    .. 

HEIDELBERG . 

MOHR. 

WIESBADEN. . 

Switzerland, 

bIle    

GEORG.  — AMBERGER. 

NEUCHATEL 

BEBNE 

DALP.— JENT  &  REINERT. 

SCHAFF- 

COIRE 

GRUfiENMANN. 

HA1TSEN    .. 

CONSTANCE    . 

MECK.                            f— H.  GEORG. 

SOLEURE .... 

GENEVA    .... 

MONROE   (mETFORD).— 8AND0Z. 

ST.  GALLEN 

LAUSANNE  .. 

ROUSSY. 

ZURICH     .... 

LUCERNE      . . 

KAISER. 

Jla 

ly- 

BOLOGNA      . . 

ZANICHELLI. 

PARMA      .... 

FLORENCE    .. 

OOODBAN.  — LOEBCHER. 

PISA 

GENOA  

GRONDONA.— ANTOINE  BEUF. 

PERUGIA  .... 

LEGHORN     . . 

MAZZAJOLI. 

ROME     

LUCCA  

BARON. 

MANTUA    

NEGRETTI. 

SIENA    

MILAN 

8ACCHL— DUMOLARD.— HOEPLI. 

TURIN 

MODENA   

VINCENZT  A  ROSSI.         [HOEPLI. 

NAPLES     

BRITISH  LIBRARY  (UORANT).— 

VENICE     

PALERMO     . . 

PEDONE. 

VERONA    .... 

Fi-a 

ivce. 

AMIENS     .  I . . 

CARON.                                      _                  ' 

MARSEILLES  . 

ANGERS    .... 

BARASSl 

NANTES     .... 

AVIGNON 

CLEMENT  ST.  JUST. 

AVRANCHES    . 

ANFRAY.                             [ — FERET. 

NICE 

BORDEAUX  . . 

CHAUMAS.— MtfLLER.— SAUVAT. 

BOULOGNE    .. 

MERRIDEVY. 

ORLEANS  

CAEN     

BOISARD.  — LEGOST.  —  CLERISSti. 

PARIS    

CALAIS 

RIGAUX  CAUX. 

PAU    

CANNES     

ROBAUDY. . 

RHEIMS     

CHI<JEtBOUBG  . 

LECOUFFLET. 

ROUEN 

DIEPPE 

MARAIS. 

ST.  iiTIENNE  . 

DINANT     

008TE. 

ST.  MALO 

DOUAI 

JACQUART.— LEMIlE. 

ST.  QUENTIN  . 

GRENOBLE   .. 

VBLLOT  ET  COMP.                 [BUYS. 

TOULON     .... 

HAVRE 

BOURDIGNON.    —   FOUCHER.  — 

TOULOUSE    .. 

LILLE 

BlkSHIN. 

TOURS  

LYONS  

AYN^.— SCHEURING.— mUra. 

TROYES     

GER8TER.i  ..  ; 

Jhubter.  \2  - 


I  i  p 


JENT.  ^V. , 

HUBEK. 

ORELL  FUESSLI  &   CO.— MEYER 
h  ZELLER.— LEUTHOLD. 


ZANGHIERI. 

NISTBL— JOS.  VANNUCCHI. 
VINCENZ  — BARTELLL 
SPITHOVER.  — PIALE.—  MONAL- 
DINI. — LOE8CHER.— MtfLLER. 
ONORATO  PORRI. 
MAGGI.  —   L.      BEUF.  —   BOCCA 

FR&RES.  — L0E8CHER. 
ONO  ANIA.  — OOEN.— MEINERS. 
MtfNSTSB.  —MEINERS. 

CAMOTN  FRfiRES. — MEUNIER. 

fetipas.— poirier  legros.— 
andrA. 

barbery  fr&rbs.  —  jouola. 
— galignani. 

gatineau. — pesty. 

galignani. — boyveau. 

lafon.  [— giret. 

brissart  binet.  —  geoffroy. 

lebrument. — haulabd. 

DELABUE. 

HUE. 

DOLOY. 

MONGE  ET  VILLAMU8. 

GIMET  ET  COTELLE. 

GEOBGET. 

LALOY.— DUFEY  ROBERT. 

S^in  arid  'Portugal, 

GIBRALTAR    .      R0W8WELL.  I  MADRID    ....      DURAN.— BAILU^BE. 

LISBON     ....      LEWTAS.  1  MALAGA   ....      DE  MOYA. 

Mtissiaf  Stvederif  Denmark^  and,  Norway, 

ODESSA     ...      CAMOIN. 

CHRI8TIANIA       BENNETT. 

STOCKHOLM  SAMSON  &  WALLIN.— FRITZ. 

Ionian  Islands, 

CORFU.. J.   W.  TAYLOR. 


}' 


^^BU™^'         J-WATKINS.— WOLFF. 

MOSCOW  ......      OAUTIKR.— DEUBNER.— LANG. 

Malta, 

CRITIEN.— WATSON.— <5ALLEJA, 

Greece, 

ATHENS KARL  WILDB£RG.  | 


CoTistantiruyplc, 

WICK  &  WEISS. 

Alexandria  and  Cairo, 

ALEXANDRIA  BOOK  CO. 


India, 

CALCUTTA....      IHACKER,  SPINK   &  CO.  )       BOMBAY THACKER  &  CO.  j  LIMITED. 


\ 


TO 


THE    GREAT   INDIAN    STATESMAN    AND   TRIED    FRIEND    OF 

THE    BRITISH    GOVERNMENT, 


HIS     EXCELLENCY     THE 


NtWAB  MUKHTARU'D  DAULAH  SIR  SAlAR  JANG  BAHADUR, 

G.CtS.L) 


BY  THE  AUTHOR, 


EDWARD   B.  EASTWIC^-: 

Loudon,  Avgitst,  1880. 


PREFACE  TO  THE  SECOND  EDITION. 


In  this  Second  Edition  the  Bombay  Handbook  has  been 
so  completely  re-written  that  it  might  fairly  be  called  a  new 
book  rather  than  a  new  edition.  All  the  most  important 
places  in  the  Bombay  Presidency  have  been  recently  visited 
by  the  Author,  and  in  particular  the  province  of  K&thiaw&d, 
"which  is  very  difficult  of  access  at  present  to  the  ordinary 
traveller,  has  been  thoroughly  examined.  When  the  Branch 
Railways  now  in  course  of  construction  in  K&thiaw&d  are 
completed,  the  traveller  will  be  able  to  visit  the  temples  of 
Shatrunjay  and  Qim&r  with  comparative  facility,  but,  till  then, 
it  would  require  more  time  than  the  ordinary  traveller  could 
afford  to  reach  those  remarkable  edifices,  and,  as  matters  at 
present  stand,  it  would  be  necessary  to  carry  provisions  and 
wine,  as  there  are  no  hotels  and  but  few  travellers'  bangl&s 
where  a  mess-man  is  to  be  found. 

The  Author  has  to  express  his  thanks  for  hospitality  and 
valuable  assistance  rendered  by  H.E.  the  late  Governor,  Sir 
Richard  Temple;  the  Acting-Governor,  Mr.  Lionel  Ashbumer ; 
Mr.  G.  Hart,  Private  Secretary  to  the  Governor;  Colonel 
"Westropp,  Political  Agent  in  S&wantwddi;  Mr.  Arthur 
Crawford,  C.S.,  late  Envoy  at  Goa,  and  Mr.  Norman  Oliver ; 
Mr.  Waddington,  C.S.,  Collector  ofBelg&on;  Mr.  Elphinston, 
C.S.,  Collector  of  Dh&rwdd;  Mr.  Robert  Chrystall,  residing  at 
Gadak ;  Mr.  Gurshidapa  Virbasapa,  Mdmlatdar  of  Gadak ; 


VI  PRKPACB. 

Mr.  C.  Eamchandra  Bhaviya,  M&mlatd^r  of  Eon ;  Colonel 
Parr,  Political  Agent  at  Kolh&ptir ;  Mr.  W.  Ferris,  Assistant 
Political  Agent  at  Kolh&pur,  whose  accurate  knowledge  of 
Persian  enabled  him  to  decipher  the  inscriptions  at  that  place; 
Mr.  MacTier,  C.S.,  Collector  of  S&t&a ;  Mr.  Nuneham,  C.S., 
Judge  of  Pund;  Mr.  P.  S.  MelviU,  C.S.I.,  Eesident  at 
Baroda;  H.H.  the  G^ekw&d  and  Sir  M^hava  R&o,  K.C.S.I., 
Diw&n  of  Baroda ;  Dr.  Johnston,  civil  surgeon  at  Bharuch ; 
General  Schneider,  C.S.I.,  Commanding  at  Ahmad  &b&d,  and 
his  son  Mr.  C.  Schneider ;  Mr.  Prendergast  Walsh,  Assistant 
Political  Agent  in  Kdthiawad ;  H.H.  the  Thakor  of  Rajkot ; 
Colonel  Barton,  Political  Agent  in  Kathiaw^d;  Mr.  DhanjI 
Shdh,  Magistrate  at  Rajkot ;  H.H.  the  Thdkor  of  Gondal ; 
H.H.  the  N6wdb  of  Jun^arh ;  Mr.  H^ji  'Abdu  'I  Latif,  Wahi(s 
wad£r  of  Viriwal ;  Major  Scott,  Assistant  Resident  at  Dw&ka; 
Colonel  Reeves,  Political  Agent  in  Kachh ;  H.H.  the  R^o  of 
Kachh ;  the  Diwdn  of  Kachh ;  H.H.  the  J6m  of  Nowanagar ; 
Mr.  McCleland,  engineer  to  H.H.  the  Jdm,  the  Diwin  of 
Nowanagar ;  Major  Wodehouse,  Assistant  Political  Agent  in 
Kithiawdd;  H.H.  the  Th^kor  of  P^lit&ia;  H.H.  the  Thsikor 
of  Bhaunagar;  the  Diw^n  of  Bhaunagar;  Mr.  Birdwood, 
C.S.,  Judge  of  Surat ;  Mr.  Theodore  Hope,  C.S.,  Collector  of 
Surat ;  Mr.  Waliu  *llah,  of  the  Translator's  Office,  Bombay ; 
Mr.  Lestock  Reid,  C.S.,  Revenue  Commissioner,  N.  Division, 
Bombay. 

The  Author's  especial  thanks  are  due  also  to  Mr.  Mathew, 
Agent,  and  Mr.  Duxbury,  Traffic  Manager  of  the  B.B.C.I. 
Railway,  and  Mr.  Bamett,  Agent  for  the  G.I.P.  Railway. 
Also  to  Mr.  Naurozji  Faridunji,  of  Bombay. 


CONTENTS. 


Section  I. 
INTRODUCTORY   INFORMATION. 


§  a.  Season  fob  yisiting 
Bombay 

§  h.  Outfit         .... 

§  c.  Hints  as  to  Dbess,  Diet, 
Health  and  ^om- 
FOBT     .... 

§  d.  Routes  to  Bombay   .    . 

1.  Voyage    from    South- 

ampton through   the 
Suez  Canal 

2.  Route      Overland      by 

Venice  or  Brindisi 

§  e.  Ebas  .... 

Table    of    Festivals    and 
Fasts      .... 
§/.  Chbonological  Tables 
Hindii  Chronology  before 

the  Christian  Era    .    , 
Governors  of  Bombay  and 
dates  of  their  acces- 
sion   .... 
Mar^tha  Dynasties       .     . 
Anhaiwdda     Dynasty    of 

Gujar&t 
Solankhi  Dynasty  .       .    . 
Bhigela  Dynasty 


PAQB 

2 
2 


3 
4 


9 
10 

II 
15 

16 


16 
17 

19 
19 
20 


Farruldif  Dynasty  of 
Khdndesh        .        .    . 

Kings  of  Gujardt 

'Adil  Shdhi  Dynasty  of 
BijApilr    .        .        .    . 

Ni;;dm  Shdhl  Dynasty  of 
Al^madnagar 

Governors  and  Viceroys 
of  Goa 

Archbishops  of  Goa      .    . 

Remarkable  Events  con- 
necting India  with 
Europe 

Captains  of  Bassin        .    . 
§  g.  Tables  of  Money    . 

Tables    of     Weights     and 

Measures         .        .    . 

§  /{.  Castes   and  Tbibes  in 

THE  Bombay  Pbesi- 

dency 

Skeleton  Routes  .        .    . 
§  /.  Languages  of  the  Bom- 
bay Pbesidency   .    . 

Vocabularies  and  Dia- 
logues     .        .        .    . 

Indian  Words  used  in  this 
Volume 


PAOK 


20 
20 

20 

21 

21 
24 


2o 

39 
40 

40 


42 
48 

49 

51 

HI 


Section  II. 

BOMBAY  CITY. 


PAGE 

113 
113 

113 
114 
114 
123 


\8t  Bay. 
Harbour  of  Bombay. 
Landing  Places 
Hotels  and  Clubs 
Conveyances . 
Public  Offices     . 
The  Cathedral 

2'nd  Day, 
The  Town  Hall  and  Mint      .    .  121 
Custom  House  and  Docks  .  126 

Cotton  Screws      ,         .        .    .  128 
Bassoon  Dock     ....  128 
Koli&ba      Memorial       Church, 
Cemetery  and  Lighthouses    .  129 


Catholic  Chapel 
St.  Andrew's  Kirk 


PAOS 

.    .  132 
.  132 

Zrd  Day. 
Alexandra  Native  Girls'  College  132 
Police  Court     .        .        .        .132 
Sir  Jamshldji  Jijibhdi's    Pdrsi 

Benevolent  Institution  .  .132 
School  of  Design  .  ,  .  .  133 
St.  Xavier's  School  .  .  .133 
New  Elphinstone  High  School .  133 
Gokald^  Hospital  .  .  .134 
Dw^kan^th's  Temple  .  .  .  134 
House  of  Correction  .  .  .134 
The  Workhouse     .        .        .    .  134 


TUl 

Section  II.— 

ith  Day, 
Elphinstone  College 
Victoria  Gardens  and  Museum 
Christ's  Church,  Bykallah 
Grant  Medical  College 
Jamshfdjl  Hospital 
Jamshidji  DharmsdU 
Scotch  Mission  School 
Nul  Market 
Girgdon  Cemeteries 


CONTENTS. 


Bombay  Qm—contlmed, 

6th  Day,  page 

Government  House  at  Malabar 

HiU 139 

Valkeshwar 140 

Towers  of  Silence       .        .        .  141 
Parsi  Dhannsdld    .        .        .    .  143 

Shooting 143 

Railways  and  Steamers         .    .144 


FAGB 

134 
135 
135 
136 
136 
136 
137 
137 
137 


Wi  Day. 

Elphinstone  Dock       .        .  .  137 

Mazagdoii 138 

St.  Peter's  Church,  Mazagdou  .  138 

Government  House  at  Parell  .  138 

European  Cemetery  at  Parell  .  139 

Kurla  Cotton  Mills    .        .  .139 


Sights  in  the  Vicinity  of  Bom- 
bay          144 

Elephanta 144 

Vihdr  Waterworks  .  .152 
Montpezir  Caves  .  .  .  153 
Kdnhari  Caves  .  .154 
Bassin 158 


ROUTES. 


Route  PAGE 

1  Bombay  to  Mdtherdn   .        .  162 

2  Bombay  to  Thdnd,  Kalydn 

and  Amarndth    .        .    .  166 

3  Bombay  to  Khanddld    and 

Kdrli        .        .  .  .170 

4  Kdrli  to  Pund       .  .  .177 

5  Pund  to  Mahdbaleshwar  .  .194 

6  Pund  to  Sholdpiir  .  .  205 

7  Sholdpiir  to  Bijdpiir  .  .  208 

8  Bombay  to  Goa    .  .  .217 

9  Goa  to  Vingorleii      .  .  .  230 

10  Sdwantwddi  by  the  Amboli 

Ghdt  to  Belgdon  .     .  230 

11  Belgdon     to     Kittiir     and 

Dhdrw^dd    .        .        .     .  237 

12  Dhdrwdd  to  Hubli,  Gadak, 

and  Lakkundi     .        .     .  241 

13  Gadak  to  Bdddml  .        .248 

14  Belgdon  to  Gotiir  and  the 

Falls  of  Gokdk        .        .  253 

15  Gotiir     to     Kolhdpiir    and 

Panhdld  .        .        .  .258 

16  Kolhdpiir  to  Sdtdrd .        .  .  269 

17  Sdtdrd  to  Mahdbaleshwar  .  275 

18  Bombay  to  Ndshik  .        .  .  276 

19  Ndshik  to  J^balpiir      .  .  286 

20  Ndndgdon  to  Eliira .        .  .  290 

21  Ndndgdoii  to  Al^madnagar, 

Junnar,  and  Pund      .    .  290 


and 


PA  OB 


Route 

22  Khandwah    to    Indiir 

Mdhu  (Mhow)     .        .     .  305 

23  Bombay  to  Surat  .  309 

24  Surat  to  Baroda        .        .    .  320 

25  Baroda  to  Champanir    and 

Pawaga^h        .        .        .  324 

26  Bhanich  to  Dabhoi  .        .     .  327 

27  Baroda  to  A^maddbad  .  332 

28  A^jmaddbdd  to  Wadhwdn     .  346 

29  Wadhwdn  to  Rdjkot     .        .  348 

30  Bajkot    to     Jiindgadh    and 

Giradr     .        .     '  ,        .351 

31  Jiindgadh    to    Virdwal  and 

Somndth  .        .        .359 

32  Virdwal  to  Dwdrka  .        .     .  365 

33  Dwdrka  to  B6t      .        .        .  368 

34  Dwdrka  to  Mdndavl  and  Bhuj  370 

35  Mdndavi  to  Nowanagar  .    .  373 

36  Nowanagar  to  Bdjkot)  Son- 

gadh,       Pdlitdna       and 
Shatrunjay      .        .        .376 

37  Songadh    to    Wallah     and 

Bhaunagar      .        .        .  379 

38  Bhaunagar  to  Surat         .    .  384 

39  Bombay  to  Kardchl  and  Kotri  384 

40  A^maddbdd  to  Mount  Abii 

Road       .        .        .        .400 
40a  Bombay    and  Ahmedabad 
to  Mount    Aboo    (Abu), 
Rajputana-Malwa  line .  iOOa 


LIST   OF    MAPS   AND    PLANS.. 


Plan  of  Bombay    .              .113 
Map  of  Environs  of  Bom- 
BAIL 144 


Plan  op  BijApiJr 
Map    of    India 
Presidency) 


.    .  209 
(Bombay 
. .  at  the  end 


I 


HANDBOOK  FOR  TRAVELLERS 

IN  THK 

BOMBAY    PBESIDENCY. 


SECTION  L 

INTRODUCTOEY  INFORMATION. 

CONTENTS.  PAGE 

§  a.  Season  for  visiting  Bombay 2 

6  6.  Outfit 2 

$  e.  Hints  as  to  Dress,  Diet,  Health,  and  Comfort       .  3 
^d.  Routes  to  Bombay: 

1.  Voyage  from  Southampton  through  Suez  Canal  4 

2.  Route  Overland  by  Venice  or  Brindisi        .    .  9 
§  e.  Eras 10 

Table  of  Festivals  and  Fasts 11 

§/.  Chronological  Tables .15 

H1ND1&  Chronology  before  the  Christian  Era      .  15 

Governors  of  Bombay  and  Dates  of  accession     .  16 

MarXtha  Dynasties 17 

AnhalwXdX  Dynasty  of  GujarXt     .  .19 

Sol ANKHf  Dynasty ID 

BhAgela  Dynasty 20 

Parrukhi  Dynasty  of  KhAndesh         .        .        .    .  20 

Kings  of  GujarXt .20 

'Adil  Snlnf  Dynasty  of  BfjXpijR         .        .        .     .  20 

Nizam  Sninf  Dynasty  of  Ahmadnagar    ...  21 

Governors  and  Viceroys  of'Goa         .        ,        .     .  21 

Archbishops  op  Goa 24 

Remarkable  Events  connecting  India  with  Europe  25 

Captains  of  BassIn 39 

§  g.  Tables  of  Money :  40 

Tables  op  Weights  and  Measures  ....  40 

§  h.  Castes  in  the  Bombay  Presidency          .        .        .     .  42 

Skeleton  Routes 48 

§  i.  Languages  op  the  Bombay  Presidency   .        .        .    .  49 

Vocabularies  and  Dialogues 51 

Indian  Words  used  in  this  Volume   .        .        .    .  Ill 

[^<w»6a2^— 1880.1                                                                         ^  / 


INTBODUCTION :  SEASON  FOR  visiTixG  bomdAy.      Sect.  L 


§  a.   SEASON   FOR  VISITING   BOMBAY. 

It  is  as  yet  undecided  whether  the  Province  of  Sindh  is  to  be  in- 
cluded in  the  Bombay  Presidency, .  or  to  be  assigned  to  the  Lieu- 
tenant Governorship  of  the  Panjdb.  In  the  former  case  the  Bombay 
Presidency  extends  from  N.  lat.  28°  42'  to  about  N.  lat.  J  4®,  where 
is  the  S.  extremity  of  the  Collectorate  of  Dhdrwdd,  and  from  E. 
long.  66°  43'  to  W.  long.  76°  20',  the  E.  extremity  of  'Khdndesh,  and 
over  this  wide  territory  the  climate  varies  very  considerably.  Even 
if  Sindh  should  be  annexed  to  the  Panj&b  as  regards  its  civil  and 
political  administration,  it  is  almost  certain  that  it  will  still  be 
occupied  by  Bombay  troops,  and  for  this  reason  it  wiU  be  regarded 
in  these  "ptnges  as  belonging  to  Bombay.  We  have,  then,  in  Sindh 
a  climate  ot  intense  heat  from  March  to  November,  a  climate  re- 
sembling that  of  the  sultry  deserts  of  Africa.  The  temperature 
decreases  as  the  sea  is  approached,  so  that  at  Kardchi  the  heat  is 
never  unbearable.  At  Haidardbdd  during  the  6  hottest  months  of 
the  year  the  mean  maximum  of  temperature  in  the  shade  is  given 
at  98°  5',  but  in  Upper  Sindh  the  thermometer  sometimes  registers 
130°  in  the  shade.  But  in  the  winter  months  the  cold  is  such  in 
Upper  Sindh  that  thin  ice  is  sometimes  seen.  In  Kachh  and 
Gujardt  the  heat  is  less,  but  still  very  great ;  in  the  other  Collec- 
torates,  and  especially  the  2  most  to  the  S.,  Belgdon  and  Dharwdd, 
the  climate  is  much  more  moderate,  and  at  Puna  and  Ndshik  and 
other  places  above  the  Gha^s,  except  Shol&pdr,  the  heat  is  never 
very  oppressive.  At  Mahdbaleshwar,  again,  rawagadh,  Gimdr,  and 
other  mountain  peaks,  the  cold  is  often  severe.  It  will  be  neces- 
sary, therefore,  for  the  traveller  to  take  warm  clothing  with  him,  as 
well  as  the  lightest  possible.  So  provided,  he  may  visit  Bombay  at 
any  period  of  the  year,  but  the  best  time  for  proceeding  there  is  the 
end  of  October,  when,  if  he  is  not  very  delicate,  he  may  stop  quite 
well  till  May,  employing  April  in  visiting  places  above  the  Ghats. 
The  rain  at  Bombay  itself  and  in  the  Konkan  or  low  country  below 
the  Gh&^s,  and  at  Mahdbaleshwar,  amounts  to  between  200  and  300 
inches,  and  travelling,  except  on  the  railways,  is  there  nearly  impos- 
sible in  the  rainy  season.  Above  the  Ghdts,  and  in  Kachli  and 
Edthiawdd,  where  the  rainfall  is  much  less,  travelling  is  far  from 
being  difficult  or  even  disagreeable. 

§  h,   OUTFIT. 

Chills  in  India  are  most  dangerous,  and  the  traveller  must  there- 
fore provide  himself  with  warm  underclothing.  He  will  also  do  well 
to  taKe  mosquito  curtains  with  him,  wherever  he  goes,  with  a  light 
Cyprus  bed,  which  weighs  only  28lbs.,  but  should  the  bedstead  be 
thought  inconveniently  heavy,  the  curtains  at  all  events  are  indispens- 
able, as,  to  say  nothing  of  escaping  the  being  annoyed  by  mosquitoes, 
flies,  rats,  scorpions,  and  snakes,  the  traveller  will  be  defended  by 
the  curtains  from  wind-strokes  and  malaria.  A  list  of  things  for  an 
<>utfit  will  be  found  in  the  "  Handbook  of  Madras,*'  at  page  3,  but 
to  it  may  be  added  white  shoes  and  high  boots  of  savwar  skin 


Sect.  I.  HrxTS  as  to  dresa,  etc.  3 

or  other  light- coloured  material  for  use  in  the  scorching  glare  of 
the  sun.  Si^ectaclef,  of  neutral  tint,  and  a  veil  to  protect  the 
eyes  from  dust  and  from  the  attacks  of  bees,  are  also  very  necessar)'. 
These  troublesome  insects  have  caused  severe  injuries  and  even 
death  to  travellers  at  the  Marble  Bocks,  Eltira,  Ajanta,  and  the 
Nilgiris.  To  be  quite  safe  from  their  attacks,  leather  gauntlets 
reacliing  half-way  to  the  elbow,  and  a  light  wire  mask  to  protect  the 
back  of  the  head  and  neck,  are  recjuired.  As  the  excessive  perspim- 
tion  destroys  kid  gloves  in  a  smgle  wearing,  it  will  be  wise  to 
provide  oneself  with  cotton,  silk,  or  Swedish  gloves,  and  those  who 
wish  to  shoot  on  the  W.  Coast  should  have  gaiters  steeped  in 
tobacco  juice  to  keep  off  leeches.  Sleeping  drawers  should  be  made 
to  cover  the  feet,  and  as  the  washermen  break  off  or  destroy  buttons 
on  underclothing,  it  will  be  well  to  use  studs.  All  clothing  sent 
in  advance  of  the  owner  to  India  will  have  to  pay  duty,  as  will 
firearms  that  have  not  been  in  India  before,  or  which  nave  been 
removed  from  India  for  more  than  a  year.  In  any  case  the  owner 
will  have  to  sign  a  certificate  regarding  them  before  they  can  be 
removed  from  the  Custom  House.  There  is  a  sort  of  counterpane 
called  a  nzdif  which  can  be  bought  anywhere  in  India,  and  is  cheap, 
warm,  and  extremely  comfortable. 

§  C.   HINTS  AS   TO   DRESS,   DIET,   HEALTH,    AND   COMPORT. 

There  are  certain  localities  in  India  which  are  highly  malarious 
at  all  seasons,  and  should  the  traveller  find  it  necessary  to  pass 
through  them,  he  must  arrange  matters  so  as  to  traverse  them  in 
the  dav  time,  and  must  on  no  account  pass  the  night  there.  Neg- 
lect ot  this  precaution  caused  the  death  of  Lord  Hastings,  who  ia 
buried  at  Tanjur.  On  amving  at  such  places  the  traveller  should 
inquire  what  is  the  best  season  for  traversing  them,  and  he  liad 
better  defer  his  passage  to  a  favourable  time  of  year  rather  than 
risk  a  fever  which  has  on  too  many  occasions  provedfatal.  The 
temptation  to  wade  through  swampy  ground  in  pursuit  of  snipe  and 
ducks  is  very  great,  but  almost  certainly  results  in  fever. 

The  season  for  shooting  tigers  and  other  wild  beasts  is  in  the 
hottest  time  of  the  year,  when  these  animals  resort  to  any  place 
where  they  can  procure  water.  On  such  occasions  the  sports- 
man must  provide  himself  with  a  solar  hat  of  the  best  description. 
A  pith  hat  shaped  like  a  coalheaver's,  with  a  ventilator,  and  a 
turban  so  twisted  as  not  to  prevent  the  ventilation,  with  an 
umbrella  thickly  covered  with  white  cloth,  may  prevent  a  coup 
de  soldi.  Whisky  and  water  is  the  safest  drinK,  or  the  juice  of 
the  cocoa  nut,  which  is  extremely  refreshing,  and  is  a  favourite 
beverage  with  old  Indian  sportsmen.  Rice,  or  Kdnjl,  or  the  juice 
of  fresh  limes,  with  water  that  has  been  boiled  and  filtered,  is 
also  a  safe  drink.  Oysters  and  prawn  curry  should  be  avoided, 
as  also  in  general  tinned  provisions,  particularly  lobster  and  salmon. 
To  Hindus  the  eating  ot  beef  is  an  abomination,  as  the  eating  of 
pork,  ham,  and  bacon  is  to  the  Muhammadans,  and  whatever  they 
may  say,   Indian  servants  will  certainly  resent  their  being  obliged 

B  2 


4  INTRODUCTION  :    ROUTES  TO   BOMBAY.  Sect.  I. 

to  preppre  those  meats  or  to  carry  them  about.  Bathinj^  in  cold 
water,  particularly  wheu  fatigued  or  heated  by  exercise,  is  highly 
dangerous,  as  is  £uso  to  sit  in  a  draught  after  a  bath.  The  deaths 
of  Bishop  Heber  and  Lord  Hobart,  and  of  many  others,  are  decisive 
proofs  of  this  fact.  Cotton  shirts  and  sheets  are  preferable  to  linen, 
being  less  likely  to  give  chills. 

§  d.    ROUTES  TO   BOMBAY. 

1.  Voyage  from  Southampton  through  the  Suez  Canal. 

The  comfort  of  the  voyage  depends  very  much  on  the  size 
and  build  of  the  ship.  As  a  general  rule  the  largest  ships  are 
best,  and  amongst  these  the  "  Deccan "  may  be  pointed  out  as  the 
most  comfortable,  being  unusually  steady  in  heavy  weather,  and 
having  a  poop,  so  that  the  saloons  have  their  ports  always  open,  even 
during  gales.  In  going  through  the  Red  Sea  to  India  the  starboard 
cabins  are  best,  and  those  on  the  port  side  on  the  return  voyage. 
On  embarking  it  will  be  well  to  secure  a  seat  at  table  as  near  tlie 
captain's  as  possible.  This  is  done  hj  placing  a  card  in  a  plate. 
The  fare  by  this  route  is  £68,  exclusive  of  charges  for  all  drink- 
ables except  tea,  coffee,  lime  juice,  and  water.  It  is  usual  to  give 
£\  as  a  fee  to  the  cabin  steward,  and  lOs.  to  the  one  that  waits  on 
you  at  table.  The  doctor  also  is  paid  by  those  that  put  themselves 
under  his  care.  To  those  who  have  not  seen  Gibraltar,  Malta,  and 
the  Suez  Canal,  the  voyage  is  not  without  objects  of  interest.  Be- 
tween the  Channel  and  these  places  there  is  seldom  much  to  be 
seen.  The  first  place  sighted  is  Cape  La  Hogue  in  the  Island  of 
Ouessant,  on  the  W.  coast  of  Cotentin  in  France,  off  which,  on 
May  19,  1692,  Admiral  Bossell,  afterwards  Earl  of  Orford,  defeated 
De  Tourville  and  sank  or  burned  16  men  of  war.  There  is  a 
lighthouse  on  Cape  La  Hogue,  but  as  the  coast  is  very  dangerous, 
and  fogs  often  prevail,  many  vessels  have  been  wrecked  here.  Here 
begins  the  Bay  of  Biscay,  which  stretches  for  360  m.  to  Cape  Finis- 
terre  (finis  terra;),  a  promontory  on  the  W.  coast  of  Galicia  m  Spain, 
in  N.  lat.  42°  54'  and  W.  long.  9°  20',  off  which  Anson  defeatecl  the 
French  fleet  in  174?.  North  wind  usually  prevails  on  this  coast, 
which  is  favourable  for  the  outward  voyage.  The  next  land  sighted 
will  probably  be  the  Berlingas,  or  Berlings  as  English  sailors  usually 
call  these  dangerous  rocky  islands,  on  one  of  which  is  a  lighthouse. 
These  lie  40  m.  N.  of  Lisbon,  and  after  them  Cape  Roca  will  probably 
be  seen  a  few  m.  N.  of  Lisbon.  Next  Cape  St.  Vincent  will  be  made 
in  N.  lat.  37°  3'  and  W.  long.  8°  59',  at  the  S.W.  comer  of  the  Por- 
tuguese province  Algarve,  off  which  Sir  G.  Rodney,  on  January  16th, 
1780,  defeated  the  Spanish  fleet,  and  Sir  J.  Jervis,  on  February  14th, 
1797,  won  his  earldom  and  Nelson  the  Bath  by  again  defeating 
the  Spaniards.  On  this  occasion  Nelson's  ship  captured  the  "S. 
Josef  and  the  "  S.  Nicholas,"  of  112  guns  each.  This  Cape  has  a 
fort  upon  it,  and  the  white  cliffs,  more  than  100  ft.  high,  are  honey- 
combed bv  the  waves.  Just  before  entering  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar 
Cape  Trafalgar  will  also  probably  be  seen  in  N.  lat.  36°  9',  W.  long. 


Sect.  I, 


VOYAGE  FROM  SOUTHAMPTON. 


6°  1',  immortalized  by  Nelson's  victory  of  October  21st,  1805. 
Gibraltar  comes  next  in  sight,  and  the  distance  between  it  and 
the  remaining  halting  places  will  be  seen  in  the  following  table  : — 


Names  of  Places. 


Southampton  to  Gibraltar 
Gibraltar  to  Malta 
Malta  to  Port  Said     . 
Port  Said  to  Suez,  about 
Suez  to  Aden 
Aden  to  Bombay    . 


Miles. 

Totals. 

1151  ) 

981  V 

3050  ^ 

918) 

100) 

> 

1306  > 

3069' 

1664) 

General  Total. 


6119 


The  time  occupied  between  Southampton  and  Gibraltar  averages 
5  days,  from  Gibraltar  to  Malta  4^,  from  Malta  to  Port  Said  4. 
In  the  Suez  Canal  everything  depends  on  the  vessels  not  grounding. 
Large  steamers  draw  23  or  24  ft.,  and  as  the  Canal  is  only  25  ft. 
deep  there  is  great  risk  of  detention.  Thus  the  "  Kaisar  i  Hind  "  was 
detained  5  days  in  1879,  and  had  to  unload  700  tons  of  cargo  before 
a  tug  could  pull  her  off;  however,  if  the  channel  were  properly 
buoyed,  and  if  other  careful  arrangements  were  made,  such  accidents 
would  be  avoided. 

The  steamer  stops  so  short  a  time  at  Gibraltar,  Malta,  and  Aden, 
that  those  places  cannot  be  properly  inspected.  In  the  Handbook  of 
the  Madras  Presidency,  Section  I.,  ^nll  be  found  a  full  account  of 
them,  to  which  reference  may  be  made.  It  is  here  only  necessary  to 
say  that  Gibraltar  was  taken  by  the  Arabs  in  711  a.d.,  and  the  place 
got  its  name  from  their  general,  Tdrik,  from  whom  it  was  called  Jabal 
al  Tdrik=Gibraltar,  the  Mountain  of  Tdrik.  In  1309  it  was  captured 
by  Ferdinand  IV.  of  Spain,  and  recaptured  in  1334  by  the  Moors, 
and  by  the  Spaniards  in  1462.  In  1704  the  English,  aided  by  the 
Austrians  ana  Dutch,  and  commanded  by  Sir  G.  Rooke,  stormed  tlie 
place  on  July  24th.  Since  then  it  has  repulsed  3  attacks,  the  first  by 
the  French  and  Spaniards  under  Marshal  Tess^,  who  lost  10,000  men  ; 
the  next  by  the  Spaniards  in  1727,  when  they  lost  5000  men ;  and 
the  last  on  July  11th,  1779,  when  the  Spaniards  besieged  it.  This 
siege  lasted  till  March  12th,  1783.  The  highest  point  of  the  Rock  of 
Gibraltar  is  O'Hara's  Tower,  which  rises  to  1408  ft.  The  short  stay 
of  the  steamer  will  not  permit  a  passenger  to  do  more  than  drive  to 
Europa  Point.  He  will  land  at  the  new  Mole  and  drive  up  Main 
Street  as  far  as  the  Alameda,  where  the  band  plays.  In  1814,  Governor 
Sir  George  Don  made  it  from  a  parade  ground  into  a  garden,  and  it 
is  now  lovely  with  flowers  and  shrubs.  There  is  a  column  with  a 
bust  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington.  Observe  also  a  bust  of  General 
Elliott,  the  hero  of  the  great  siege.  In  the  Main  Street  excellent 
gloves  and  silk  ties,  as  well  as  lace,  may  be  bought  cheap.  At  the 
Garrison  Librarj'  is  a  model  of  the  Rock,  which  shows  every  house  in 
Gibraltai'.  Half  a  m.  from  the  landing-place  the  Cathedral  will  be 
passed.  It  is  worth  a  visit.  The  Governor's  house,  called  the  Convent, 
because  it  once  belonged  to  the  Franciscans,  is  in  South  Port  Street. 

On  the  way  to  Maltn,  Algiers  is  sometimes  seen  stretching  in  the 


6  INTRODUCTION  :    ROUTES  TO   BOMBAY.  Sect.  I. 

pliape  uf  a  triangle  fi'om  its  base  on  the  sea  to  its  a^jex  on  the  higher 
ground.  Probably  also  Cape  Fez  will  be  sighted,  as  also  the  jjromon- 
tory  of  the  Seven  Capes,  (5ape  Bon,  the  most  N.  part  of  Africa,  and 
the  island  of  PanteUaria,  the  ancient  Cossyra.  It  is  8  m.  long,  vol- 
canic, and  rises  to  more  than  2000  ft.  The  Maltese  group  of  islands 
consists  of  Gozo  to  the  W.,  Malta  to  the  E.,  and  Cumino  in  the  Straits 
of  Freghi  between  the  other  two.  St.  Paul's  Bay  is  in  Malta  island, 
3  m.  E.  of  the  Straits,  and  thought  to  be  the  place  where  the  ship- 
wreck mentioned  in  the  Acts  tooK  place.  The  harbour  of  Malta  is 
9^  m.  E.  of  the  Straits  of  Freghi,  and  consists  of  2  principal  ports, 
Marsamuscet  on  the  W.  and  the  Great  Port  on  the  E.  The  entrance 
to  Marsamuscet  is  protected  by  Fort  Tigne  on  the  W.  and  Fort  St. 
Elmo  on  the  E.  The  harbour  is  not  quite  1  j  m.  long  from  N. 
to  S.,  and  J  of  a  m.  broad  where  broadest  from  E.  to  W.  On  the  W. 
side,  at  about  300  yds.  from  Fort  Tigne,  is  a  peninsula,  on  the  S.  side 
of  which  is  the  Lazaretto,  protected  by  Fort  ManoeL  Then  follows 
a  bay,  then  anotherpeninsula,  and  then  another  bay,  in  which  is  the 
Hydraulic  Dock.  The  E.  shore  of  Marsamuscet  is  a  peninsula  forti- 
fied on  all  sides,  and  containing  the  town  of  Valetta  on  the  N.  and 
Floriana  on  the  S.  The  town  is  a  parallelogram,  traversed  from  N. 
to  S.  by  the  following  streets : — Marsamuscetto  on  the  extreme  W., 
and  then  as  one  goes  to  the  E.  by  Ponente,  Zecca,  Fomi,  Stretta, 
Reale,  Federico,  Mercanti,  St.  Paolo,  St.  Ursula,  and  LevantL 
Steamers  generally  lie  at  the  S.  end  of  the  harbour,  for  the  conve- 
nience of  coaling.  All  passengers  desire  to  escape  from  the  dust  of 
this  necessary  but  most  disagreeable  operation.  A  boat  costs  !«., 
and  a  row  of  a  few  hundred  yds.  will  take  one  to  the  landing-place 
at  Valetta,  commonly  known  as  the  Nix  Mangiare  Stairs — "  nothing 
to  eat," — so  styled  from  the  beggars  that  wayLiy  one  on  the  steps. 
These  steps  are  rather  fatiguing,  and  the  task  is  rendered  the  more 
disagreeable  by  the  odours  that  accompany  the  ascent.  Those  who 
dislike  walking  may  get  a  cab  at  the  top  of  the  steps.  It  must  be 
said  that  the  cabs  are  not  altogether  safe,  as  the  back  sometimes  falls 
out  and  wheels  come  off ;  and  as  the  coachmen  drive  at  a  great  rate 
over  the  hard  stones,  down  steep  pitches,  and  round  turnings  at  right 
angles,  accidents  are  not  unfrequent.  The  traveller  will  perhaps  like 
to  go  first  to  the  P.  and  O.'s  Agent  in  Strada  Mercanti.  Between 
that  street  and  Strada  Keale,  almost  exactly  in  the  centre  of  the 
town,  is  the  Palace,  and  close  to  it  the  Treasury,  the  Armoury,  and 
just  to  the  S.,  St.  John's  Church,  which  are  the  principal  things  to  be 
seen.  Dumsford's  Hotel  is  opposite  to  part  of  St.  John's  Cathedral. 
Other  hotels  are  the  Imperial,  Cambridge,  Croce  di  Malta,  and  Angle- 
terre.  Close  to  Dumsford's  is  the  statue  of  Antone  Vilhena,  a  Por- 
tuguese Grand  Master  of  the  Knights  of  St.  John.  The  floor  of  St 
John's  Church  is  paved  with  slabs  bearing  the  arms  of  knights  in- 
ten-ed  in  the  church.  The  Ist  chapel  on  the  rt.  has  a  picture  by 
Caravaggio  of  the  beheading  of  John  the  Baptist.  The  next  chapel 
belongea  to  the  Portuguese,  and  has  a  bronze  monument  to  Grand 
Master  Manoel  dc  Vilhena.  The  3ixl  is  the  Spanish  Chapel,  the  4th 
that  of  the  Provengtils.  In  the  5th,  sacred  to  the  Virgin,  are  kept 
the  to>vn  keys,  taken  from  the  Turks.      Tlie  Ist  chapel  on  the  1.  is 


Sect.  I.  MALTA — THE  GREAT   PORT — SUEZ  CANAL.  T 

I. 

the  saciisty,  the  2nd  that  of  the  Austrians,  the  3id  that  of  the  Italians. 
In  the  4th  or  French  Chapel  is  the  tomb  of  a  son  of  Louis  Philippe, 
deceased  in  1808.  The  5th  chapel  belonged  to  the  Bavarians,  and 
from  it  a  staircase  descends  to  the  crypt,  vmere  is  the  tomb  of  L'Isle 
Adam,  the  first  Qrand  Master  who  ruled  in  Malta.  The  tomb  of  La 
Valette,  from  whom  the  town  is  called,  is  also  in  this  crypt.  The 
Palace  contains  pictures  of  Queen  Victoria,  George  IIL,  George  IV., 
Louis  XIV.  by  L'Etrec,  Louis  XV.,  the  Duke  of  Bavaria,  L'Isle 
Adam,  and  La  Valette.  The  Armoury  is  full  of  interesting  relics ; 
in  it  are  the  original  deed  granted  to  the  Knights  of  St.  John  by 
Pascal  II.  in  1126,  and  the  deed  when  they  left  &odes  in  1522 ;  and 
also  the  sword  and  axe  of  Dragut  or  Dragart,  the  Turkish  general 
killed  in  the  siege  of  1565.  The  3  silver  trumpets  which  sounded 
the  retreat  from  Bhodes,  and  the  armour  of  a  Spanish  knight  7  ft. 
4  in.  high,  are  also  shown.  The  Library  close  to  the  Palace  contains 
40,000  volumes,  and  some  Phoenician  and  Boman  antiquities.  The 
Opera  House,  the  Bourse,  the  Auberge  d'Auvergne  (now  the  Courts 
of^  Justice),  the  Clubs  (the  Union  Club  was  the  Auberge  de  Provence), 
all  in  the  Strada  Beale,  should  be  looked  at.  After  this  ascend  the 
liighest  battery,  whence  is  a  fine  view  of  both  harbours  and  of  the 
fortifications.  If  a  carriage  with  2  horses  be  hired  for  6«.,  a  visit  may 
be  paid  to  the  Monastery  St.  Francis  d'Assise,  2  m.  from  the  landing 
stairs,  where  are  many  bodies  of  dried  monks.  Beyond  this,  2j  m., 
is  the  Governor's  country  Palace  of  San  Antonio,  where  is  a  lovely 
garden  with  cypresses  40  ft  high.  S.W.  of  this  about  2  nu  is  Citta 
V  ecchia  pn  a  ndge  about  300  ft.  high,  affording  a  view  over  a  greater 
part  of  the  island.  Here  is  a  church  with  a  dome  not  much  smaller 
than  that  of  St.  Paul's.  There  are  some  curious  Carthagenian  or 
Phcenician  ruins  at  Hajjar  Kaim,  but  they  are  too  distant  to  be  visited. 

TJie  Gh'eat  Port,  which  lies  on  the  E.  of  Valetta,  is  not  visited  by 
the  mail  steamers.  It  is  2  m.  long,  and  is  defended  at  its  entrance 
by  Fort  St.  Elmo  on  the  W.  and  Fort  Kicasoli  on  the  E.  Then  follow 
Binella,  Calcarra,  and  Senglea  Bays,  French  Creek,  and  at  the  S.  ex- 
tremitjr  Porto  Nuovo.  In  the  towns  of  Senglea  and  Burmola  and 
Vittonosa,  which  surround  the  bay  to  the  iN.E.  and  S.,  are  various 
barracks  and  factories  protected  on  the  W.  by  Fort  St.  Angelo,  and 
on  the  E.  by  the  Coto  Nera  lines.  On  the  E.  side  of  Vittoriosa  is 
the  Inquisitor's  Palace.    The  men-of-war  lie  in  the  Great  Port. 

TJie  mez  Canal, — For  a  history  of  this  canal  refer  to  the  "  Handbook 
of  Egypt,"  John  Murray,  1873.  The  land  about  Port  S'ald  is  low,  but 
the  Hghthouse,  160  ft.  high,  shows  the  approach  to  the  harbour,  which 
is  formed  by  2  breakwaters.  A  red  light  is  shown  at  the  end  of  the 
W.  mole  and  a  green  at  the  end  of  the  E.  The  lighthouse  shows  an 
electric  light  flashing  every  3  seconds  and  visible  20  m.  Opposite 
the  ainchorase  on  the  Marina  is  the  French  office  where  pilots  are  got, 
and  where  they  note  the  ship's  draught,  breadth,  length,  and  tonnage. 
There  is  here  a  wooden  plan  of  the  canal,  along  which  pe^s  with  flags 
show  the  position  of  every  vessel  passing  through  the  canal.  Steamers 
generally  coal  here,  so  there  is  time  to  see  the  place.  In  the  Place  de 
Lesseps,  in  the  centre  of  the  European  quarter,  are  the  H6tel  du 
Louvre  to  the  S.  opposite  the  P.  and  0.  office,  the  H6tel  de  France  to 


8      INTRODUCTION  :  SUEZ  CANAL — SUEZ — RED  SEA.   Scot.  I. 

the  W.  The  Arab  quarter  lies  to  the  W.  and  contains  nearly  7000 
inhabitants  and  a  mosqne.  The  dimensions  of  the  canal  (see  Hand- 
book of  Egjrptj)  are  as  follows : — 

Width  at  water-line,  where  banks  are  liw     .        .        .  328  ft. 

Ditto              in  deep  ciitlir^^s         .        .        ,     .  190   ., 

Ditto              at  base 72   ^, 

Depth 2G   „ 

Slope  of  bank  at  water-line,  1  in  5 ;  near  base,  1  in  2. 

For  about  42  ni.  the  canal  runs  due  N.  and  S.,  it  then  bends  to  the  E. 
for  about  30  m.  and  again  runs  straight  for  the  rest  of  its  course.  On 
the  W.  of  the  canal  as  far  as  Al  Kantarah  (the  bridge),  that  is  about  18 
m.,  there  is  a  broad  shallow  expanse  of  water  called  Lake  Manzalah, 
and  for  the  rest  of  the  way  on  the  W.  and  the  whole  way  on  the  E.  is 
a  sandy  desert.  At  10  m.  from  Port  S'ald  the  old  Pelusiac  branch  of 
the  Nile  is  crossed,  and  8  m.  to  the  N.E.  are  the  ruins  of  Pelusium. 
At  42  m.  from  Port  S'ald  is  the  town  of  Ismd'ilia,  divided  by  a  broad 
road  lined  with  trees,  which  leads  from  the  landing-place  across  the 
freshwater  canal  to  the  Quai  Mehemet.  In  the  W.  quarter  of  the 
town  are  the  Hotel  des  Voyageurs,  the  Railway  Station,  the  Quays  of 
the  freshwater  canal,  and  large  warehouses.  In  the  E.  quarter  the 
KhediVs  palace  and  the  waterworks  which  supply  Port  S*aid  from 
the  freshwater  canal.  About  5  m.  from  Ismd  liia  the  canal  enters 
Lake  Timsah,  where  the  course  is  marked  by  buoys.  About  10  m. 
further  to  the  S.  the  canal  enters  the  Bitter  Lakes,  where  the  course 
is  again  buoyed. 

Suez, — ^At  Suez  the  mail  steamers  frequently  lie  at  a  distance  of 
3  m.,  as  the  captains  prefer  to  be  where  they  can  get  off  at  once  as 
»oon  as  the  Brindisi  mail  arrives.  The  office  of  the  P.  and  O.  is 
marked  by  a  bust  of  Lieut.  Waghom  in  front  of  it. 

The  Red  Sea, — A  strong  N.  wind  generally  prevails  in  the  Red  Sea 
for  half  the  voyage,  and  is  succeeded  by  a  strong  wind  from  the  S.  for 
the  rest  of  the  way.  The  Sinaitic  Bange  is  the  first  remarkable  land 
viewed  to  the  E.,  but  Sinai  itself,  distant  37  geo.  m.,  is  hid  bv  interven- 
ing mountains  of  equal  height.  Shddwan  Island  is  a  little  S.  of  the 
land  that  intervenes  between  the  Gulfs  of  Suez  and  Akabah ;  about 
10  m.  from  it  is  the  reef  on  which  the  "  Camatic  "  was  lost  in  1866. 
The  next  danger  is  "The  Brothers,"  2  circular  rocks  rising  30  ft.  above 
the  sea.  In  the  S.  part  of  the  Red  Sea  islets  are  numerous,  and 
among  them  is  the  group  called  "  the  Twelve  Aj)ostles."  There  is 
one  pmce  where  a  light  is  particularly  wanted,  it  is  the  rock  of  Abil 
Ail ;  it  is  not  easily  seen  on  account  of  its  grey  colour.  It  is  2J  m.  to 
the  E.  of  High  Island  or  Jabal  Suhaya,  wmch  is  in  N,  lat.  14°'4'  and 
E.  long.  42**  44'.  In  the  monsoon  the  weather  is  generally  misty 
here,  and  a  lighthouse  is  much  needed.  On  Jabal  Tir,  also  in  N.  lat. 
15°  38'  and  E.  long.  41°  54',  a  light  is  required,  as  vessels  coming  from 
the  N.  have  a  run  of  400  m.  to  this  island  without  seeing  land,  and  it 
is  very  desirable  that  the  ctiptaius  should  make  sure  of  their  position, 
{18  there  are  reefs  to  the  W.  and  E.,  the  latter  at  only  20  m,  distant. 
Jabal  Til-  is  110  m.  N.  of  Abu  AiL  At  Perini  island  there  is  an 
officer  stationed  with  80  men.    There  is  also  a  lighthouse,  but  in  spite 


Sect.  I.  OVERLAND   ROUTE   BY   VENICE   OR   BRINDISI.  9 

of  it  the  Cunard  steamer  "Batavia"  got  ashore  on  the  N.  part  of  the 
island.  On  the  African  shore  there  is  a  kige  square  house  built  by 
the  French,  now  deserted.  From  Perim  to  the  Arabian  coast  the 
strait  is  only  1  m.  broad.    From  Perim  to  Aden  is  90  m.  due  E. 

Adm, — Most  people  land  at  Aden  to  escape  the  dust  and  heat  in 
coaling.  AH  boats  must  have  a  licence  from  the  conservator  of  the 
port,  and  the  number  of  the  licence  must  be  painted  on  the  bow  and 
stem.  Each  of  the  crew  must  wear  the  number  on  his  left  breast  in 
figures  2^  in.  long.  When  asking  payment  the  crew  must  show  the 
table  of  tares  and  rules,  and  any  one  of  them  asking  pre-payment  is 
liable  to  fine  or  imprisonment  In  case  of  dispute,  recourse  must  be 
had  to  the  nearest  European  police-officer.  A  Doat  inspector  attends 
at  the  Gun  Wharf  from  6  a.m.. to  11  p.m.  to  call  boats  and  to  give  in- 
formation to  passengers.  After  sunset  passengers  can  be  landed  only 
at  the  Gun  Whar£  It  takes  about  J  of  an  hour  to  land  at  the  Post 
Office  Pier,  which  is  broad  and  sheltered.  About  1  m.  to  the  left  are 
the  H6tel  de  I'Europe  and  the  H6tel  de  PUnivers.  There  is  also  a 
large  shopkept  by  a  Pdrei,  To  the  right  about  1  m.  is  Government 
House.  The  hour  of  departure  is  always  posted  up  on  board  the 
steamer,  and  should  there  be  4  hrs.  or  more  of  daylight,  a  drive  may 
be  taken  to  the  Tanks,  which  are  5  m.  from  the  landing-place.  These 
were  begun  in  600  a.d.,  and  13  have  been  restored,  holdmg  8  million 
gallons  of  water. 

The  vessels  of  the  Messageries  Maritimes  do  not  ran  to  Bombay. 

2.  Route  Overland  by  Venice  or  Brindisi. 

Through  tickets  from  London  to  Brindisi  may  be  bought  at  the 
P.  and  O.  Offices,  122  Leadenhall  Street,  and  25  Cockspur  Street, 
and  cost,  Ist  class  £11  17s.  3d,,  and  2nd  class  £8  12s.  6^.,  being 
the  same  amount  as  tickets  from  station  to  station.  If  a  through 
ticket  or  a  part  of  it  is  lost,  a  fresh  payment  must  be  made.  With 
through  tickets  the  journey  may  be  broken  at  Dover,  Calais,  Folke- 
stone, Boulogne,  Amiens,  and  Paris,  and  at  3  principal  stations 
between  Paris  and  Bologna.  Also  at  Ancona  ancl  Foggia,  between 
Bologna  and  Brindisi.  Between  London  and  Paris  60  lbs.  of  bag- 
gage are  allowed  free  vid  Newhaven  and  Dieppe,  and  56  lbs.  via 
Dover  and  Folkestone.  Between  Paris  and  Modane  66  lbs.  are 
allowed,  but  on  the  Italian  rlys.  all  baggage  is  charged  at  Ifr.  TJc. 
for  every  22  lbs.  between  Modane  and  Bologna,  and  2frs.  51c.  be- 
tween Bologna  and  Brindisi.  The  London,  Chatham,  and  Dover 
trains  leave  victoria  St.,  1st  and  2nd  class  at  7*40  a.m.,  and  1st  class 
only  at  8*20  p.m.  Passengers  by  the  through  mail  train  must  not 
start  later  than  7*40  a.m.  on  Thursday.  Turin  is  reached  at  6*40 
P.M.  by  the  train  that  leaves  Paris  at  8*40  p.m.  and  Modane  at  2*50 
p.m.  This  train  arrives  at  Bologna  at  5  p.m.  Here  the  Hotel 
Brun  can  be  recommended.  Brindisi  is  reached  at  1037  p.m.,  and 
here  the  Grand  Hotel  des  Indes  Oricntalcs  faces  the  quay  where  the 
P.  and  0.  steamers  lie. 

Alexandria. — This  port  cannot  be  entered  at  night.  The  land  is 
low,  but  the  lighthouse  is  seen  at  about  15  iik  off.    A  breakwater 


10 


INTBODUCTION  :    ERAS. 


Sect.  I» 


1  m.  long  projects  from  the  S.  side  of  the  harbour.  On  landing  a 
walk  of  10  minutes  brings  one  to  the  Great  Square  or  Place  Mo- 
hammed Ali,  where  is  the  H6tel  de  TEurope.  Close  by,  in  the 
Place  de  I'Eglise,  is  H6tel  Abbat.  At  the  right-hand  comer  of  the 
Square  is  the  P.  and  0.  Office.  For  the  sights  of  Alexandria  sec 
Murray's  "  Handbook  of  Egypt."  A  vehicle  costs  2«.  an  hour  in 
day  and  3«.  at  night.  The  train  for  Suez  starts  at  6  p.m.  Time- 
tables are  furnished. 

By  Venice.— The  H6tel  de  TEurope  is  the  best  at  Venice.  From 
the  15th  of  April  till  the  15th  of  October  pleasant  weather  may  be 
looked  for  in  the  Adriatic.  In  the  other  months  strong  breezes  are 
frequent. 

§  €.   ERAS. 

The  Hindiis  call  this  the  4th  Age  of  the  Earth,  which 
they  term  Kdliyug,  the  commencement  of  which  they  reckon  from 
the  18th  of  February,  3102  B.c.  The  Era  of  Vikram,  King  of 
tJjjain,  is  reckoned  from  57  B.C.,  and  the  years  are  called  Samwat. 
The  Era  of  Shalivahana  dates  from  March  14,  a.d.  78,  and  the  years 
are  called  Shaka.  The  Muhammadan  Era  is  called  the  Hijrah,  or 
Flight,  and  is  reckoned  from  July  16th,  a.d.  622.  The  months  are 
called — 


1. 

DAYS. 

Muljarram  .        .        .        .30 

7. 

Rajab 
Sh^aban 

DAYS. 

.     30 

2. 

§afar 

29 

8. 

.     .    29 

3. 

Kabi'u  '1  avval,  or  Rabi'a  I. 

30 

9. 

Ramaz4n  . 

.    30 

4. 

Rabi'u  '1  dkhir,  or  Rabi'ii's 

10. 

Shawwdl 

.     .     29 

sanl,  or  II. 

20 

11. 

Zd'l  K'adah       . 

.     30 

JumMa   '1  avval,    or   Ju- 

12. 

Zii'lljijjah    . 

.     .     29 

mad  I.          .... 

30 

and  in  leap  years     . 

.    30 

6. 

Jumada  '1  AVTiir,  or  Jumad  II. 

29 

• 

The  year  of  the  Hijrah  being  lunar,  has  354  d.  8h.  48  m.  To 
bring  the  Hijrah  year  into  accordance  with  the  Christian  year,  ex- 
press the  former  in  years  and  decimals  of  a  year  and  multiply  by 
•970225,  add  621*54,  and  the  total  will  correspond  exactly  to  the 
Christian  year.  Or  to  effect  the  same  correspondence  roughly,  deduct 
3  per  cent,  from  the  Hijrah  year,  add  621*54,  and  the  result  will 
be  the  period  of  the  Christian  year  when  the  Muhammadan  year 
begins.  All  trouble,  however,  of  comparison  is  saved  by  Dr.  Ferdi- 
nand Wiistenfeld's  Comparative  Tables,  Leipzig,  1854. 

Era  of  the  Parsis. — This  is  reckoned  from  the  accession  of  Yez- 
dajird,  on  the  16th  of  June,  632  a.d.  There  are  12  months,  of  3C 
days  each,  and  5  days  are  added  at  the  end. 


Pdrst  Months, 


1.  Farvai'dln. 

2.  Ardibihisht. 

3.  Khui-dad. 

4.  Tir. 

5.  Amardad. 
G.  Sharivar. 


7.  Mihr. 

8.  Aban. 

9.  Addr. 

10.  Deh. 

11.  Bahmaii. 

12.  Asfandiyur. 


Sect.  I. 


TABLE   OF    FESTIVALS    AND   FASTS. 


11 


Tarikh  Ildhi,  aiid  Fasli  Era. — These  eiiw  both  begin  with  the  com- 
mencement of  Akbar's  reign,  on  Friday,  the  5th  of  RabiVs-sdnl, 
A.H.  963= 19th  of  February,  1556.  To  make  tliis  era  correspond 
with  the  Christian,  963  must  be  added  to  it. 


Year  of  the 

HUrah 
year. 

Hijrah 
begins. 

Sidereal  years. 

1 

Christiaii  era. 

K&liyug. 

Shaka. 

Begin. 

Saiuwat. 

1880 

1298 

4 

4,981 

1802 

11 

1987 

1 

Beginning. 


11th  April 


Table  of  Festivals  and  Farts, 
hindu  festivals. 

Mdkar  SattkrantL-^On  the  Ist  of  the  month  Miigh,  the  sun  entei*s 
the  sign  Capricorn  or  Makar.  From  this  day  till  the  arrival  of  the 
sun  at  the  N.  point  of  the  Zodiac  the  i)eriod  is  called  Uttardyana, 
and  from  that  time  till  he  returns  to  Makar  is  Dakshindjy^ana,  the 
i'ormer  period  being  lucky  and  the  latter  unlucky.  At  the  festival  of 
Makar  Sankr4nti  the  Hindus  bathe,  accompanied  by  a  BnUunan,  and 
rub  themselves  with  sesamum  seed.  They  also  invite  Brahmans  and 
give  them  pots  full  of  sesammn  seed  and  other  things.  They  wear 
new  clothes  with  ornaments,  and  distribute  sesamum  seed  mixed  "\ntli 
sugar. 

Vasant  Panchami  is  on  the  5th  day  of  the  light  half  of  Mugh,  and 
is  a  festival  in  honour  of  Spring,  which  is  person ific.'d  under  the  name 
of  Vasanta  or  Spring. 

Rathsaptami.—  From  Hatha,  a  car,  and  Saptami,  seventh,  when  a 
new  sun  mounts  his  chariot. 

Shivardt,  the  night  of  Shiva,  held  on  the  14th  of  the  dark  half  of 
the  month  Mdgha,  when  Shiva  is  worshipped  with  flowers  during  the 
whole  night. 

Holi,  A  festival  in  honour  of  Kyishna,  held  fifteen  days  before  the 
moon  is  at  its  full,  in  the  month  Phalgun,  celebrated  with  swinging 
and  squirting  red  powder  over  everyone.  All  sorts  of  licence  are  in- 
dulged in. 

Gudhi  Pddavd,  on  the  Ist  of  Chaitra.  The  leaves  of  the  Melia  Azadi- 
rachta  are  eaten.  On  this  day  the  New  Year  commences,  and  the 
Almanac  for  that  year  is  worshipped. 

Rdmanavamiy  held  on  the  9th  of  Chaitra,  in  honour  of  Ramdchan- 
dra,  who  was  bom  on  this  day  at  Ayodhya.  A  small  image  of  Rdmd 
is  put  into  a  cradle  and  worshipped,  and  red  powder  called  guldl  is 
thrown  about. 

Vada  Savitfi,  held  on  the  15th  of  Jyeshth,  when  women  worship 
the  Indian  fig-tree. 

Ashddhi  EtcddasM,  the  11th  of  the  month  Ashadh,  sacred  to  Vishnu, 
when  tnat  deity  i-eposes  for  4  months. 

Ndg  Pancliamt,  held  on  the  5th  of  Shiiivan,  when  the  seri:)cnt  Kali 
is  said  to  have  been  killed  by  Krishna.  Ceremonies  are  performed 
to  aveit  the  bite  of  snakes. 


12  INTRODUCTION  :   HINDlJ   FESTIVALS.  Sect.  I. 

Ndrali  PumiTiut,  held  on  the  15th  of  Shravan.  The  stormy  season 
is  then  considered  over,  and  ofierings  of  cocoa  nuts  are  thrown  into 
the  sea. 

Gokul  AsMcmii,  held  on  flie  8th  of  the  dark  half  of  Shrdvan,  when 
Krishna  is  said  to  have  been  born  at  Gokul.  Kice  may  not  be  eaten 
on  this  day,  but  fruits  and  other  grains.  At  night  Hindus  bathe  and 
worship  an  image  of  Krishna,  adorning  it  with  the  Ocymum  sanctwm. 
The  chief  votary  of  the  temple  of  Kdnhobd  dances  in  an  ecstatic 
fashion,  and  is  worshipped  and  receives  large  presents.  He  after- 
wards scourges  the  spectators. 

Pitri  ATndvdsya,  neld  on  the  30th  of  Shravan,  when  Hindiis  go 
to  Valkeshwar  in  Bombay  and  bathe  in  the  tank  called  the  Bangan^, 
which  is  said  to  have  been  produced  by  Bdmd,  who  pierced  tlie 
ground  with  an  arrow  and  brought  up  the  water.  Shraddas  or  cere- 
monies in  honour  of  departed  ancestors  are  performed  on  the  side  of 
the  tank. 

Ganesh  Chaturthi,  held  on  the  4th  of  Bhadrapad,  in  honour  ot 
Qanesh,  a  clay  image  of  whom  is  worshipped  and  Brdhmans  are  en- 
tertained. The  Hindus  are  prohibited  from  looking  at  the  moon  on 
this  day,  and  if  by  accident  they  should  «ee  it,  they  get  themselves 
abused  by  their  neighbours  in  the  hope  that  this  will  remove  the  curse. 

Rishi  Panchami,  held  on  the  day  following  Ganesh  Chaturthi,  in 
honour  of  the  7  Eishis. 

Gaiirt  Vaharty  held  on  the  7tli  of  Bhddrapad,  in  honour  of  Shiva's 
wife,  called  Gauri  or  the  Fair.  Cakes  in  the  shape  of  pebbles  are 
eaten  by  women. 

TFdman  Dwddashiy  on  the  12th  of  Bhadrapad,  in  honour  of  the  5th 
incarnation  of  Vishnu,  who  assumed  the  shape  of  a  dwarf  to  destroy 
Bali. 

Anant  ChaturdasM,  held  on  the  14th  of  Bhadrapad,  in  honour  of 
Ananta,  the  endless  serpent. 

Pit?'i  Paksh,  held  on  the  last  day  of  Bhadrapad,  in  honour  of  the 
Pitras  or  Ancestors,  when  offerings  of  lire  and  water  are  made  to 
them. 

Dasara,  held  on  the  lOtli  of  Asliwin,  in  honour  of  Durga,  who  on 
this  day  slew  the  buffalo-headed  demon  Maheshdsur.  On  this  day 
Rama  marched  against  Ravana,  and  for  this  reason  the  Marathas 
chose  it  for  their  expeditions.  Branches  of  the  Butea  frondosa  are 
offered  at  the  temples.  This  is  an  auspicious  day  for  sending  children 
to  school.  The  9  preceding  days  are  called  Navaratra,  when  Brdh- 
mans are  paid  to  recite  hymns  to  Durga. 

JDlwdli,  "feast  of  lamps,"  from  Diwd,  "alamp,"and  Ali,"a  row,"held 
on  the  new  moon  of  Kartik,  in  honour  of  Kdli  or  Bhawani,  and  more 
particularly  of  Lakshmi,  when  merchants  and  bankers  count  tht5Tr 
wealth  and  worship  it.  It  is  said  that  Vishnu  killed  a  giant  on  that 
day,  and  the  women  went  to  meet  him  with  lighted  lamps.  In 
memory  of  this  lighted  lamps  are  set  afloat  in  rivers  and  in  the  sea, 
and  auguries  are  drawn  from  them  according  as  they  shine  on  or  are 
extinguished. 

Bali  Pratipada  is  held  on  the  1st  day  of  Kartik,  when  Hindus  fill 
a  basket  with  rubbisli,  put  a  lighted  lamj)  on  it,  and  throw  it  away 


Sect.  I.  MUHAMMADAX    FESTIVALS.  13 

outside  the  house,  saying,  "  Let  troubles  go  anil  the  kingdom  of  Bali 
come." 

Kdrtik  Ekddashl,  held  on  the  11th  of  Kdrtik,  in  honour  of  Vishnu, 
who  is  said  then  to  rise  from  a  slumber  of  4  months. 

Kdrtik  Pumima,  held  on  the  full  moon,  of  Kdrtik,  in  honour  of 
Shiva,  who  destroyed  on  that  day  the  demon  Tripurdsura.  On  this 
day  a  great  fair  is  held  in  Bombay  at  Valkeshwar,  where  Hindiia 
worship  Sliiva  and  buy  sweetmeats  and  toys  for  their  children. 

MUHAMMADAN  FESTIVALS. 

Bakari  'Id  or  'td-i-Kurhdn,  held  on  the  10th  of  Zu  1  hijjah  in 
memory  of  Abraham^s  offering  Ism'All  or  Ishniael.  See  Sale's 
"  Koran,"  page  337.  Tliis  festival  is  also  called  'Idu  'z  Zuhd  or  the 
festival  of  lunch,  when  camels,  cows,  sheep,  goats,  kids,  or  lambs,  ai*e 
sacrificed. 

Muharram,  a  fast  in  remembrance  of  the  death  of  Hasan  and 
Husain,  the  sons  of  'All  and  Fdtimah  the  daughter  of  Muhammad. 
Hasan  was  poisoned  by  Yezld  in  a.h.  49,  and  Husiiin  was  murdered 
at  Karbald  on  the  10th  of  Muharram,  a.h.  61  =  9th  October,  a.d. 
680.  The  fast  begins  on  the  Ist  of  Muharram  and  lasts  10  days. 
Muslims  of  the  Slii'ah  persuasion  assemble  in  the  T'aziyah 
Khdnah,  house  of  mourning.  On  the  night  of  the  7th  an  image  of 
Surdk,  the  animal  on  which  Muhammad  ascended  to  heaven,  is 
carried  in  procession,  and  on  the  10th  a  Tdbiit  or  bier.  The  Tdbi'its 
are  thrown  into  the  sea.  The  mourners  move  in  a  circle,  beating 
their  breasts  with  cries  of  "Alas !  Hasan,  Alas  !  Husain."  At  this 
time  the  fanatical  spirit  is  at  its  height,  and  serious  disturbances  often 
take  place. 

A'Eiiri  Chahdr  ShamhaJi,  held  on  the  last  Wednesday  of  Safar, 
when  Muhammad  recovered  a  little  in  his  last  illness  and  bathed  for 
the  last  time.  It  is  proper  to  write  out  7  blessings,  wash  off  the  ink 
and  drink  it,  as  also  to  bathe  and  repeat  prayei"s. 

Bari  Wafdty  held  on  the  13th  of  Ral:)i'u  1  avval  in  memory  of 
Muhammad's  death,  A.H.  11. 

Pir-i-Dastgir,  held  on  the  10th  of  Eabi'u  1  dkhir  in  honour  of  Saiyid 
'Abdul  Kddir  Gildni,  called  Plr  Pirdn  or  Saint  of  Saints,  who  taught 
and  died  at  Baghddd.  During  epidemics  a  green  flag  is  carried  in  his 
name. 

Chirdghdn-i-Zindali  Shdh  MaddVy  held  on  the  l7th  of  Jumada  '1 
avval  in  honour  of  a  saint  who  lived  at  Makkhanpur  and  who  is 
thought  to  be  still  alive,  whence  he  is  called  Zindah,  "  living." 

'Urs'i-Kddir  Wali^  held  on  the  11th  of  Jumdda  1  dkhir,  in  honour 
of  Khwdjah  Mu'inu  'd  din  Chishtl,  who  was  buried  at  Ajmir  in 
A.H.  628. 

Muraj-i-Muhammady  held  on  the  25th  of  Rajab,  when  the  Prophet 
ascended  to  heaven. 

Shah-i-hardty  night  of  record,  held  on  the  16th  of  Sh'abdn,  when 
they  say  men's  actions  for  next  year  are  recorded.  The  Kur'an 
ought  to  be  read  all  night,  and  the  next  day  a  fast  should  le 
observed. 


14  INTRODUCTION  :  PARRI    FESTIVALS.  Sect.  I. 

Ramazdn,  the  month  long  fast  of  the  Muhamniadanp.  The  night 
of  the  27th  is  called  Lailatu  '1-Kadr,  "  night  of  power,"  becxiuse  the 
Kur^iin  ctime  down  from  heaven  on  tliat  night 

*Idu  *l-ftr,  the  festival  when  the  fast  of  the  Bamazan  is  broken. 
The  evening  is  spent  in  rejoicing  and  in  exhibitions  of  the  Nach 
girls. 

Chirdghdn-irBaiidah  NawdZy  held  on  the  16th  of  Zii  1  K'adah  in 
honour  of  a  saint  of  the  Chishti  family,  who  is  buried  at  Kalbarga 
and  is  also  called  Glsii  Dardz, "  long  ringlets." 

THE  PABSi  FESTIVALS. 

Patati,  New  Year's  day.  The  1st  of  Farvardin.  The  Parsis  rise 
earlier  than  usual,  put  on  new  clothes,  and  pray  at  the  Fire  Temples. 
They  then  visit  friends  and  join  hands,  distribute  alms  and  give 
clothes  to  servants  and  othew.  This  day  is  celebrated  in  honour  of 
the  accession  of  Yezdajird  to  the  throne  of  Peraia,  a.d.  632. 

Khurddd-sdl,  the  birthday  of  Zoroaster,  who  is  said  to  have  been 
bom  1200  B.C.  at  the  city  of  Rai  or  Rhages  near  Tehran. 

Farvardtn-Jasan,  on  the  19th  of  Farvardin,  on  which  ceremonies 
are  performed  in  honor  of  the  dead  called  Frohai*s  or  "  protectoi-s.'' 
There  are  11  other  Jasans  in  honour  of  various  angels. 

Jamshidi  Nauroz,  held  on  the  2l8t  of  March.  It  dates  from  the 
time  of  Jamshid,  and  the  Pdrsis  ought  to  commence  their  New  Year 
from  it. 

ZartasJUe  Biso,  held  on  the  11th  of  Deh  in  remembrance  of  the 
death  of  Zartasht  or  Zoroaster. 

Mvktad,  held  on  the  25th  of  Aspenddd.  A  clean  place  in  the 
house  is  adorned  with  fruits  and  flowers,  and  silver  or  brass  vessels 
filled  with  water  are  placed  there.  Cei*emonies  are  performed  in 
honour  of  the  souls  of  the  dead. 

According  to  the  Kissah-i-Sanjan,  translated  by  E.  B.  Eastwick 
in  the  Journal  of  the  fiombay  Asiatic  Society  for  1842,  the  ancient 
books  of  the  fire- worshippers  ^^ere  destroyed  by  Alexander  the  Great, 
and  for  3  centuries  the  sect  was  persecuted,  but  AKleshir  Bdbegan, 
229-243  A.D.,  restored  fire  worship.  After  the  defeat  of  Yezdajird 
in  640  A.D.,  the  Fire- Worshippers  migrated  to  Hurmaz  (the  island  of 
OiTuuz),  where  they  remained  15  years,  and  being  warned  by  their 
ancient  prophecies,  then  fled  thence  to  Hindustan.  They  anchored 
at  Deb  or  Diva,  an  island  a  little  to  the  S.W.  of  the  peninsula  of 
Kdthiawad.  There  they  disembarked,  and  resided  19  years  and  then 
migrated  to  Sanjdn,  24  m.  S.  of  Damdn  and  5  m.  inland.  Damdn  is 
101  m.  N.  of  Bombay  and  about  30  m.  S.  from  Surat.  The  neigh- 
bouring chief  was  Rand  Jddi  or  Jayadeva,  a  feudatory  of  the  Rajput 
King  of  Champanlr,  who  granted  an  asylum  to  the  fugitives  on 
condition  that  they  explained  their  faith,  adopted  the  language  of 
Hind  in  place  of  that  of  Persia,  assimilated  the  dress  of  their  "women 
to  that  of  India,  laid  aside  their  arms  and  armour,  and  agreed  that 
their  marriage  processions  should  be  at  night.  They  told  the  Raja 
that  they  worshipped  Yazddn,  and  revered  the  moon  and  the  sun,  the 
cow  and  water  ana  fire,  that  they  wore  as  a  sacred  cincture  a  belt  of 
72  threadB  (called  the  Kusti)  ;  that  their  women  at  certain  periods 


Sect.  I.  CHRONOLOGICAL   TABLES.  l'"^ 

forbore  to  look  on  the  sun,  the  moon,  and  water,  and  kept  at  a  dif»tance 
from  water  and  fire ;  and  that  they  had  various  other  observances, 
which  will  be  found  in  Dr.  Wilson's  "  The  Doctrine  of  Jehovah 
addressed  to  the  PArsis."  They  then  took  up  their  abode  in  the 
B4j4's  territory  and  called  their  place  of  residence  Sanjdn.  Three 
hundred  years  passed  away,  and  though  the  Fire-Worshippers  held 
their  head-quarters  at  Sanjan,  many  of  them  were  dispersed  through 
Gujardt.  Some  went  to  Nausdri,  some  to  Bdnkanir,  some  to 
Bhanich,  othei*6  to  Anklisar,  and  others  again  to  Khambayat.  Five 
hundred  years  after  the  settlement  at  Sanjan  had  been  founded, 
the  Muslims  conquered  Ghampanir,  and  Mall^miid  Shah  Begada  began 
to  reign  there,  and  sent  Alif  thdn  to  conquer  Sanjdn.  This  leader 
was  defeated  by  the  Hindu  Rdjd  chiefly  through  the  aid  of  the  Fire- 
Worshippers  under  their  chief,  Ardashir.  In  a  second  action 
Ma^mud  Shdh's  army  was  victorious,  and  Ardashir  and  the  Bdid 
were  slain.  For  12  years  after  this  the  settlement  of  Sanjan 
lay  waste,  and  the  Fire- Worshippers  then  moved  to  Bansda,  or 
Bdnsadah;  and  not  many  years  after  to  Nausdri,  whence  they 
migrated  to  Bombay  and  other  places. 

§  /.    CHRONOLOGICAL   TABLES. 

Hindu  Clirmuilogy  "before  the  CJtrUtian  JSra.  -^  ^ 

ArraDgement  of  first  nine  Books  of  the  Rig  Veda  .        .    (about)    1400 
Composition  of  parts  of  the  tenth  Book      .        .        .  (about)    1100 

SAma}^®^ (about)  1000-802 

Sutras  Vaidik,  comprising  laws 1000 

Siitras  of  Philosophical  system       ....  (about)  1200-800 

AtharraVeda 800 

Sakya  Muni,  birth 638 

Death  and  JRn 543 

First  Buddhist  Convocation  at  Hdjagpha o43 

Voyage  of  Skylax  down  the  Indus  by  order  of  Darcius  Ilystaspcs.  490 

Second  Buddhist  Convocation  at  Vesali 443 

Alexander  crossed  the  Indus,  April 327 

Chandragupta  or  Sandrakottus 315 

Mission  of  Megasthenes  to  the  Court  of  Sankradotlus    .        .        .  302 

Rdm^yana 300 

Ashoka 270 

Third  Buddhist  Convocation 249 

Mahdbhdrata 240 

Laws  of  Manu 200 

Menander        .        .        * 126 

Ceylon  Buddhistical  Books 104-76 

J5ra  of  Vikramdditya  and  of  the  Shakuntaln          ....  57 

A.D. 

Cave  temples  at  Salsettc 50-100 

^ra  of  ShAlivdhan 78 

Sdh  dynasty  of  Gujardt 100 

Travels  of  Fa-Hian 399 

Mahawanso 459-477 

Travels  of  Hiuan  Tsang  .        • 629-645 

Purdnas .         800-1400 


IC  introduction:  governors  of  bombat.  Sect.  I. 


Governors  of  Bombay  and  the  Dates  of  their  Acoesglon, 

DATES. 

Mr.  Gerald  Aungier          .        .        . 1667 

„    Thomas  Rolt 1667 

Sir  John  Child,  Bart 1680 

Mr.JohnVaux 1690 

„    Bartholomew  Harris 1690 

„    Samuel  Annesley 1692 

Sir  John  Gayer 1698 

Sir  Nicolas  Waite • 1702 

Sir  H.  Oxenden,  Bart 1707 

Mr.  William  Aislabie 1709 

„    Charles  Boone 1724 

„    William  Phipps 1731 

„    Robert  Cowan 1734 

„    John  Home 1734 

„    Stephen  Law 1739 

„    William  Wake .  1742 

„    JohnGcekie 1742 

„    Richard  Bouchier 1750 

„    Charles  Crommelin    .        .                 ....                 .  .  1760 

„    Thomas  Hodges 1767 

.,    William  Hornby 1776 

„    Rawson  Horr  Bodham 1784 

„    Andrew  Ramsay 1788 

SirW.  Medows,  K.B ....  1790 

Sir  Robert  Abercrombie.  K. P. .  1790 

Mr.  George  Dick 1794 

„    John  Griffiths    ......                                  .  1795 

„    Jonathan  Duncan          ....                 ....  1795 

„    George  Brown 1811 

Sir  Evan  Nepean,  Bart.        .                 1812 

The  Hon.  Mountstuart  Elphinstone 1815 

Sir  John  Malcolm,  K.C.B 1817 

SirT.  S.  Beckwith,  K.C.B 1830 

Mr.  John  Romer 1831 

Earl  of  Clare 1831 

Sir  Robert  Grant,  Bart 1835 

Mr.  James  Farish 1838 

Sir  James  Rivett-Carnac,  Bart 1839 

Sir  W.  H.  MacDaghten,  Bart 1841 

The  Hon.  G.  W.  Anderson 1841 

Sir  George  Arthur,  Bart 1842 

The  Hon.  L.  R.  Reid 1846 

Sir  George  Russell  Clerk 1847 

Viscount  Falkland 1848 

Right  Hon.  Jn.  Lord  Elphinstone,  G.C.H 1853 

Sir  George  Russell  Clerk,  K.C.B I860 

Sir  Bartle  Frere 1862 

Sir  Seymour  Fitzgerald 1867 

Sir  Philip  Wodehouse 1872 

Sir  Richard  Temple,  Bart 1877 

Sir  James  Fergusson,  Bart 1880 


Sect.  I.                                MARATHA   DYNASTIES.  17 

■ 

Mardfha  DynastleM. 

PATES. 

Shdhji  Bhonsl^,  bom  at  the  village  of  Yerol,  near  the  caycs  of  EMra  1594 
Enters  the  service  of  the  Emperor  Sh&h  Jah4n  as  the  chief  of 

SOOOhorae 1629 

Dies  at  Baswapatan  near  Bedniir          ....      January,  1664 
Sbivajl,  founder  of  the  Mard^ha  empire,  born  at  Junnar,  50  miles 

N.ofPuni May,  1627 

Murders  Afzal  Khdn,  the  Bijdpur  General  at  Pratdpgarh  .        .    ,  1659 

Assumes  the  title  of  Rdjd 1664 

Bepairs  to  Dilli  ♦ 1666 

Ascends  the  throne 1674 

Dies,  and  is  succeeded  by  his  son  Shambuji 1680 

Shambuji  executed  by  Aurangzib 1689 

Baj4  Rdm,  son  of  Shivaji,  by  his  second  wife 1690 

Shdo  or  SAhu  RdjA,  or  ShivajlIL,  son  of  Shambuji                 .        .  1708 
Dies,  and  the  Peshwds  get  possession  of  the  whole  iK)wer 

27th  December,  1749 

Ram  Rdj A,  son  of  Shivaji  II. 1778 

SAhu  n.,  adopted  son  of  Rdm  RAjA         ....  4th  May,  1808 

PratAp  Singh,  eldest  son  of  SAhu  II.,  entlironed  by  the  English     .  1818 

Deposisd  by  the  English  and  sent  prisoner  to  Ban&ras        •        .    .  1839 

Ap4  Sd^b,  brother  of  PratAp  Singh 1839 

Dies,  and  his  territories  are  annexed  by  the  English          .        .    .  1848 

Pcishwas. 

ShAmraj  Pant    {See  Grant  Duff,  vol.  i.  i)age  150)  .        .        .        .1656 

Deposed  by  Shivaji,  and  his  office  given  to  Moro  Trimmal  Piiiglc  .  1659 

Nilu  Pant  Moreshwar 1690 

Bhairu  Pant  Pinglc 1708 

BAlAjl  WishwanAth 1714 

BAjl  RAo  BalAl,  son  of  BAlAjl 1720 

BAlAjl  BAji  RAo,  eldest  son  of  Bajl  RAo  Baldl 1740 

MhAdu  RAo,  second  sbn  of  BAlAjl .  1761 

Died  November  18th 1772 

NarAyan  RAo,  brother  of  MhAdu  RAo 1772 

RaghunAth  RAo  usurps 1773 

MhAdu  RAo  NArAyan,  son  of  KArAyan  llAo 1774 

KUls  himself        .    '    .        .        .       * 1795 

BAjl  RAo  RaghunAth 1796 

Chimnaji 2()thofMay  1796 

BAjl  RAo  publicly  proclaimed          .        .        .      4th  of  December,  1796 

Surrenders  to  tiie  English,  and  his  dominions  annexed  ...  3rd  June  1818 

BhonsU  Mdjds  of  JVdffpiir. 

KAnhojl  BhoiisU  SenA  SA^ib  SubA. 

Raghujl  Bhousl^ 1734 

Receives  the  province  of  BlrAr  from  the  Peshwa     ....  1750 

Dies,  and  is  succeeded  by  JAnujl 1753 

RAghuil,  eldest  son  of  MAdhujl 1772 

Sabajl,  killed  in  battle  by  Mudajl  (Apd  SAljib)           ....  1774 

Passajl,  son  of  Raghujl 1816 

Dcpose4^ 1817—1818 

'^  The. name  of  this  city  is  spelled  in  2  ways  in  Urdu,  Dilli  and  Dihli.    Both  are  right, 
but  in  this  book  the  form  Dilli  has  been  adoi>te<l. 

IBonibay—lSSO.]  c 


18         INTRODUCTION  :   SINDHIA  AND  HOLKAR  DYNASTIES.     Sect.  I. 

DATES. 

Gajar,  pfrandpon  of  Raghuji,  and  assumeB  his  name        .        .        .  1818 

ApA  §al^lb  dies  at  Jodhpiir 1840 

Raghuji  dies 11th  of  December,  1853 

Territory  of  N^gpiir  annexed  to  British  India         ....  1864 

Sindhia  Dynasty, 

B&nuji  Sindhia  of  Eanerkher  near  S&tdr^ 1724 

Jyapa,  eldest  son  of  Rdnujl  (Grant  Duff,  vol.  ii.  page  40)  .  .  1760 
Murdered  by  two  assassins  sent  by  Bijya  Singh  of  Jodhpi^r. 

(Grant  Duff,  vol.  ii.  page  144) 1759 

Mahdddjl,  third  son  of  RAnujl         . 1759 

Defeated  near  DiUl  by  Al^mad  ShAh,  when  Dataji  Sindhia  and 

two-thirds  of  the  MariLtha  army  were  killed        .        .        .    .  1769 

MahMAji  dies  ..." 1794 

Daulat  Kdo,  grand-nephew  of  Mah4ddjf      ....    1794  to  1803 

Daulat  Rdo  defeated  at  Assye Sept.  23rd,  1803 

Baiza  £di,  Daulat  Rdo's  widow,  regent 1825 

Jankojl 1833 

Jyaji  succeeds 1843 

His  army  defeated  by  Sir  Hugh  Gough  .        .         29th  December,  1843 

Gwdliar  fort  permanently  occupied  by  the  English        .        .        .  1844 

5%€  Holkar  Dynasty, 

Malhar  Rao  Holkar.    A  Dhangar  and  famous  geneml  of  horse. 

(Grant  Duff,  vol.  i.  page  479) 1724 

Obtains  the  larger  half  of  Mdlwa  with  a  revenue  of  J£750,000  a 

vear .        .  1750 

Retires  from  the  Battle  of  Pdnipat.    (Grant  Duff,  vol.  ii.  p.  153) 

6th  January,  1761 

Malhar  RAo  dies ' 1767 

Mali  Rdo,  grandson  of  Malhdr,  succeeds  under  Regency  of  Ahalya 
Bdi,  who  makes  Tukoji  Holkar,  no  relation  of  Malh&r  B&o, 

general 1767 

Tukoji  dies 15th  Aug.,  1797 

Tukoji's  eldest  son  Khaiide  Rao  nominally  succeeds,  but  is  con- 
fined at  Fund    .        .' 1797 

Rise  of  Jeswant  RAo,  illegitimate  brother  of  Khande  .  .  .  1800 
Jeswant  defeats  Sindhia's  army  at  Fund,  and  takes  his  guns  and 

baggage 25th  October,  1802 

Bouts  General  Monson's  army  near  Bidna  .        .         28th  August,  1804 

Jeswant  dies 20th  October,  1811 

Tulsi  Bdi,  mistress  of  Jeswant,  adopts  his  illegitimate  son  Malhdr 

Rdo 1811 

Malhdr's  army  defeated  by  the  English  at  Mehidpiir  ,     21st  Dec.  1818 

Martand  Rdo,  son  of  Bdpu  Holkar 1833 

HariRdo 1833 

Khand^Rdo .  1833 

Malkarji  under  the  Regency  of  the  Mdi  Sdhibah  until  his  majority 

in February,  1852 

H.H.  Mahdrdjd  Tukoji  Rao        " 1852 

Tlie  Gdekwdd  Dynasty, 

Ddmajl  appointed  by  Sdhu  Rdjd  second  in  command  to  Khande 

Rdo  Dhdbddd  with  the  title  of  Shamshir  Bahddur   .        .      ' ,  1720 


Sect  I.                            THE  GAEKWAD  DYNASTY.  1^ 

Pilajl,  son  of  Jankojl  GiekwAd 1721 

PiUjl  defeated  and  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Dabhoi    .    Ist  April,  1731 

Obtains  the  title  of  Send  KhAs  Khail 1731 

Pildji  is  assassinated  at  Ddkiir  by  an  emissary  of  Abhai  Singh       .  1732 

P&maji,  eldest  ^n  of  PUdjl 1732 

D&miji  II.  imprisoned  at  Pand  by  the  Peshwd       ....  1751 

Eeddrji  is  named  Gdekwdd 1751 

Damdjl  is  restored 1753 

He  returns  from  Pdnipat 1761 

Makes  Patan  his  capital 1763 

His  eldest  son  Govind  Rdo  is  defeated  and  taken  prisoner  by 
Mddhu  Rdo  Peshwd,  and  Ddmdji  is  severely  mulcted  for  his 

rebellion 1768 

Ddmdji  II.  dies 1768 

Govind  Rdo  attains  the  succession  by  paying  five  millions  and  fifty 

thousand  rupees 1768 

SaydjlRdo 1771 

Fath  Singh February  17th,  1778 

Fath  Singh  dies  and  is  succeeded  by  Mdudji  as  regent  for  Saydji, 

December  21st,  1789 

Mdndjldies August  1st,  1793 

Govind  Rdo  restored December  li)th,  1793 

Govind  Rdo  dies September  19th,  1800 

Succeeded  by  Anand  Kdo 1800 

Fath  Singh,  younger  brother  of  Auand  Rdo,  regent         April  3rd,  1816 

Fath  Singh  dies June  23rd,  1818 

Succeeded  by  his  younger  brother  Saydjl 1818 

Dies December  28th,  1847 

Succeeded  by  his  eldest  son  G^npat  Rao 1847 

Ganpat  Rdo  dies November  19th,  1866 

Succeeded  by  Khand6  Rdo 1866 

Khahd6  Rdo  dies November  28th,  1870 

Malhdi*  Rdo,  brother  of  Khande  Rdo   .        .        .      December  1st,  1870 

Deposed  and  deported  to  Madras    ....        April  22nd  1875 
Saydjl  Rdo  adopted  by  Jamnd  Bdi  and  declared  Gdekwdd 

May  27th,  1875 

Anhalwddd  Dynasty  of  Gujarat, 

Saila-deva,  living  in  retirement  at  Ujjain,  found  and  educated      .  696 
Banardja,  son  of  Samanta  Sinh  (Ohohdn),  who  founded  Anhalpiir, 

(Nerwdleh  or  Patau,)  called  after  Anala  Chohdn        .        .     .  745 

Jogardja 806 

BhimaRdjA 841 

Bheur 866 

Behirsinh 895 

Reshadat 920 

Samduta 935 

.*         '        '  Solanlthi  Dyna»t)j. 

Mula  Rdjd  usurped  the  throne 910 

Chamund,  invaded  by  SuUdn  MahmM 1025 

Vallabba  (Beyser  or  Bisela)  ancient  line  restored   ....  1038 

Durlabba  usurped  the  throne 1039 

c  2 

A 


20  INTRODUCTION  :    KINGS   OP   GUJARAT.  ScCt.  L 

DATES. 

Bhima  Tdjd. 

KAladeva,  Kama-rAjendra,  or  Visaladeva,  who  became  Paramount 

Sovereign  of  Dilll 1060 

Hiddha,  or  Jayasinh,  an  usurper 1094 

KumArap&la  poisoned 1094 

AjayapAla,  son  of  Jayasinha 1094 

Tlie  BMgela  DynaHty. 

Bhlma  Dcva  or  Bhala  Bhlma  Deva         ...                 .        .  1209 

Arjun  deva 1250 

Saranga  deva 1260 

Karan 1281 

GujarAt  was  annexed  to  Dilll  by  'AlAu'd-din  Mu\jamniad  Shiili     .  1309 

Ihrrnhb*  Dynasty  of  XJidndesh, 

Malik  RAji  Farrukhi  receives  the  j&gir  of  TAlnlr  from  Flroz          .  1370 

Malik  Naslr  or  NasirKhAn  Famikhl  builds  BurhAnpiir     .        .    .  1399 

Mlr&n  'Ada  Khdn  Farrukhi  expels  Dakhanls  from  KhAndesh        .  1437 

Miran  MubArik  Khan  Farrukhi ;  peaceful  reign       ,        .        .    .  1441 

Mir  An  Ghani,  or  A'dil  KhAn  Farrukhi  I. ;  tributary  to  GujarAt      .  1457 

DAM  KhAn  Farrukhi,  tributary  to  MAlwa 1503 

'A'nm  HumAyiin,  or 'Adil  KhAn  Farrukhi  II 1510 

MlrAn  Muhammad  KhAn  Farrul[>il ;  succeeds  to  Gujai'At  throua    .  1520 

Mir  An  MubArik  KhAn  Farrukhi,  brother ;  war  with  Mughuls         .  1535 

MlrAn  Muhammad  KhAn  Farrukhi ;  attack  from  Dakhan          .    .  1560 

RAjA  A'll  KhAn  Farrukhi ;  acknowledges  Akbar's  supremacy         .  1 576 

BahAdur  KhAn  Farrukhi ;  defies  Akbar,  imprisoned  at  GwAliar    .  1596 

Kings  of  Gujarat. 

Mu^affar  ShAh  I. ;   appointed  Viceroy  by  Firoz  Tughlak,   1391, 

A.H.  793  ;  assumes  independence  in  A.H.  799  .        •        .  A.D.  1396 

Al^mad  ShAh  I.,  grandson,  builds  A^madAbAd  and  Al^madnagar    .  1411 

.  Muhammad  ShAh,  sumamed  Karlm,  the  merciful   ....  1443 

Kutb  ShAh ;  opposes  MAlwa  King,  and  Chitor  rAjA  Kombha      .    .  1451 

"                   -  1459 

.  1459 

.  1511 

.  1526 

.  1526 

.  1526 

.  1536 

.  1538 

.  1553 

.  1561 


DAiid  ShAh,  his  imcle  deposed  in  favour  of 

MahmM  ShAh  I.  BegadA ;  two  expeditions  to  Dakhan 

Muj;affar  ShAh  II. ;  war  with  RAna  Sanga 

Sikandar  ShAh  assassinated 

Nasir  ElhAn,  or  Ma^mM  ShAh  II.  displaced  by 
BahAdur  ShAh,  invades  MAlwa,  murdered  by  Portuguese   . 
MlrAn  Muhammad  ShAh  Farrukhi,  nephew  of  MAlwa    . 
MabmTid  ShAh,  son  of  La^lf  KhAn ;  released  from  prison  . 
Al^mad  ShAh  II.,  a  spurious  heir  set  up  by  minister 
Muj^affar  ShAh  III.  Habbii,  a  supposititious  son  of  Mahmiid 
MugaSar  ShAh  submits  to  Akbar,  and  in  1583  GujarAt  finally  be- 
comes a  province  of  Akbar's  empire 1572 


^  A'dil  SlMi  JDyftasty  of  B^jdpur, 

Abii'l  Mugaffar  Yiisuf ' Adil  ShAh,  son  of  Ai^A  MurAd  or  Amurath  II. 

of  Anatolia        ..•...••  •        •    1489 


Sect.  I.                  GOYEBNOBS  AND    VICBBOYS   OF   GO  A.  21 

DATFS 

IsmA'il 'Adil  Shdh       ^ IMl 

Malii 'Ml  Shdh 1534 

Ibrahim  'Adil  Shdh  1 1636 

'All 'Adil  ShAh 1567 

Ibrahim 'A'dil  ShAh  II 1579 

Muhammad  'Adil  Shdh    ....                ....  1626 

SuUto  Sikandar  (or 'Ali 'Adil  Sh^  II.) 1660 

NizAin  Shdhi  Dynasty  of  Ahmadnagar, 

A^mad  Nigto  Sh^h 1490 

Bm-hAn  NizAm  Shdh  1 1508 

9usaiQ  Nij:Am  Shdh     . 1663 

Murtasd  Ni;;dm  Sh4h  I ...  1566 

Mir4n  Qusdin  Nij:Am  Shah         ...                         ...  1688 

IsmA'il  Nij{Am  ShAh 1689 

Burh4n  Niztei  ShAh  II 1590 

Ibrahim  Nig  Am  Shih 1594 

Ahmad  ibn  Shdh  TAhir 1694 

Bahddur  NijjAm  ShAh 1595 

MurtazA  Nisjim  Shdh  II.      .        .                         1598 

Malik  Ambar            .                                                ....  1007 

(ravcrnors  and  Viceroys  of  Goa, 

J.  Dom    Francisco  de   Almeida    (1st   Viceroy),    Maich    26th ; 

murdered  on  return  at  Cape  of  Good  Hope      .        .        .    .  1505 

2.  Affonso  de  Albuquerque,  October,  1509  ;   died  in  Harbour  of 

Goa,  December  16tih      .        .        .        .                .        ,        .  1515 

3.  Lopo  Spares  de  Albergaria,  September  8th,   1515  ;   went  to 

Portugal,  January  2^ 1519 

4.  Dipgo  Lopes  de  Siqueira,  September  8th 1518 

.5.  Dom  Duarte  de  Menezes,  January,  1522 ;  left  for  Portugal, 

December 1524 

6.  Dom  Vasco  da  Gama,  Count  of  Vidigueira  (2nd  Viceroy) 

September,  1524  ;  died  at  Cochin,  December  24th        .        .  1524 

7.  Dom  Henrique  de  Menezes,  January  17th,  1526  ;  died,  Feb- 

ruary 21st      1526 

8.  Lopo  Vaz  de  Sampaio,  February  21st,  1526  ;  sent  in  chains  to 

Portugal,  November  18th 1529 

9.  Nuno  da  Cunha,  November  18th,  1529— September  14th      .    .  1538 

10.  Dom  Garcia  de  Noronha  (3rd  Viceroy),  September  14th,  1538  ; 

died  April  3rd 1540 

11.  Dom  EstevSo  da  Gama,  son  of  Vasco  da  Gama,  April  3rd,  1540  ; 

returned  to  Portugal,  May  6th 1542 

12.  Martim  Aftonso  de  Souza,  7th  May,  1642,  to  September  10th    .  1546 

13.  Dom  Jofto  de  Castro,  Governor,  September  lOth,  1545  (4th 

Viceroy),  1547 ;  died,  June  6th    .        .        .        .        .        .  1548 

14.  Garcia  de  SA,  June  6th,  1548  ;  died,  June  13th    .        .        .    .  1549 

15.  Jorge  Caberal,  June  13th,  1549,  to  November  .        .        .        .  1550 

16.  Dom  Affonso  da  Noronha  (5th  Viceroy),  November,  1550,  to 

September  23rd 1554 

17.  Dom  Pedro  Mascarenhas  (6th  Viceroy),  September  23rd,  1554; 

jliedj^June  16th    • 1655 


2  INTRODUCTION.  Scct.  I. 

DATES* 

18.  Francisco  Barreto,  Jane  16th,  1555,  to  September  8th  .    .    1658 

19.  Dom  Constantino  da  Bragan^a  (7th  Viceroy),  September  8th, 

1658,  to  September  7th 1661 

20.  Dom  Francisco  Coutinho,  Count  of  Redondo  (8th  Viceroy), 

September  7th,  1561 ;  died,  Febmary  19th      ....    1564 

21.  JoSo  de  Mendon9a,  February  19th,  1664,  to  September  3rd      .    1664 

22.  Dom  AntSo  de  Noronha  (9th  Viceroy),  September  3rd,  1564, 

to  September  10th  ....  ...    1568 

23.  Dom  Luis  de  Athaide  (10th  Viceroy),  September,  1568,  to 

September  6th 1571 

24.  Dom  Antonio  de  Noronha  (11th  Viceroy),   September   6th, 

1571,  to  December  9th 1573 

25.  Antonio  Moniz  Barreto,  December  9th,  1673,  to  September     .  1576 

26.  Dom  Diogo  de  Menezes,  September,  1576,  to  August  Slst        .  1578 

27.  Dom  Luis  de  Athaide  {12th  Viceroy),  August  31st,  1578 ;  died, 

March  10th 1681 

28.  FemSo  Telles  de  Menezes,  March  13th,  1581,  to  September 

17th 1581 

29.  Dom  Francisco  Mascarenhas,  Count  of  Villa  de  Horta  (13th 

Viceroy),  September  16th,  1581,  to  November      .        .        .    1584 

30.  Dom  Duarte  de  Menezes,  Count  of  Tarouca  (14th  Viceroy), 

October26th,  1684;  died.  May  4th  .        .        .        .    .    1588 

31.  Manoel  de  Souza  Coutinho,  May  4th,  1588,  to  May  16th  .        .    1691 

32.  Mathias  de  Albuquerque  (15th  Viceroy),  May  16th,  1691 ;  re- 

turned to  Portugal,  May  25th       .       ■ 1597 

33.  Dom  Francisco  da  Gama,  Count  of  Vidigueira,  grandson  of 

Vasco  da  Gama  (16th  Viceroy),  May  26th,  1697,  to  Decem- 
ber 25th 1600 

34.  Aires  de  Saldanha  (17th  Viceroy),  December  26th,  1600,  to 

January  16th 1605 

35.  Martim  AflEonso  de  Castro  (18th  Viceroy),  January,  1606 ;  died 

at  Malacca,  June  3rd 1607 

36.  Dom  Fr.  Aleixo  de  Menezes,  Archbishop  of  Goa,  June  3rd, 

1607,  to  May  27th 1609 

37.  Andr6  Furtado  de  Mcndon9a,  May  27th,  1609;   recalled  to 

Portugal,  September  5th 1609 

38.  Buy  LoureuQo  de  Tavora  (19th  Viceroy),  September  5th,  1609, 

to  December  15th 1612 

39.  Dom  Jeronimo  de  Azevedo  (20th  Viceroy),  December  16th, 

1612,  to  November  18th        ....  .        .     1617 

40.  Dom  JoSo  Coutinho,  Count  of  Bedondo  (2l8t  Viceroy),  No- 

vember 18th,  1617  ;  died,  November  10th        ....    1619 

41.  Femao  de  Albuquerque,  November  11th,  1619,  to  December 

19th 1622 

42.  Dom  Francisco  da  Gama,  Count  of  Vidigueira  (22nd  Vice- 

roy), November  19th,  1622,  to  January  31st     ....     1627 

43.  Dom  Francisco  Luis  de  Brito,  January,  1627 ;  died,  July  29th    1628 

44.  Dom  Miguel  de  Noronha,  Count  of  Linhares  (23rd  Viceroy), 

December  21st,  1629,  to  December  8th 1635 

45.  Pero  da  Silva  (24th  Viceroy),  December  8th,  1635,  to  June  24th    1639 

46.  Antonio  Telles  de  Menezes,  October  4th,  1639,  to  September 

21st 1640 

47.  JoSo  da  Silva  Tello  de  Menezes,  Count  of  Aveiras  (25th  Vice- 

roy), 21st  September,  1640,  to  30th  December     .        ;        .    1646 


Sect  I.  OOVEBXOHS   AND   VICEROYS   OF   QOA.  23 

DATES 

48.  Dom   Felippe  Mascarenhas  (25th  Viceroy),  December  30tb, 

1646,  to  May  3l8t 1661 

49.  Dom  Vasco  Mascarenhas,  Count  of   Obidos  (27th  Viceroy), 

September  6th,  1652;  deposed  by  Dom  Bi*az  de  Castro, 
October  22nd 1668 

50.  Dom  Rodrigo  Lobo  da  Silveira,  Count  of  Sarzedas  (28th  Vice- 

roy), August  19th,  1635 ;  died,  January  3rd ....    1656 

51.  Antonio  de  Mello  e  Castro  (29th  Viceroy),  January  3rd,  1656,  to    1666 

52.  JoSo  Nunes  da  Cunha,  Count  of  St.  Vincent  (30th  Viceroy) 

ITthOctober,  1666;  died,  November  6th.        .        .        .    .     1668 
63.  Luis  de  Mendonga  Furtado  D'Albuquerque,  Count  of  Lavra- 

dio  (31st  Viceroy),  May  22nd,  1671,  to  October  30th        .     .    167T 

54.  Dom  Pedro  de  Almeida,  Count  of  Assumar  (32ud  Viceroy), 

October  30th,  1677 ;  died  at  Mozambique,  March    .        .     .     1678 

55.  Francisco  de  Tavora,  Count  of  Alvor  (33rd  Viceroy),  Septem- 

ber 12th,  1681,  to  3rd  December 1686 

56.  Dom  Rodrigo  da  Costa,  26th  March,  1686,  to  23rd  June       .    .  1690 

57.  Dom  Miguel  de  Almeida,  June,  1690 ;  died  9th  January  .        .  1691 

58.  Dom  Pedro  Antonio  de  Noronha,  Count  of  Villa  Verde  (34th 

Viceroy),  May  28th,  1693,  to  September  20th       .        .        .     1698 

59.  Antonio  Luiz  GonQalves  da  Camai-a  Coutinho  (35th  Viceroy), 

September  20th,  1693,  to  September  17th    .         .        .        .1701 

60.  Caetano  de  Mello   de  Castro  (36th  Viceroy),  October  2nd, 

1702  ;  returned  to  Portugal,  October  29th    .        .        .        .1707 

61.  Dom  Rodrigo  da  Castro  (37th  Viceroy),  28th  October,  1707,  to 

September  2l8t 1712 

62.  Vasco  Fernandez  Cesar  de  Menezes  (38th  Viceroy).  September 

2l8t,  1712,  to  January  13th 1717 

63.  Dom    SebastiSo    d'Andrade  Passanha,  Archbishop  of  Goa, 

January  13th,  1717,  to  October  16th 1717 

64.  Dom  Luiz  de  Menezes,  Count  of  Ericeira  (39th  Viceroy),  Octo- 

ber 16th,  1717,  to  September  14th 1720 

65.  Francisco  Jos6  de  Sampaio  e  Castro  (40th  Viceroy),  Septem- 

ber 14th,  1720;  died,  July  13  tli    1723 

66.  Dom  Christovao  de  Mello,  July  13th,  1723,  to  September  3rd  .     1723 

67.  JoSo  de  Saldanha  da  Gama  (41st  Viceroy),  October  28th,  1725, 

to  January  23rd     .        .        .        •. 1732 

68.  Dom  Pedro  Mascarenhas,  Count  of  Sandomil  (42nd  Viceroy), 

7th  October,  1732,  to  May  18th 1741 

69.  Dom  Luiz  de  Menezes,  Count  of  Ericeira  (43rd  Viceroy),  May 

18th,  1741 ;  died,  June  12th 1742 

70.  Dom  Pedro  Miguel  de  Almeida  e  Portugal,  Count  of  Assumar 

(44th  Viceroy),  September  24th,  1744,  to  September  27th    .    1750 

71.  Francisco  D'Assis,  Marquis  of  Tavora  (45th  Viceroy),  Septem- 

ber 27th,  1750,  to  September  18th 1754 

72.  Dom   Luiz    Mascarenhas,  Count   of   Alva    (46th   Viceroy), 

September  20th,  1754 ;  killed  by  the  Mardthas,  June  28th  .    1766 

73.  Manoel   de    Saldanha  D'Albuquerque,  Count  of  Ega    (47th 

Viceroy),  September  23rd,  1756,  to  19th  October  .        .        .     1765 

74.  Dom  JoSf)  Jos6  de  Mello,  14th  April,  1767;  died,  January 

10th 1774 

75.  Filippe  de  Valladores  Sou  to  Maior,  January  13th,  1774,  to 

September  24th 1774 

76.  Dom  Jose  Pedro  da  Camara,  September  24th,  1 774,  to  May  26th    1779 


34  INTRODUCTION.  Sect.  I. 

DATES. 

77.  Dom  Frederico  Guilhenne  de  Souza,  May  26th,  1779,  to  No- 

vember 3rd    .        .         . 1780 

78.  Francisco  da  Cnnha  e  Menezes,  November  3rd,  1786,  to  May 

22nd •  17^4 

79.  Francisco  Antonio  da  Veiga  Cabral,  22nd  May,  1794,  to  May 

30th       ,,...•; 1807 

80.  Bernardo  Jose  de  Lorena,  Count  of  Sarzedas  ('t8th  Viceroy), 

May  30th,  1807,  to  November  29th 1816 

81.  Dom  Diogo  de  Souza,  Count  of  Rio  Pardo  (49th  Viceroy), 

November,  1816 ;  deposed  in  the  rebellion,  September  16th  1821 

82.  Dom  Manoel  da  Camara  (50th  Viceroy),  November  18th,  1822; 

died  November  16th 1825 

83.  Dom  Manoel  de  Portugal  e  Castro  (51st  and  last  Viceroy), 

October  9th,  1827,  to  January  14th 1835 

84.  Bernardo  Peres  de  Silva,  native  of  Goa,  Prefect,  January  14th, 

1835  ;  deposed  in  February 1835 

86.  SimSo  Infante  de  Lucerda,  Baron  of  Sabroso,  November  23rd, 

1837  ;  died,  October  14th 1838 

86.  Job6  Antonio  Vieira  da  Fonseca,  March   5th,  1839,  to  No- 

vember 14th      . 1839 

87.  Manoel  Jos6  Mendes,  Baron  de  Candal,  November  15th,  1839  ; 

died,  April  18th 1840 

88.  Jos6  Joaquim  Lopes  de  Lima,  September  24th,  1840;  April  27th  1842 

89.  Francisco  Xavier  da  Silva  Pereira,  Count  of  Antas,  September 

19th,  1842,  to  April  25th 1843 

90.  Joaquim  MourSo  Garoez  PaJha,  April  25th,  1843,  to  May  20th.  1844 

91.  Jos6  Ferreira  Pestana,  May  20th,  1844,  to  January  loth      .    .  1851 

92.  Jos6  Joaquim  Januario  Lapa,  Vt.  of  Villa  Nova  d'Ourem, 

January  15th,  1851,  to  May  6th 1855 

93.  Antonio  Cesar  de  Vasconcellos  Correa,  Viscount  of  Torres  Novas, 

November  3rd,  1855,  to  December  18th    .        .        .        •    .  1864 

94.  Jo86  Ferreira  Pestana,  December  25th,  1864,  to  May  7th         .  1870 
96.  Januario  Corrua  de  Almeida,  Vt.  of  St.  Januario,  May  7th. 

1870,  to  December  12th '.  1871 

96.  Joaquim  Jos6  Macfedo  eConto,  December  12th,l 871,  to  May  10th  1875 

97.  Joao  Tavares  de  Almeida,  May  10th,  1875,  to  July  24th  .        .  1877 

98.  Antonio  Serges  de  Souza,  November  12th,  1877;  died.  May  2rd  1878 

99.  Caetano  Alexandre  de  Almeida  e  Albuquerque,  May  9th,  1878, 

present  Governor. 

ArcJihisJiops  of  Goa, 

1.  Dom  Fr.  JoSo  de  Albuquerque 1538 — 1653 

2.  Dom  Gaspar  de  LeSo  Pereira,  1st  Archbishop  1560;  resigned  1567 

3.  Dom  Fr.  Jorge  Themudo,  Bishop  of  Cochin  1567  to  April  29th,  1571 

4.  Dom  Gaspar  de  LeSo  Pereira,  2nd  time  ;  died  15th  August      .  1576 
6.  Dom  Fr.  Henrique  de  Tavora,  Bp.  of  Cochin  .        .        .    1578 — 1580 

6.  Dom  Fr.  Vicente  da  Fonseca 1580—1686 

7.  Dom  Fr.  Matheus  de  Medina,  transferi-ed  from  Cochin  1688  ; 

resigned 1692 

8.  Dom  Fr.  Andr6  de  Santa  Maria,  Bp.  of  Cochin      .        .     1693 — 1595 

9.  Dom  Fr.  Alejxo  de  Menezes,  1st  Primate  of  the  East .        1696—1610 

Went  then  to  Portugal. 

10.  Dom  Fr.  Christovao  de  Sd  e  Lisboa,  1616  ;  died  31st  March    .  1622 

11.  Dom  Fr,  Sebastigo  de  S,  Pedro,  1626  ;  died  7tli  November      .  162^ 


Sect.  I,  EVENTS    CONNECTING    INDIA   WITH    EUROPE.  25 

DATl-S. 

12.  Dom  Fr.  Miguel  Uongel,  succeeded  Dom  Manoel  Telles  de 

Brito,  who  died  on  the  passage  out  from  Portugal        .        .    1C34 

13.  Dom  Fr.  Francisco  dos  Martyres,  21st  Oct.  163(;  ;  died  25th 

November 1G52 

The  See  was  now  vacant  22  years. 

14.  Dom  Fr.  Antonio  de  BrandSo,  24th  Sept.,  1675  ;  died  Gth  July  1678 

15.  Dom  Manoel  de  Souza  e  Menezes,  20tn  Sept.,  1681 — Slst  Jan.  1684 

16.  Dom  Alberto  de  Silva,  24th  Sept.,  1687— 18th  April         .        .  1688 

17.  Dom  Fr.  Pedro  de  Silva,  1689— loth  March         ....  1691 

18.  Dom  Fr.  Agostinho  de  Annuncia^So,  1691 — 6th  July        .         .  1713 

19.  Dom  Sebasti&o  de  Andrade  Pessanha,  24th  S^pt.,  1716^25th 

Jan 1721 

20.  Dom  Ignacio  de  Santa  Thereza,  1721—1739  ;  translated  to 

Bishopric  of  AJgarve  in  Portugal. 

21.  Dom  Clemento  Jo86        . 1739—1742 

22.  Dom  Francisco  VasconceUes,    20th  December,  1742  ;    died 

March  30th 1743 

23.  Dom  Ft.  Louren^o  de  Santa  Maria        ....     1744—1750 

24.  Dom  Antonio  Taveira  da  Neiva  Brun  da  Silveira,  September 

23rd,  1750,  to  March  4th 1775 

25.  Dom  Francisco  de  Assump^ao  e  Brito,  March,  1775,  to  Feb.  5th  1780 

26.  Dom  Fr.  Manoel  de  S.  Catharina,  Febniary  1780— February    .  1812 

27.  Dom  Fr.  Manoel  de  Sfto  Galdino,  Feb.  18th,  1812  to  July  15th  1831 

28.  Dom  Jos6  Maria  de  Silva  Tones,  March  7th,  1844,  to  26th 

March,  1849,  when  he  returned  to  Portugal. 

29.  Dom  Jofio  Chrysostomo  d'Amorin  e  Pessoa,  3rd  of  January      .    1863 

Returned  to  Portugal,  February  5th,  1869  ;  resigned       .    .    1874 

30.  Dom  Ayres  de  Omebas  e  VaRconcellos,  arrived  Dccemljer  27th    1875 

Meniarkahle  JScenfjf  oonmcthig  India  with  Evrojte, 

Odoricus,  an  Italian  Friar,  visits  ThAnd 1300 

Vasco  da  Gama  reaches  KAlikod  (Calicut)  by  sea  .  .  .  .1498 
Albuquerque,  the  Portuguese  admiral,  bums  Kdlikod,  but  is  at  last 

driven  off 1510 

Goa  captured  by  the  Portuguese  ;  retaken  by  the  natives ;  ceded 

to  the  Portuguese 1510 

The  Zamorin  permits  the  Portuguese  to  build  a  fort  at  KAlikod     .    1613 

Bombay  occupied  by  the  Portuguese 1532 

Bassin,  Salsette,  and  Bombay  ceded  to  the  Portuguese  by  Sultdn 

BahAdur,  King  of  Gujarat 1534 

The  Venetian  merchant,  Caesar  Frederick,  reaches  A^maddbAd  .  1563 
Thomas  Stephens,  of  New  College,  Oxford,  reaches  Goa  in  October, 

and  Sir  Francis  Drake  lands  at  Temate,  and  subsequently  at 

Java 1579 

A  land  expedition,  organized  by  the  Levant  Company,  reaches 

India 1589 

Petition  presented  by  101  merchants  and  others  to  Elizabeth  for  a 

charter  to  trade  with  India 1599 

John  Mildenhall  sent  as  Ambassador  to  Agra,  which  he  reaches  in  1603 
Charter  for  15  years  to  "  The  Governor  and  Company  of  Merchants 

of  London  trading  to  the  East  Indies  " 1600 

A  fleet  from  Torbay  reaches  Acheen  in  Sumatra,  and  Bantam  in 

Java,eBtablishing  factories  in  each  place 1601 


2(5  ixTRODucTiox.  Sect.  I. 

DATKS. 

Second  Charter,  by  which  the  East  India  Company  is  made  a  cor- 
porate body,  with  the  retention  of  a  power  to  dissolve  them  at 
three  years'  notice.     Captain  Hawkins  of  the  Hector  reaches 
Agra  with  a  letter  to  Jahdnglr.    The  Dutch  occupy  Palikat       .    1609 
The  Mughul  Emperor  issues  2kfarmAn^  permitting  the  English  to 

establish  factories  at  Surat,  Al^mad^b^d,  Ehambdyat,  and  Gogo    1611 
Captain  Best,  with  the  Dragon  and  Hosiander^  defeats  the  Portu- 
guese squadron  at  Sarat,  and  receives  a  farman^  authorising  an 
English  Envoy  to  reside  at  Agra,  and  the  English  to  trade  with 

Surat 1612 

Sir  Thomas  Koe,  Ambassador  to  Jahdnglr,  reaches  India  .  .  1615 
The  Danish  settlement  of  Tallangamb^  (Tranquebar)  founded  .  1617 
The  Dutch  and  English  Companies  contend  for  the  exclusive  trade 

with  the  Spice  Islands 1618 

The  Dutch  assign  to  the  English  a  share  of  the  pepper  trade  with 

Java  and  with  Palikat 1619 

Sir  Robert  Shirley  courteously  received  by  Jahdngir  at  Agra  .  1619 
The  East  India  Company  receive  permission  to  exercise  martial 

law  in  India 1624 

The  English  open  trade  with  DurgarazApatnam 1625 

Treaty  with  Portugal,  by  which  the  English  are  allowed  to  trade 

with  Portuguese  ports  in  India 1635 

Gabriel  Boughton,  surgeon  of  the  Company's  ship  Hopewclly  cures 
the  daughter  of  Shdh  Jahdn  and  the  favourite  mistress  of  the 
Niiwdb  of  Beagal,  and  so  obtains  for  the  Company  the  right  to 
trade  throughout  the  dominions  of  the  Great  Mughul      .        .     .     1636 
The  English  remove  from  I)jirgarAzdpatnam  to  Madras  .        .        .     1639 
Fort  St.  George  built  at  Madras  .        .  " "    .        .        .        ...    1641 

Fort  St.  George  constituted  a  Presidency 1654 

New  Charter  for  seven  years 1657 

Forts  on  Malabar  coasts  placed  under  Surat,  Bengal  under  Madras  1658 
The  Dutch  take  Ndgapatnam  from  the  Portuguese,  and  make  it 

their  capital  on  that  coast    .        . 1660 

Bombay  ceded  to  England  by  the  Portuguese  as  part  of  the  Infanta 
Catherina's  dower  on  her  marriage  with  Charles  II.,  the  Xlth 
Article  of  which  states  "  ceded  for  better  improvement  of  Eng- 
lish interest  and  commerce  in  the  East  Indies,"  June  23rd  .  1661 
A  New  Charter  confirms  former  privileges,  with  the  right  to  make 
peace  and  war,  to  exercise  civil  and  criminal  jurisdiction,  and  . 

send  unlicensed  persons  to  England 1661 

Marriage  of  Charles  IL  with  Catherine  of  Braganza,  May  21st        .     1662 
Earl  of  Marlborough  and  Sir  Abraham  Shipman  with  5  men-of-war 
and  500  soldiers  arrive  at  Bombay,  <o  occupy  the  island  in  fulfil- 
ment of  the  Treaty,  September 1662 

Sir  Abraham  Shipman  having  died  with  most  of  his  men  at  Anja- 
deva,  his  secretary  Cooke  makes  a  convention  with  the  Portu- 
guese, which  Charles  II.  refuses  to  ratify.  Sir  Gervase  Lucas 
succeeds  Cooke,  and  estimates  the  population  of  Bombay  at 

10,000,  and  the  revenue  at  £6,490  17*.  id 1663 

French  East  India  Company  established.  Defence  of  Surat  by  the 
English  against  Shivaji,  for  which  they  are  rewarded  with  fresh 

privileges  by  Aurangzib 1664 

Island  of  Bombay  granted  by  Charles  II.  to  the  East  India  Com- 
pany       ....  .        .        .        .    ,    1668 


Sect.  I.  EVENTS  CONNECTING   INDIA  WITH   EUROPE.  27 

Dates, 

The  natives  destroy  the  English  factory  at  HonAwar,  and  murder 
every  Englishman 1670 

St.  Helena  granted  by  Royal  Charter  to  the  Company        .       .    .    1673 

Dr.  John  Fryer  visits  Bombay,  and  reckons  population  at  60,000  .    1675 

Bombay  revolts  under  Captain  Keigwin  .        .        .        .        .    1683 

Admiral  Sir  Thomas  Grantham  arrives  in  Bombay,  and  Keigwin 
submits  to  his  authority 1684 

Bombay  made  a  Regency,  with  sway  over  all  the  Company's  estab- 
lishments. Puducheri  (Pondicherry)  colonized  by  the  French. 
English  driven  from  Hugli,  and  allowed  to  return      .        .        .     1687 

Fort  St.  David  built.    Y'akiib  Khdn  Sldl,  the  Imperial  Admiral, 

lands  in  Bombay  with  25,000  men,  and  takes  MazagAon         .    .    1689 

Chaplain  Ovington's  visit  to  Bombay  described  in  "  Voyage  to 
Surat" 1689 

Charter  forfeited  for  non-payment  of  5  per  cent,  levied  on  all  Joint 
Stock  Companies,  but  on  October  1st  a  new  charter  granted  by 
the  King 1693 

New  Company  incorporated  under  the  name  of  "  The  English 
Company."  The  old  Company,  called  **  The  London  Company," 
ordered  to  cease  trading  in  three  years.  Calcutta  purchased  by 
the  old  Company,  and  Fort  William  built 1698 

The  old  Company  obtain  an  Act  authorizing  them  to  trade  under 
the  charter  of  the  new  Company 1700 

Lord  Godolphin's  Award,  by  which  the  two  Companies  are  united 
under  the  title  of  "  The  United  Company  of  Merchants  of  Eng- 
land trading  to  the  East  Indies."  Three  Presidencies  estab- 
lished, and  a  Governor,  with  the  title  of  General,  and  a  Council 
appointed  for  Bombay,  29th  of  Sept 1708 

An  Act  passed  (9  Anne,  c.  7)  that  no  person  shall  be  a  Director  of 
the  East  India  Company  and  a  Director  of  the  Bank  of  England 
at  the  same  time 1711 

July.  Deputies  from  the  Company  arrive  at  DilU,  and  on  the 
6th  of  January,  1717,  ohtaXn  a  farmdn  exempting  their  trade 
from  duties,  and  allowing  them  to  possess  land  round  their  fac- 
tories            ,        .        .        .     1715 

Ostend  East  India  Company  formed 1717 

The  Emperor  of  Germany  grants  a  charter  to  the  Ostend  Company, 
under  which  they  carry  on  a  successful  trade  .        .        .    .     1723 

Charter  renewed  till  Lady-day,  17G9.  The  Company  accept  4  per 
cent,  interest  for  £3,200,000  lent  to  Government,  and  pay  a  pre- 
mium of  £200,000         1730 

Swedish  India  Company  formed 1731 

Malhdr  Rdo  Holkar  takes  Thdnd  from  the  Portuguese,  his  loss 
being  5,000  men  and  that  of  the  Portuguese  800.    May  16th       \    1739 

The  Company  lend  £1,000,000  to  Government,  and  obtain  an  ex- 
tension of  privileges  to  1783.  Commencement  of  the  contest 
between  England  and  France  in  India 1744 

War  declared  between  England  and  France.  A  French  fleet 
anchors  12  miles  S.  of  Madras,  and  lands  a  force  under  Labour- 
donnais.  Madras  capitulates  after  a  bombardment  of  five  days. 
Labourdonniais  signs  a  treaty  to  restore  the  town  on  a  ransom 
being  paid.  This  treaty  violated  by  Dupleix,  Governor  of  Pudu- 
cheri       174G 

December  19th.    Dupleix  fails  in  an  attach  on  Fort  St.  David  .    .    1717 


28  ixTBODUCTiox.  Sect.  I. 

DATES. 

The  English  lay  siege  to  Puducheri,  but  without  success.  Treaty 
of  Aix-la-Chapelle,  by  which  Madras  is  restored  to  the 
English 1748 

Sdhuji  RAjA  of  Tanjiir,  dethroned  by  his  cousin,  calls  in  the  aid  of 
the  English,  who,  after  one  repulse,  take  Devlkota,  which  was 
to  be  the  guerdon  of  their  assistance.  They  then  desert  their 
ally,  and  conclude  a  treaty  with  PratAp  Sing.  Clive  leads  the 
storming  party  at  Devikota.    The  war  in  the  Karndtak  begins  .    1749 

Pun  A  made  capital  of  the  Mardthas 1750 

Mul^ammad  'All,  claimant  of  the  Niiw^bship  of  the  Eamdtak, 
whose  cause  is  espoused  by  the  English,  takes  refuge  in  Trichi- 
ndpalli,  which  is  besieged  by  the  French,  under  M.  Lally  and 
Chanda  Sdhib.  The  siege  ends  in  their  utter  discomfiture. 
Clive  takes  Arcot,  and  defends  it  against  overwhelming  odds     .    1751 

Dupleix  superseded.  December  26th.  Treaty  of  peace  signed  at 
Puducheri — the  French  and  English  withdraw  from  interference 
in  the  afEairs  of  the  Native  Pi'inces 1754 

Commodore  James  takes  Suwamdurg  and  Bankot  from  Angria, 
the  Mardtha  piratical  chief 1756 

February  11th.  Angria  taken  prisoner,  and  his  forts  destroyed,  by 
Admiral  Watson  and  Colonel  Clive,  assisted  by  the  troops  of  the 
Peshwd.  June  18th.  Calcutta  attacked  by  Sir^jA'd-daulah.  The 
tragedy  of  the  Black  Hole 175C 

January  2nd.  Calcutta  retaken.   June  23rd.  Battle  of  Plassy.    Mir 

,    J'afar  made  §iibal?dAr  of  Bengal  in  room  of  Sirdju'd-daulah. 

War  renewed  in  the  B[am6.tak.    English  take  Madura       .        .     1757 

April  28th.  Count  de  Lally  arrives  at  Fort  St.  David  with  a  French 
fleet,  and  an  indecisive  action  is  fought  next  day.  June  1st. 
Lally  takes  Fort  St.  David,  and  razes  the  fortifications.  June 
11th.  A  commission  arrives  in  Bengal  from  the  Directors,  ap- 
pointing a  Council  of  ten,  with  a  Governor  for  each  three 
months.  All  invite  Clive  to  assume  the  Government.  October 
4th.  Lally  takes  Arcot;  and  on  December  11th  lays  siege  to 
Madras 1758 

February  19th.  Lally  retires  from  before  Madras.  April  6th.  The 
English  take  Machhlipatnam.  The  Nizdm  engages  not  to  permit 
the  French  to  settle  in  his  dominions.  November  9th.  Wande- 
wash  taken 1759 

February  9th.  Arcot  taken  by  the  English.  July.  Vansittart  suc- 
ceeds Clive  as  Governor  of  Bengal.  Clive  sails  for  England  ui 
February.  Mir  KAsim  succeeds  Mir  J'afar  as  Siibal^dAr  of  Ben- 
gal. Sept.  27th.  Revenues  of  Vardhawdn  (Burdwdn),  Midnapiir, 
and  ChittagAon  ceded  to  the  English  by  Mir  Edsim        .        .    .     1760 

January  7th.  Battle  of  Pdnipat.  14th.  Puducheri  taken  by  the 
English.  Fall  of  the  French  power  in  the  Dakhan.  Shdh  'Alam 
IL  defeated  at  Patna  by  Major  Camac.  Treaty  with  Shdh 
'Alam,  who  acknowledges  Mir  Kdsim  on  payment  of  £240,000 
per  annum 17G1 

February  10..  Puducheri  and  other  forts  restored  to  the  French  by 
the  treaty  of  Paris.  June  25th.  Mr.  Ellis,  with  a  body  of  troops, 
attacked  and  made  prisoners  by  Mir  Kdsim  at  Patna.  July. 
The  English  agree  to  restore  Mir  J'afar.  Nov.  6th.  Patna  taken 
by  the  English :  Mir  Kdsim  seeks  shelter  with  the  Niiwdb  of 
AVadh  (Oude)    .      .     '   .        .         .        .        .        .        .        .    .     1763 


Sect.  I.  EVENTS   CONNECTING   INDIA   WITH   EUROPE.  29 

DATES 

Mr.  Ellig,  chief  of  the  Factory  at  Patna,  and  200  English,  murdered 
at  Patna  by  Sumroo,  an  officer  in  the  service  of  Mir  Kdsim, 

October    1763 

October  23rd.  Battle  of  Buxar 1764 

Death  of  Mir  J'afar  at  Calcutta.  His  son,  Najmu'd-daulah,  suc- 
ceeds him.  May  3rd.  Lord  Olive  arrives  at  Calcutta  as  Governor- 
General.  August  12th.  The  DiwAnl,  or  Revenue  of  Bengal, 
Bahdr,  and  (Srissa  granted  to  the  Company  by  Shdh  'Alam 
IL •        .        .     1765 

May  8th.  N&jmu'd-daulah  dies,  and  is  succeeded  by  his  brother, 
§aifu'd-daulah.  The  NiajAm  (Nigdm  'AH)  cedes  the  N.  SarkAi-s 
to  the  English  for  5  Idkhs  per  annum 1766 

January.  Lord  Olive  sails  for  England.  September.  The  troops  of 
the  NiJ^Am  and  Haidar  'All  attack  the  English        .        .        .    .    1767 

Treaty  with  the  Nig^m,  who  cedes  the  Kam&tak,  Bdldghdt,  and 
reduces  the  tribute  for  the  Barkers.  The  English  attack  Gaidar 
'AH 1768 

April  4th.  Qaidar,  at  the  gates  of  Madras,  forces  the  English  to 
conclude  a  peace 1769 

March  10th.  §aifu'd-daulah  dies,  and  is  succeeded  by  his  brother, 
MubAraku'd-daulah 1770 

War  between  Etaidar  and  the  Mardthas.  Shdh  'Alam  II.  enters 
Dim  with  the  Mardthas  .        .       * 1771 

July.  Mardthas  make  peace  with  ^aidar 1772 

AUdhdbdd  and  Korah  sold  to  the  Niiwdb  of  AJwadh  (Oude)  for  50 
Idkhs  ;  the  Niiwdb  agrees  with  Warren  Hastings  to  pay  40  Idkhs 
for  the  reduction  of  Rohilkhand.  Tanjiir  taken  by  the  English 
on  the  16th  of  Sept.,  at  the  instigation  of  the  Niiwdb  of  the 
Kanidtak,  and  the  Rdjd  handed  over  to  the  Niiwdb.  The  Dutch 
expelled  by  the  English  from  Ndgapatnam.  June.  Act  to  lend 
the  Company  £1,400,000  at  4  per  cent.  Act  to  regulate  the 
votes  of  Proprietors  of  East  India  Stock,  giving  one  vote  to 
holders  from  £500  to  £1000,  two  votes  from  £1000  to  £3000, 
three  from  £3000  to  £6000,  four  from  £6000  to  £10,000.  Six 
Directors  to'  go  out  by  rotation.  The  other  Presidencies  sub- 
ordinated to  Bengal.    Supreme  Court  established  at  Calcutta    .    1773 

April  23rd.  The  RohiUas  defeated  by  the  EngUsh.  Dec.  28th. 
Salsette  and  Bassln  taken  by  the  Bombay  troops         .        .        .    1774 

March  6th,  Treaty  between  the  Bombay  Government  and  Raghubd, 
the  deposed  Peshwd,  who  cedes  Salsette  and  Bassln,  and  the 
revenues  of  Bhanich.  May.  The  Bombay  army  march  to  the 
aid  of  Raghubd,  and  gain  several  successes.  The  Supreme 
Government  disapprove  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Bombay  Go- 
vernment, who  are  compelled  to  withdraw  their  troops,  where- 
upon Raghubd  retreats  to  Surat.  A^afu'd-daulah,  Niiwdb  of 
Awadh,  cedes  Bandras  to  the  Company,  who  guarantee  to  him 
by  treaty  AUdhdbdd  and  Korah.  Deceml)er  11th.  Lord  Pigot 
succeeds  to  the  Government  of  Madras 1775 

April  11th.  Rdjd  of  Tanjiir  restored.  August  5th.  Nand  Kumdr 
hanged  for  forgery.  Lord  Pigot  (August  24th)  aiTCsted  by 
two  suspended  members  of  Council  and  their  faction,  and  im- 
prisoned         1776 

July.  Ohandran^ar  (Chandemagore),  Machhlipatnam,  and  Ka- 
rikal  taken  from  the  French,    August  10th.  The  French  fleet 


30  INTRODUCTION.  Sect.  I. 

DATES. 

defeated  off  Puducheri,  and  driven  from  the  coast  by  the  English. 
October,  ruducheri  sun-enders.  Hastings  tenders  his  resigna- 
tion to  the  Court  of  Dii-ectors,  who  accept  it,  but  he  subse- 
quently disowns  it 1777 

January  4th.  Expedition  to  PunA  to  support  Raghubd.  It  fails, 
however,  and  the  English  are  compelled  to  sign  a  treaty,  by 
which  they  give  up  RaghubA  and  all  their  acquisitions  since  1756. 
January  30th.  General  Goddard's  celebrated  march  across  India. 
He  reaches  Burhdnpiir  in  the  Ni?:.dm's  country,  leaves  it  on  the 
6th  of  February,  and  reaches  Surat  on  the  26th  ....     1779 

January  15th.  Convention  of  Wargdoii,  by  which  everything  taken 
from  the  Mardthas  since  1773  was  restored  to  them  January  15th    1779 

January  2nd.  General  Goddard  crosses  the  Taptl,  and  takes  Dabhoi 
(Jan.  20th),  and  A^maddbM  (Feb.  15th),  and  April  5th  he 
defeats  Sindhia.  August  25th.  Sir  Hector  Munro  arrives  from 
Madras  to  oppose  Gaidar.  September  10th.  BaiUie's  defeat  and 
surrender.  11th.  The  English  retreat,  and  reach  Madras  on  the 
13th.  October  31st.  IJaidar  takes  Arcot.  November  5tlL  Sir 
Eyre  Coote  arrives  at  Madi'as  with  reinforcements  .        .    .    1780 

January  17th.  Advance  of  Sir  E.  Coote.  July  1st.  He  defeats 
Gaidar  near  Porto  Novo,  and  returns  to  Madras  in  November. 
June  22nd.  Lord  Macartney  arrives  at  Madras  as  Governor. 
Sadras,  Palikat,  and  Ndgapatnam  taken  from  the  Dutch.  Octo- 
ber 24th.  Judgeship  of  §a!dr  DlwAni  given  by  W.  Hastings  to 
Sir  Elijah  Impey,  already  Chief  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court. 
The  Commons  recall  Impey  in  May  following.  The  Company's 
Charter  renewed  by  21  Geo.  III.,  c.  65,  till  March,  1794  ;  tlie 
Company  to  pay  £400,000,  and  to  be  allowed  a  dividend  of 
8  per  cent 1781 

General  Goddard  retreats  from  Kampuli  to  Panwell  with  the  loss 
of  438  rank  and  file,  and  18  European  officers  killed  and 
wounded,  pursued  by  the  Marathas  under  Hari  Paiit  and 
Parshurdm  BhAo  and  Tukoji  Holkar,  April  23rd         .        .        .     1781 

February  18th.  Colonel  Brathwaite,  with  100  Europeans,  300 
cavalry,  and  1,500  Sipdhls,  after  a  gallant  defence  of  two  days, 
overpowered  by  Tlp\i,  and  his  whole  force  cut  to  pieces  or  made 
prisoners.  The  battle  took  place  about  40  miles  from  Tanjiir, 
on  the  Koleriin  river.  19th.  The  French  land  2000  men  to  aid 
Tlpii.  April  12th.  Indecisive  action  between  the  fleets  of  Ad- 
miral Hughes  and  the  French  Admiral  Suffrein.  August  31st. 
The  French  take  Trinkomali.  September  8th.  Action  between 
the  fleets,  in  which  the  English  have  the  advantage.  Dec.  7th, 
Death  of  Gaidar 'AH 1782 

General  Matthews  takes  Bedniir.  March.  M.  Bussy  lands  at 
Gudaliir  (Cuddalore).  General  Stuart,  who  had  succeeded  Sir 
Eyre  Coote,  being  ordered  to  march  on  Gudaliir,  refuses,  but 
sets  out  on  the  21st  of  April  at  the  rate  of  2^  miles  a  day.  He 
attacks  Gudaliir  on  the  13th  of  June,  and  is  repulsed  with  the 
loss  of  62  officers  and  920  men,  nearly  all  Europeans,  kiUed  or 
mortally  wounded.  Indecisive  action  between  Hughes  and 
Suffrein.  General  Stuart's  army  saved  by  the  peace  between 
the  English  and  the  French  :  he  is  arrested  and  sent  to  England. 
The  French  possessions  in  India  restored  in  pursuance  of  the 
treaty  of  Versailles.    Trinkomali  restored  to  the  Dutch.    Tipii 


Sect.  I.  EVENTS   CONNECTING   INDIA   WITH   EUROPE  31 

DATES. 

retakes  Bedniir,  where  Colonel  Macleod  had  superseded  General 
Matthews.  The  English  army  made  prisoners,  and  treated 
with  great  cruelty  by  Tlpii 1783 

January  24th.  The  Englisn  garrison  of  Mangali!Lr,  which  had  been 
besieged  by  Tipii  since  May  23rd,  1783,  capitulates,  and  marches 
out  with  all  the  honours  of  war.  March  11th.  Peace  with 
Tipii ;  conquests  on  both  sides  restored.  August  13th.  Mr. 
Pitt's  Bill,  24  Geo.  in.,  c.  25,  estabUshes  Board  of  Control     .    .     1784 

Pulo  Penang,  or  Prince  of  Wales'  Island,  purchased  by  the  Com- 
pany, and  occupied  July  6th.  26  Geo.  III.,  c.  16,  empowers 
Govemor-Genei^  to  act  in  opposition  to  his  Council ;  c.  25 
grants  the  power  of  recall  of  the  Governor-General  to  the  Crown    1786 

February  13tii.  Trial  of  Warren  Hastings  began.  Defence  began 
June  2nd,  1791 ;  acquitted  April  23rd,  1795.  The  Court  grant 
him  an  annuity  of  £4,000  for  28|  years  from  the  24th  of  June, 
1785.     September.  Guntiir  ceded  by  the  Ni?;&m  ....    1788 

Decennial  land  settlement  in  Bengal  began ;  the  same  in  Bah&r 
next  year  :  the  whole  completed  in  1793,  when  it  was  declared 
perpetuaL  This  is  the  permanent  settlement  of.  Lord  Corn- 
wallis,  by  which  the  Zamind^rs  were  declared  landowners,  they 
having  been  only  the  revenue  agents  of  the  Mughul  Government, 
December  24th.  Tipii  attacks  the  lines  of  Travankor      .        .    .    1789 

May  7th.  Tipii  ravages  part  of  Travankor.  June.  Alliance  be- 
tween the  English,  Mar^thas,  and  &g  Nigdm  against  him  : 
signed  by  the  Mar^t^As  on  the  1st  of  June,  by  the  Ni^^m  on  the 
4th  of  July.    June  13th.   General  Meadows  opens  the  campaign    1790 

February  5th.  Lord  Comwallis  marches  to  V^lilr.  March  21st. 
Takes  Bengaliir.  May  26th.  The  English,  on  their  retreat  owing 
to  disease,  are  joined  by  the  Mar^thas.  July.  The  allies  reach 
Bengaliir 1791 

February  6th.  The  allies  storm  the  redoubts  at  Shrlrangpatnam 
(Seringapatam).  March  9th.  Tipii  signs  treaty,  by  which  he 
agrees  to  pay  £3,300,900,  and  to  give  his  two  eldest  sons  as 
hostages 1792 

Zila  or  District  Courts  for  Civil  Causes  established  in  Bengal ; 
Courts  of  Appeal  at  Calcutta,  Patna,  Dhdka  (Dacca)  and  Mur- 
shidAbdd  ;  ^adr  DlwAni  'AdAlat  (Final  Civil  Appeal)  at  Cal- 
cutta, and  §adr  Nis;4mat  'Adalat  (Final  Criminal  Appeal).  Pu- 
ducheri  and  other  French  settlements  taken  for  the  third  time. 
New  Charter  for  20  years  ;  salaries  of  Commissioners  of  Board 
of  Control  to  be  paid  by  the  Company  ;  the  Commissioners  not 
necessarily  to  be  Privy  Councillors.  Company  to  provide  300 
tons  of  shipping  for  private  traders 1793 

Sons  of  Tlpii  restored  to  him 1794 

The  Mardthas  defeat  the  Ni^dm  and  compel  him  to  cede  territory. 
The  Dutch  settlements  in  Ceylon,  at  Banda,  Amboyna,  Malacca, 
and  the  Cape  taken.     Cochin  surrenders  after  a  gallant  defence    1795 

September  1st.  Treaty  with  the  Ni^dm,  by  which  he  agrees  to  dis- 
band his  French  Contingent  and  receive  four  battalions  of 
English 1798 

May  4th.  Seringapatam  stormed,  and  Tipii  slain.  Partition  Treaty 
of  Maistir  between  the  Ni|;dm  and  the  English.  October  25th. 
Treaty  with  the  RAj4  of  Tanjiir,  "  by  which  he  surrenders  his 
power  to  the  £ngli£^,  receiving  a  Idkh  of  pagodas  as  pension, 


32  INTRODUCTION.  Sect.  I. 

DATES. 

and  one-fifth  of  the  net  revenue."     December  29th.  Sir  J.  Mal- 
colm sails  fi'om  Bombay  as  Ambassador  to  Persia   .        .        .     .    1799 

May  l.Sth.  The  Niiw^b  of  Burat  compelled  to  sign  away  his  go- 
vernment for  a  pension  of  £10,000  per  annum.  October  12th. 
Subsidiary  Treaty  with  the  Ni?;dm,  who  gives  up  his  share  of 
Maisilir  in  consideration  of  English  protection     ....     1800 

July  16th.  On  the  death  of  the  NiiwAb  of  the  Karnatak  the 
English  demand  that  his  heir,  *A11  Qusain,  shall  sign  away  his 
power,  and  on  his  refusal  raise  'Azimu'd-daulah,  his  nephew,  to 
the  throne  on  that  condition.  October  14th.  Jeswant  RAo  Holkar 
defeated  at  the  battle  of  Indi!ir  (Jndore)  by  Daulat  Rdo  Sindhia. 
November  14th.  The  NiiwAb  of  Awadh  compelled  to  cede  Rohil- 
khand  and  the  Do4b  to  the  company.  Puducheri  restored  to 
the  French  in  pursuance  of  the  treaty  of  Amiens    .        .        .    .    1801 

June  4th.  The  NiiwAb  of  Farrukh^bM  compelled  to  cede  his  ter- 
ritory to  the  English  for  a  pension  of  108,000  rupees  per  annum. 
October  25th.  Jeswant  RAo  Holkar  defeats  Sindhia  near  PunA, 
whereupon  the  PeshwA  flies  to  Bassin,  leaving  with  the  English 
Resident  an  engaigement  to  subsidize  a  body  of  English  troops. 
The  Governor-General  ratifies  the  engagement,  and  agrees  to 
restore  the  PeshwA.  December  31st.  Treaty  of  Bassin,  by  which 
the  PeshwA  agreed  not  to  hold  intercourse  with  any  State  except 
in  concert  with  the  English  Government,  and  to  cede  territory 
for  the  support  of  the  contingent  furnished  by  the  Company      .    1802 

March.  The  Madras  army,  under  General  Wellesley,  march  on 
Puna,  which  they  reach  on  the  20th  of  April.  May  13th.  The 
l*eshw4  is  escorted  back  to  Pun  A  by  British  troops.  August  12th. 
General  Wellesley  takes  Al^madnagar ;  September  23rd,  gains 
the  victory  of  Assaye  over  Sindhia  and  the  RAjA  of  NAgpur  ; 
taked  BurhAnplir  October  13th,  and  Asirgarh  October  2lst ;  de- 
feats Sindhia  at  Argaum  November  28th,  and  takes  GAvelgai*h 
December  15th.  General  Lake  takes  *Aliga]*h  on  the  30th  of 
August,  defeats  the  MarAthas  near  Dilli,  i^ptember  12th,  and 
enters  Dilll,*  where  he  captures  the  Emperor  and  his  family ; 
enters  Agra  October  17th,  and  gains  the  victoiy  of  LaswAdi 
November  Ist.  December  17th.  The  RAjA  of  NAgpiir  cedes 
Katak  (Cuttack)  and  agrees  to  admit  no  Europeans  but  the 
English  into  his  dominions.  December  29th.  Sindhia  cedes 
A^madnagar,  Bhariich,  and  his  forts  in  the  DoAb,  with  a  like 
clause  about  the  exclusion  of  Europeans.  Puducheri  taken 
again 1803 

February  27th.  Treaty  of  BurhAnpiir  with  Sindhia,  who  agrees  to 
receive  and  support  a  British  contingent.  April  16th.  "War 
declared  against  Holkar.  August  24th.  Colonel  Murray  takes 
Indilb*.  October  8th.  Holkar  attacks  Dilli,  but  after  a  nine  days' 
siege  is  repulsed  by  Lieut.-Colonel8  Bum  and  Ochterlony. 
November  13th.  General  Frazer  defeats  Holkar  at  the  battle  of 
Dig  (Deeg)  and  takes  87  guns.    December  4th.  The  Fort  of  Dig 

taken 1804 

January  3rd.  Siege  of  Bhartpiir  (Bhurtpore)  began,  and  lasted 
till  the  22nd  of  February,  when  Lord  Lake  determined  to  retreat, 
having  lost  2334  men  in  killed  and  wounded  before  the  place. 
April  10th.  The  Bharatpiir  RAjA  signs  a  treaty,  by  which  he 
agrees  to  pay  20  lakhs,  cede  ccTtain  districts,  and  deliver  his 


Sect.  I.  EVENTS  CONNECTING   INDIA  WITH  EUROPE.  33 

DATES. 

eldest  son  as  hostage.  October  5tli.  Marquis  Comwallis  dies. 
November  23rd.  Treaty  with  Sindhia.  December  24th.  Treaty 
with  Holkar,  who  renounces  all  territory  N.  of  the  Chambal  and 
in  Bandalkhand,  and  agrees  to  exclude  all  Europeans  but  English 
from  his  dominions 1805 

July  10th.  The  mutiny  of  V61iir,  in  which  Colonel  Fancourt  and 
13  other  officers  and  99. Europeans  were  massacred     .        .        .     1806 

WarwiththeEajAof  Travankor         .        .        .        .        .        .    .    1807 

Colonel  Hamilton  defeats  the  Travankor  army  at  Anjuricha, 
December  3rd 1808 

January  15th.  Travankor  army  again  defeated.  February  10th. 
The  lines  stormed  and  entirely  in  possession  of  the  English  on 
February  21st,  which  ends  the  war.  August  6th.  The  Madras 
troops  at  Chitradurg  (Chittledroog)  mutiny  and  seize  the  trea- 
sure, and  march  to  join  other  mutineers  at  Seringapatam,  but  are 
routed  by  Colonel  Gibbs.  August  23rd.  The  mutineers  at  Serin- 
gapatam  surrender  at  discretion 1809 

February  17th.  Island  of  Amboyna  taken  by  the  English.  July 
9th.  Isle  of  Bourbon  taken.  August  9th.  Banda  ;  29th,  Tcr- 
nate  ;  December  9th,  Mauritius  taken 1810 

July  21st.  Charter  renewed,  but  trade  "•^vith  India  thrown  open  by 

53rd  Geo.  III.,  c.  155 1813 

May  29th.  The  Nipdlese  attack  the  Police  Station  at  Bhutwal. 
November  1st.  War  declared  against  Nipal  ....     1814 

April  27th.  Nipal  cedes  Kumdon  by  the  convention  of  Almora  .    .     1815 

June  13th.  Bdjl  KAo  cedes  A^^madnagar  and  other  places.  October 
18th.  The  Governor-General  takes  the  field  against  the  Pindaris. 
November  6th.  The  GAekwM  cedes  AhmaddbM.  November  5th. 
Battle  of  Khiykl,  in  which  BAjl  RAo  PeshwA  is  defeated  by  Col. 
Burr,  the  Mardthas  being  12  to  1.  November  26th.  Battle  of 
Sitabaldl,  in  which  Colonel  Hopeton  Scott  defeats  the  Rdj4  of 
Ndgpiir,  the  Mar&thas  being  twelve  times  more  numerous  than 
the  English.  December  28th.  Sir  T.  Hislop  gains  the  battle  of 
Mehidpiir  against  Holkar 1817 

January  6th.  Holkar  makes  peace.  May.  Pin^Arl  war  ended  by 
the  destruction  of  the  principal  hordes  and  their  chiefs.  June 
3rd.  BAjl  RAo,  the  last  of  the  PeshwAs,  surrenders,  and  is  sent 
to  Bandras 1818 

The  Niiwdb  of  Awadh  (Oude)  at  the  suggestion  of  Lord  Hastings, 
Govemor-Genei*al,  assumes  the  title  of  king,  and  renounces  his 
nominal  fealty  to  the  Emperor  of  Dilll 1819 

Malacca  ceded  to  the  British  by  the  Dutch.  Singapiir  purchased. 
War  with  Barmah.  April  12th,  17th.  The  Bengal  army  embark 
for  Rangiin,  which  is  taken  May  11th.  August.  Mergui,  Tavoy, 
and  Tcnasserim  surrendered.  October.  Martaban  and  Yeh  taken. 
November  1st.  Mutiny  at  Barrackpiir  of  the  47th  Bengal  Native 
Infantry,  with  part  of  the  26th  and  62nd  Native  Infantry.  The 
47th  erased  from  the  army  list,  and  many  Sipdhis  of  that  corps 
killed 1824 

February  13th.  A  rebellion  at  Bhartpiir  on  the  death  of  the  Rdja 
Baldev  Sing.  A  strong  faction  support  Durjan  SAl,  his  brother  ; 
the  English  declare  in  favour  of  Baldev  Sing,  infant  son  of  the 
late  Rdjd.     December  9th.  British  troops  march  for  Ava    .        .1825 

January  18th.  English,  under  Lord  Combermere,  take  Bhartpiir, 

[^owiay— 1880.]  D 


34  iXTRODUCTiox.  Sect.  I. 

DATFS. 

with  the  loss  of  578  men  killed  and  wounded.    February  24th. 
Treaty  of  Yandabu,  by  which  the  Barmese  cede  Assam,  Arakan, 
Tavoy,  Mergui,  and  Tenasserim,  and  pay  £1,000,000      .        .    .     182(i 
February.  Europeans  allowed  to  hold  lands  in  India  in  their  own 
names  on  lease  for  60  years.    December.  The  abolition  of  Sati, 
or  "  widow  burning,"  decreed      .......     1829 

June  18th.    By  2  Wm.  IV.,  c.  117,  natives  of  India  allowed  to  sit 
as  jurymen  and  justices  of  the  peace    .        /      .        .        .        .     1832 

August  18th.  Royal  assent  given  to  3  &  4  Wm.  IV.,  c.  85,  by 
which  the  Charter  is  renewed  till  April  30th,  1854,  the  property 
of  the  Company  being  held  in  trust  for  the  Crown  for  the  ser- 
vice of  India.  From  April  22nd,  1834,  the  China  trade  of  the 
Company  to  cease,  and  all  their  commercial  transactions  to 

close.     St.  Helena  to  revert  to  the  Crown 1833 

April  6th.  Mark^ra,  capital  of  Kurg,  taken.     10th.  Baja  deposed, 

and  Kurg  annexed 1834 

October  1st.  The  Simla  Proclamation.     Lord  Auckland  declares 
war  against  Dost  Muhammad      .        .        .        .        .        .        .    1838 

February  20th.  Bengal  army  begins  to  march  towards  Afgh^is- 
tAn  from  Flnizpiir.  March  6th.  Enters  the  Boldn  Pass.  April 
12th.  The  Bombay  army  enters  the  BoUn  ;  and  May  4th,  joins 
the  Bengal  army  at  Kandahir.  July  22nd.  Fall  of  Ghaziil. 
August  7th.  Shdh  Shuj'a  enters  KdbuL  Aden  taken  .  .  .  1839 
November  3rd.  Dost  Muliammad  gives  himself  up  to  Sir  W.  Mac- 

naghten 18:10 

November  2nd.  Sir  A.  Burnes,  Lieut  C.  Bumes,  and  Lieut.  Broad- 
foot,  murdered  at  Kdbul.  The  Afghans  rise  en  masse  against 
the  English  and  Shsih  Shuj'a.  ^  December  23rd.  Sir  W.  Mac- 
naghten  shot  by  Akbar  IChdn.    December  26th.   The  English 

army  at  Kdbul  capitulate 1841 

January  6th.  Betreat  of  the  English  fram  K^bul  commences. 
January  13th.  The  massacre  of  the  British  forces  consummated 
at  Gandamak.  18th.  Akbar  besieges  Jaldldbdd.  March  6th. 
Colonel  Palmer  surrenders  at  Ghazni.  September  6th.  General 
Nott  retakes  Ghazni.  15th.  General  Pollock  enters  Kdbul. 
17th.  Bescue  of  Lady  Sale  and  the  Kdbul  prisoners.    October 

12th.  The  army  begins  to  return  to  India 1842 

February  17th.  Sir  C.  Napier  gains  the  battle  of  Midnl ;  and 
March  24th,  the  battle  of  Dabba  or  Qaidar&bM.  December 
29th.  Sir  H.  Gough  gains  the  victory  of  MahArdjpiir  (15  miles 
N.W.  of  Gwdlidr)  over  the  Gwdlidr  army,  in  the  interest  of  the 
widow  of  Jankojl  Rdo  ^indhia;  and  on  the  same  day.  General 
Grey  wins  the  battle  of  Panidr  (a  place  12  miles  S.W.  of 
Gw41i4r)  over  another  division  of  the  same  army  .  .  .  1843 
December  18th.  Battle  of  Miidkl,  in  which  Sir  H.  Hardinge  and 
Sir  H.  Gough  capture  17  guns  from  the  Sikhs.  21st,  22nd. 
Battle  of  Flnizshahr  ;  the  Sikhs  lose  74  guns,  the  English  killed 

and  wounded  amount  to  2,415 1845 

January  28th.  Battle  of  Aliwal.  Sir  H.  Smith  takes  48  guns  from 
the  Sikhs.  British  killed  and  wounded,  589.  February  18th. 
Battle  of  Sobrdon ;  the  Sikhs  lose  13,000  men  and  67  guns,  the 
English  2,383  killed  and  wounded.  March  9th.  l^aty  of 
LdhtLi;  the  Jalandar  Dodb  annexed,  the  Sikhs  to  pay  £1,500,000, 
and  Dhallp  Singh  placed  on  the  throne  of  Ldhiir  under  the 


1 


« 


Sect.  I.  EVENTS-  CONNECTING    INDIA   WITH   EUROrE,  35 

nXTEfl. 

protection  of  the  British.  March  16th.  Kashmir  given  to  GulAb 
Sing  by  the  treaty  of  Amntsar.  Guldb  Sing  pays  £1,000,000 
of  the  Sikh  fine 184G 

April  20th.  Murder  of  Mr.  Vans  Agnew  and  Lieut.  Anderson  by 
Mulrdj,  the  Governor  of  Multdn.  July.  Lieut.  Edwardes  and 
the  NAwAb  of  Bhdwalpiir's  army,  under  Fat^  Mu][^ammad  Ghorl, 
the  former  Vazlr  of  Mir  Rustam  of  Sindh,  lay  siege  to  Mult4n. 
August  18th.  Gen.  Whlsh  arrives,  and  batteries  open  on  the 
12th  of  September;  on  the  22nd  of  which  month  General  Whish 
is  obliged  to  raise  the  siege  in  consequence  of  the  desertion  of 
Shir  Singh  with  5000  Sikhs.  December  27th.  Siege  of  Multdn 
renewed 1848 

January  2nd.  Multdn  taken  by  storm  ;  13th.  Battle  of  Chilian- 
wdla.  Lord  Gough's  army  repulsed  by  the  Sikhs,  with  the 
loss  of  2,357  killed  and  wounded ;  22nd.  Mulrdj  surrenders. 
February  21st.  Victory  of  Gujardt  over  the  Sikhs,  who  lose  53 
guns  and  all  their  stores.  The  British  killed  and  wounded 
amount  to  807.  March  14th.  The  Sikh  army,  16,000  strong,  lay 
down  their  arms;  29th.  The  Panj4b  annexed.  May  6th.  Sir  C. 
Napier  arrives  in  Calcutta  as  Commander-in-Chief.  September. 
Mulraj  sentenced  to  be  transported  for  life         ....    1849 

February  27th.  Sir  C.  Napier  disbands  the  66th  Bengal  Native 
Infantry  for  mutiny.  May  25th.  Jang  Bah&dur,  the  Nipdlese 
Ambassador,  arrives  in  England.  July  2nd.  Sir  C.  Napier  re- 
signs. October  31st.  The  first  sod  of  the  Bombay  Railway 
turned 1850 

January  28th.  Death  of  the  ex-Peshwa  Bajl  Rdo  at  Bithiir,  near 
Kdnhptir  (Cawnpore).  September  2l8t.  Prince  of  Wales's 
Island,  Singapi!ir,  and  Malacca  formed  into  a  separate  govern- 
ment independent  of  Bengal.  October  29th.  British  squadron 
arrives  from  Rangi!in  to  demand  redress  of  injuries    .        .        .1851 

April  14th.  Rangiin  taken  by  General  Goodwin.  June  4th.  Pegu 
taken  and  evacuated  ;  9th.  Prome  taken  and  evacuated.  Octo- 
ber 9th.  Prome  retaken.  Nov.  21st.  Pegu  retaken.  Dec.  20th. 
Pegu  annexed 1852 

June  20th.  Proclamation  announcing  the  2nd  Barmese  war  at  an 
end.  Aug.  20.  By  16th  &  17th  Vict,  c.  96,  Charter  renewed, 
until  Parliament  shall  otherwise  provide.  After  April,  1854,  the 
Directors  to  be  reduced  from  24  to  18,  the  Crown  to  nominate 
six.  Dec.  11th.  Raghuji,  the  Rdj&  of  Ndgpiir^  having  died 
without  issue,  his  dominions  were  annexed         ....    1853 

February  7th.  The  King  of  Awadh  (Oude)  deposed  and  his  king- 
dom annexed 1856 

January.  Great  excitement  and  discontent  apparent  among  the 
Bengal  Army.  18th.  The  subject  of  the  greased  cartridges  dis- 
cussed amongst  them.  24th.  The  Telegraph  Office  at  Barrack- 
piir  burnt  down  by  the  Sipdhis.  February  16th.  General 
Hearsey  harangues  the  Barrackpi!ir  Brigade,  consisting  of  the 
2nd  Grenadiers,  the  34th  Native  Infantry,  the  43^  Light 
Infantry,  and  the  70th  Native  Infantry,  on  the  groundlessness 
of  their  suspicions.  Colonel  Birch  telegraphs  to  the  Schools  of 
Musketry  at  SiyAlk6t  and  AmbAla,  in  the  PanjAb,  to  prohibit 
the  use  of  the  obnoxious  cartridge.  February  24th.  A  detach- 
ment of  the  34th  Native  Infantry  communicate  their  grievances 

D  2 


36  iN'THODrcTiox.  Sect.  I. 

DATKS. 

to  the  19th  Xative  Infantry  at  Burhanpiir  (Berhampore).    26th.    1857 
The  19th  Native  Infantry  mutiny  ;  but  after  treaty  with  Colonel 
Mitchell  give  up  their  arms.     27th.  Distribution  of  ehapdtig 
from  KAnhptir,  being  the  signal  for  a  general  revolt.    March 
6th.    The  Bentinch,  sent  to  Rangiin  to  bring  Her  Majesty's 
84th  Regiment  to  Calcutta,  returns  with  that  corps  on  the  20th. 
29th.  Mangal  P^ndi,  of  the  34th  Native  Infantry,  wounds  Lieut. 
Baugh,  the  Adjutant  of  the  regiment.    31  st.  The  19th  Native 
Infantry  disbanded  at  Barrackpib*.     April  3rd.  Execution  of 
Mangal  Pandi.     21  st.  Execution  of  the  Jam'adar  of  the  34th, 
who  commanded  the  guard  on  the  day  that  Lieut.  Faugh  was 
wounded.     May  3rd.  Sir  H.  Lawrence  suppresses  a  mutiny  of 
the  7th  -A[wadh  Irregulars  at  Lakhnau  (Lucknow).    6th.  The 
34th  Native  Infantry  disbanded  at  Barrackpiir.  9th.  85  troopers 
of  the  3rd  Bengal  Cavalry  placed  in  irons  for  refusing  the  cart- 
ridges.   10th.  The  3rd  Cavalry  and  the  11th  and  20th  Native 
Infantry  rise  and  set  fire  to  the  cantonments  at  Mlrat,  set  at 
liberty  the  prisoners,  murder  many  Europeans,  and  march  for 
DilU.     11th.  The  mutineers  reach  Dilli,  and  are  joined  by  the 
whole  garrison,  the  38th,  the  54th.  and  74th  Native  Infantry, 
and  a  battery  of  Native  Artillery.    The  restoration  of  the  Em- 
peror of  Dilli  to  the  throne  of  his  ancestors  proclaimed  at  Dilli. 
1 3th.  The  45th  and  57th  Native  Infantry  mutiny  at  Finizpur, 
but  the  mutiny  is  quickly  quelled  ;   other  mutinies  at  various 
places  ;  the  16th,  26th,  and  49th  Native  Infantry  disarmed  at 
Miydn  Mir,  the  cantonment  of  Ldhiir.     16th.  The  Sappers  and 
Miners  mutiny  at  Mlrat,  and  kill  their  commanding  officer, 
Captain  Eraser.    22nd.  The  24th,  27th,  and  51st  disarmed  at 
Peshdwar ;  the  55th  Native  Infantry  dispersed  or  destroyed  at 
Marddn  ;  General  Anson  dies  of  cholera  at  Kamul,  and  is  suc- 
ceeded by  Sir  H.  Barnard.    30th.  The  Mlrat  Brigade  defeat  the 
mutineers  of  Dilli  at  Ghdzlu'd-din  nagar.    5lst.  The  48th,  71st,  . 
and  part  of  the  13th  Native  Infantry,  and  two  troops  of  the  7th 
Cavalry,  mutiny  at  liakhnau.     June  Ist.  The  44th  and  67th 
Native  Infantry  disarmed  at  A'gra.    4th.  Mutiny  of  the  37th 
Native  Infantry,  a  Sikh   Regiment,  and   Irregular  Horse  at 
Bandras,  and  of  the  6th  Native  Infantry  at  Alldhdbad,  with 
great  slaughter  of  Europeans.    5th.  Mutiny  of  the  12th  Native 
Infantry  at  Jhdnsl  and  massacre  of  all  the  i^uropeans.    6th. 
NdnA  Sdhib  attacl^s  Sir  H.  Wheeler's  entrenchments  at  Eanh- 
piir  ;  the  revolt  general  throughout  the  Bengal  army.    8th.  Sir 
H.  Barnard  takes  up  a  position  before  Dilli,  £^r  a  sharp  action 
at  Badli  Sardl,  in  which  Colonel  Chester,  the  Adjutant-General, 
is  killed.    June  27th.  Ndhd  §dhib  massacres  the  Europeans  at 
Kdnhpiir.    July  1st.    General  Havelock's  victorious  advance. 
4th.  Sir  H.  Lawrence  killed  by  a  shell  at  Lakhnau.    6th.  Sir  H. 
Barnard  dies  of  cholera,  and  is  succeeded  by  General  Reid. 
17th.  General  Havelock  retakes  Kdnhpiir.    22nd.  General  Reid 
succeeded  by  General  Wilson.    August  2nd.    Death  of  Gulib 
Sing.    10th.   General  Nicholson  joins  the  camp  at  Dilli  with 
a  strong  column.    September  14th-20th.   Storm  and  capture  of 
Dilli,  with  the  loss  to  the  British  of  1178  killed  and  wounded. 
25th.  General  Havelock  and  Sir  J.  Outram  tight  their  way  to 
the  Residency  at  Lakhnau,  where  the  British  garrison  had  been 


Sect.  I.  EVENTS   COXNECTIXG    INDIA   WITU   EUROPE.  37 

DATE8. 

besieged  since  the  beginning  of  June.  Nov.  3rd.  Sir  C.  Camp-  1857 
bell  reaches  Kinhptir.  11th.  Advances  against  Lakhnau.  13th. 
Defeats  the  enemy  and  reaches  the  Canal.  15th.  Takes  the 
Dilkosh^  Palace  and  the  La  Martini6re.  16th.  Storms  the 
Sikandar  bdgh.  17th.  Opens  communication  with  General 
Oatram.  22nd.  The  garrison  of  Lakhnau  evacuate  their  posi- 
tion, and  the  retreat  on  Ednhpdr  commences.  25th.  Death  of 
General  Havelock.  26th.  General  Windham  defeats  the  van 
of  the  Gwdlidr  Contingent.  27.  He  is  defeated  and  driven  into 
his  entrenchments  by  the  GwAlidr  rebels  and  NAn4  §d^ib,  who 
take  and  plunder  Kanhpiir.  December  6th.  Sir  C.  Campbell 
defeats  the  Gwdli&r  rebels  with  great  slaughter  and  the  loss  of 

nearly  all  their  guns 1857 

January  2nd.  Sir  C.  Campbell  takes  FarrukhabM.  Jang  Bahd- 
dur,  the  Nipdlese  General,  advancing  with  10,000  Gorkhas  to  the 
aid  of  the  British,  takes  Gorakhpib*.    12th,  16th.    General  Ontrani 

defeats  the  rebels  at  'Alambdgh 1858 

Kanara  assigned  to  Madras  in  1797;  restored  to  Bombay  in      .     .    1862 
The  walls  of  the  Fort  of  Bombay  pulled  down        ....     1863 

Elphinstone's  Circle  built  in  Bombay 1863 

Three  British  columns  enter  Afghdnistdn  by  the  Khaibai*,  Khur- 

ram,  and  Bolan  Passes 21st  November,    1878 

Fort  of  'All  Masjid  evacuated ;  Shir  *Ali  leaves  Kdbul, 

22nd  November,    1878 
Major-General  Roberts  defeats  the  Afghans  at  the  Paiwar  Pass, 

21st  December,    1878 
General  Roberts  announces  that  the  territory  he  had  occupied 

would  not  be  restored  ....        26th  December,     1878 

Mangals  defeated    by  General    Roberts   in   the   Khost  Valley, 

7th  January,  1879 
Sir  D.  Stewart's  column  reaches  Kandahdr        .  8th  January,    1870 

Shdhz^ah  Muhammad  Jambar  left  as  Governor  at  Mdtun, 

29th  January,     1879 
He  is  menaced  by  the  Mangals,  relieved  by  Roberts,  and  Khost 

evacuated January,     1879 

The  Governor,  Mir  Af^al  Khdn,  father  of  the  mother  of  'Abdu'lldh 
Jan,  fled  ;  Wall  Muhammad,  son  of  the  Amir  Dost  Muhammad, 
left  Kdbnl  and  joined  the  British  at  Jaldldbdd       .        Januaiy,     1879 
Y'akiib  Khdn  writes  that  he  desires  peace      .  20th  Februaiy,     1879 

Shir  'All  dies  of  gangrene  at  Mazdr  i  Sharif,  12  m.  from  Balkh, 

21st  Febmary,     1879 
Cavagnari  replies  first  that  the  Amir  must  renounce  authority  over  the 
Khaibar  and  Michni  Passes,  and  the  tribes  near  to  Khurram  and 
the  crest  of  the  Shutur  Gardan  Pass ;  Peshin  and  Sibi  must  remain 
under  the  authority  of  the  British  Government      .    7th  March,     1879 
European  Residents  must,  with  suitable  guards,  be  placed  where 
deemed  necessary  by  the  British,  and  KdbuPs  foreign  relations 
must  be  controlled  by  the  British. 
Y'akiib  agrees  to  the  rest,  but  protests  against  cession  of  territory, 

12th  March,    1879 
T'akiib  is  informed  that  the  demands  cannot  be  withdrawn, 

23rd  March,    1879 
Y'akiib  repeats  his  protest  in  an  able  letter,  but  agrees  to  receive 
aBritish  Resident  at  Kdbul         ....      29th  March,    1879 


38  IXTRODUCTIOK.  Sect.  1. 

DATES. 

The  Ebaibar  column  advances  to  Gandamak,  63  m.  from  Kabul, 

March,    1879 

The  Secretary  of  State  telegraphs  that  if  Y'akilb  is  to  have  his 
foreign  policy  controlled,  the  British  Government  will  support 
him  with  money,  troops,  and  arms  against  foreign  aggression, 

13th  April,    1879 

Y'a^b  arrives  at  Gandamak  on  8th  May,  and  the  Treaty  is  signed 

26th  May,    1879 

Telegraph  to  be  constructed  to  KAbul,  Amnesty  for  Afghans  who 
aided  English,  Traders  to  be  protected,  and  an  annual  subsidy 
of  £60,000  to  be  paid  to  the  Amir        ....      May,    1879 

Sir  Louis  Cavagnari,  Mr.  Jenkyns,  C.S.,  Dr.  Kelly,  with  an  escort 
from  the  Guides  Corps  of  25  horse  and  60  infantry  under  Lieut. 
W.  Hamilton,  V.C,  left  the  frontier  at  *Ali  Khel  on  18th  July 
and  arrived  at  KAbul 24th  July,    1879 

The  Residency  stormed,  British  oflBicers  all  killed,  and  nearly  all 

the  escort 3rd  September,    1879 

Brigadier-General  Massey  occupies  the  Shutur  Gardan, 

11th  September,    1879 

Proclamation  of  Gen.  Roberts  as  to  his  advance,    16th  September,    1879 

Y'al^iib  arrives  in  Brigadier-General  Baker's  camp  at  Khushl, 

27th  September,    1879 

Sir  Frederick  Roberts  collects  his  force  at  Khushi,  38  m.  beyond 

'AH  Khel,  which  is  82  m.  from  KAbul      .  "      .      1st  October,    1879 

2nd  Proclamation  of  General  Roberts         .        .  3rd  October,    1879 

He  reaches  Chdrasidb,  12  m.  from  Kabul        .        .     5th  October,    1879 

The  heights  carried  and  20  guns  taken       .        .        .  6th  October,     1879 

The  fortified  cantonment  of  Shlrpiir  with  76  guns  taken, 

9th  October,     1879 

3rd  Proclamation  of  General  Roberts      .        .        .    12th  October,    1879 

Roberts  encamps  on  the  heights  of  Siah  Sahg,  E.  of  KAbul ;  enters 
the  Bdl^  Qis^  and  traverses  the  city,  12th  and  13th 
October 1879 

Shutur  Gardan  attacked,  defended  by  Colonel  Noel  Money,  who 
repulses  the  AfghAus  ;  British  garrison  advances  to  KAbul, 

14th  to  19th  October,    1879 

M.-General  Hills  appointed  Governor  of  Kdbul,  and  Commission 
to  investigate  cause  of  the  late  outbreak  ;  Colonel  Macgregor, 
Dr.  Bellew,  and  Mul|;iammad  Haidt  Khan  members  ;  Military 
Commission,  Brig.-General  Massey,Major  Moriarty,and  Captain 
Guinness  members,  who  execute  5  Afghdns  .    .  20th  October,    1879 

4th  Proclamation  of  General  Roberts,  announciug  the  abdication 
of  Y'akiib  and  assuming  the  Government  of  Kdbul. 

28th  October,    1879 

Supplementary  Proclamation  of  Roberts  ordered  by  Government 

of  India 29th  October,    1879 

Col.  C.  Gough  reaches  Gandamak  on  the  22nd  gf  October,  and 

junction  with  Macpherson    ....     7th  November,    1879 

5th  Proclamation  of  General  Roberts,  granting  amnesty  tc^  rebels 
who  give  up  arms  and  retire  to  their  houses,  except  those  con- 
cerned in  the  murder  of  Sir  L.  Cavagnari    .    12th  November,    1879 

General  Roberts  reports  that  28  persons  had  been  executed  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  finding  of  the  Military  Commission, 

15th  November,    1879 


r 


Sect.  L  CAPTAINS  OF  basbIn.  39 

DATKS. 

Y'akiib  sent  prisoner  to  India        .        .        .        .    Ist  Becember,    1871) 

Koberts  reviews  British  force  at  Kabul,  when  4,700  officers  and 
men  paraded  ;  total  force  at  Shirpiir,  5,000 — 6,000  men, 

8th  December,    1879 

Macpherson  drives  back  the  Kohistdnis  at  Sonth  Kotal, 

10th  Decembei-,    1879 

Massey,  with  4  H.  A.  guns,  2  sqnadrons  of  14th  Bengal  Cavalry, 
9th  Lancers  and  19th,  sharply  engaged  with  enemy  advancing 
from  Arghandi,  who  captured  his  guns,  but  these  are  recovered 
by  Col.  Macgregor  same  day ;  critical  state  of  Shlrpilir  can- 
tonment ;  Afgh£is  occupy  the  Talcht  i  Sh&h  heights, 

11th  December,    1879 

Colonel  Noel  Money  is  sent  to  recover  Takht  i  Sh^h,  but  carries 

only  the  lower  range         ....        12th  December,    1879 

Brig.-General  Baker  attacks  Takht  i  Sh&h  from  E.  and  Money  from 
W. ;  Baker  returns  to  Shirpiir,  but  Macpherson  remains  at 
Dih  Mogang  ;  Afghdns  threaten  Takht  i  Shdh  in  great  force  ; 
Macpherson  leaves  Dih  Mogang  .        .        .    13th  December,    1879 

Afghans  enter  K4bul  and  Dih  Afgh&n,  and  occupy  Eoh  Asmai ; 
Baker,  with  the  72nd,  92nd,  Guides,  and  5th  P.  I.,  attack  the 
Afghans  and  carry  the  heights,  but  the  enemy  retake  a  conical 
hiU  and  capture  2  mountain  guns ;  Robeits  retires  into  Shirpiir, 

14th  December,    1879 

Afgh^s  plunder  the  Hindil  and  Kizalbdsh  houses  in  Kdbul, 

16th— 22nd  December,    1879 

They  attack  Shirpiir  on  the  23rd,  but  are  repulsed ;  loss  of  the 
British  force  from  10th  to  23rd,  110  killed  and  252  wounded ; 
force  at  Khurram  remained  inactive 1879 

Gth  Proclamation  of  Roberts,  offering  amnesty  to  all  but  Muham- 
mad J4n  of  Wai*dak,  Mir  Bachchah  Kohistani,  Samundar 
Khdn  Logarh,  Ghuldm  Gaidar  of  Charkh,  and  the  murderers 
of  Sard^  Muhammad  Ijrasan  Khdn      .        .    23rd  December,    1879 

Captains  of  Baadn* 

1.  Garcia  de  Sa 1535 

2.  Rui  Vaz  Pereira 1536 

Antonio  de  Silveira 1536 

3.  Manuel  de  Macedo 1537 

4.  Rui  Louren^o  de  Tavora 1538 

Garcia  de  SA 1538 

5.  Dom  Francisco  de  Menczes 1541 

().  Dom  Jeronimo  de  Menezes  o  Baccctlmo 1545 

7.  Jorge  Cabral 1548 

8.  Francisco  Barreto 1549 

\).  Francipco  de  SA 1554 

10.  Nuno  Vas  de  Castello  Branco 1611 

11.  Gaspar  Pereira 1620—1623 

12.  Gaspar  de  Mello  de  Miranda 1630 

13.  Rui  Dias  da  Cunha 1635 

14.  Andr6  Salema 1639 

15.  Dom  Alvaro  d' Almeida 1650 

16.  Manuel  Corte  Real  Sempail 1653 

17.  JoSo  de  Siguiera  de  Faria 1661 — 1664 


\ 


40  INTRODUCTION.  Sect  1. 

DATES. 

18.  Dom  Antonio  de  Souto  Maior 1667 

19.  Manuel  Teixeira  Franco 1670 

20.  Jeronimo  Manuel  Albuquerque  1671 

21.  Henrique  da  Silva  de  E9a 1672 

22.  Andr6  Pereira  dos  Reis 1675 

23.  Fernando  Antonio  Souto  Maior 1677 — 1678 

24.  Manuel  Tavares  da  Gama 1693 

26.  Dom  Antonio  Vasco  de  Mello 1712—1717 

26.  Francisco  Pereira  Pinto         .../....  1728 

27.  Jofio  Barbosa  Barros 1738 

Jofto  Xavier  Pereira  Pinto 1738 

28.  Caetano  de  Souza  Pereira 1739 

§  g.    TABLES   OF   MONEY,   ETC. 

The  value  of  a  rupee  has  been  assumed  till  the  last  few  years  as 
equal  to  2«.  It  weighs  180  grs.  troy  =  to  1  told,  and  consists  of  11 
parts  silver  and  one  alloy.  The  gold  rupee  is  of  the  same  weight 
and  standard.  The  copper  coins  are  the  §  ana,  weighing  200  gi*s. ; 
the  i  dnd,  or  paisd,  100  gre.  ;  the  ^  paisil,  50  grs.,  and  tne  pie,  33j^ 
grs. 

TABLES.  £        ^       ^; 

.   1  Pie U  U  0-4 

1  Paisd,  or  J  una 0  0  Of 

1  And 0  0  14 

1  Rupee 0  2  0 

1  Gold  Rupee 1  10  0 

1  Gold  Muhr 1  12  0 

iLakh 100,000  0  0 

1  Karor 10,000,000  0  0 

Bombay  Local  Weiglits. 

4  Dbdn,  or  yav  (grain)  =  1  Rati    .         .  .  2-1207  gr.  Ir. 

8  Rati        .        .        .        .  =  1  Mdshah  .        .  .  8-6069   ,,  ., 

4  Mdshah               .         .     .  --  1  ^dnk  .        .  .  68*055   .,  ., 

72  Tdnk,  or  30  psTs     .         .  =  1  Ser     =     4900  gr.  tr. 

=s  27  Tolds  4  grains  =  11 J  oz.  av. 

40  Sers =  1  Man       .        .  =  28    lb.  .. 

20  Mans       .        .         .        .  =  1  Khaiidi      .     .  —  560    „  ,, 

^J.      ,,      .         a         •         .     .     =S      .1         .,        .         .      ^       OOO     ,,    .« 
*l£  „  •         •         •         .      ^      J.         .,  .     ,     ^       OlO     ,,    .. 

22  „  9  lb -     \         .,   .    .   =   625  ,,  !, 

28  „     .    .       .  =s  1    „     .  .  =   784'  „  „ 

30  ., =  1    ...    .  =   840  „  ., 

Surat  KhaucU 821i  .,    „ 

Khaiidl  for  iron 746  J  „    „ 

Besides  the  above,  various  articles  are  bought  and  sold  by  special 
weight.  The  Pakd  ber  is  \\\  lbs.  av.,  or  72-59  tolds.  At  Panwel  the  Ser 
weighs  72-83  tolds. 

Ahmadnagar  and  SJwldpiir. 

At  Alljimadnagar  the  Palla  is  2  4  Mans.     At  Sholdptir  1  manki  »  4  tha^as 
=  12  Sers. 


Sect.  I.  I'ABLES   OF  WEIGHTS   AKD   MEASURES.  41 

Sdtdrd, 

The  Ser  varies  from  92*75  tolds  at  Kolah  to  115  toUs  at  Mandapiir. 
In  SAtAra  city  is  93-25  tolds. 

Sural. 

Tlie  Surat  Ser  of  35  Surat  tolas  varies  fron  36-4683  to  37  tolds.  The 
Khandf  for  cotton  is  21  Mans,  or  7  cwt.  3 J  lbs. 

Bharfieh. 
At  Bhardch  the  Ser  is  40  tolas. 

Native  Jexcellers  Weujht. 

1  Dhan  .        .        .        .        p  gr.  troy. 

4  Dhan  =     1  Rati ll"  »    f, 

8  Bati  =     1  Mdshali     .        .        .        .     15      .,    ., 

12  Mdshah       =     1  Tola 180      „     .. 

A  Dhdn  is  0*46875  gr.  troy,  0*0303745  French  grammes. 

Goldsm iths''  Wei/jli  t. 

2  Gunj  =     1  Wal      .        .         =         3*8282  gr.  troy. 

4  Wal  =     1  Mashah  .     .     .     ^       15*3128   „      „ 

12  MAshah       =     1  Tola  .        .     ^     183*7536  ,,      „ 

Mashas,  ratls,  dhAns  ai*e  employed  in  the  native  valuation  of  assay  of 
the  precious  metals  ;  thus,  "  10  mashahs  fine  "  signifies  10-12th8  pure,  or 
the  same  as  10  oz.  touch. 


Measures  of  Length. 

3  Jau 

.     = 

1  Ungli     . 

^  ill. 

4  Ungli 

,        zz: 

1  Muthi 

•J 

12Ungli    . 

= 

1  Bilisht    . 

.         ./       «« 

2  Bilisht  . 

,        mz 

1  HAth  or  Cubit    . 

.       18       ., 

2  Hdth 

,        ^^ 

1  Gaz  or  yaixl    . 

3  ft. 

4.H4th     . 

,            ZIS 

1  Danda  or  Bam   . 

2  yds. 

2000  Danda      . 

= 

1  Kos 

4000    ., 

4Kos 

=: 

1  Yojan        .        .     . 

9-li  ill. 

• 

Bombay  Cloth  Measure, 

2  Ungli       . 

1  J 

1  Tassii      . 

IJ  in. 

24Tassu  .        .     . 

^= 

1  Gaz    . 

07 

In  Pun^the  Gaz  is  34|-tli  in.,  but  English  cloth  is  sold  by  the  yard. 


MEASUEES    OF    SURFACE.       , 

Bombay,  Fund,  etc. 

34^  Square,  Hdths.        .        .  =  1  KAthi. 

20    Kdthi =  1  Band,  or  Vaso. 

20    Band =  1  Bigha. 

6    Bigh4 =  1  Rukah. 

120    Blghd =  1  Chahur. 

In  some  places  the  survey  chain  of  33  feet  is  used,  and 

16    Ands,  or  links       .         .        .    .  «  1  Gatthd,  or  chain. 

40    Gatthd =  1  Acre 


42  INTRODUCTION.  Sect.  I. 

Gujarat, 

20  Khunt        .        .        .    .  =  1  Padtal. 

20  Padtal    .        .        .        .  =  1  Padat. 

20Padat         .        .        .     .  «  1  Vishwashi. 

20Vishwashi       .        .        .  =  1  VasA. 

20  VasA =  1  Vingho,  BighA  or  Don. 


36  Tanks 

2  Tipari    . 

4  Sers  . 
11  Payale    . 

8  Pharas,  or  Faras 
25Phara8    . 


Bombay  Dry  Measure. 

=  1  Tipari    ....  llj  oz.  av. 

=     1  Ser 1  lb.  6  oz.  av. 

=  1  Payale,  or  Adhalo  .        .  1   „    9  „  „ 

=  1  Phara,  or  Fara .         .     .  89   „  11  „  „ 

=  1  Khandi          .                  .712  „  11  „    „ 

=  1  Muda         .         .        .     .  59  qrs.  bushel. 


A  Bombay  gallon'of  water  =  5  Sers  dry  measure,  which  gives  8*125  lbs. 
weight.  The  Ser  of  oil  only  contains  30  tolas  weight.  As  a  measure  of 
Time  it  is  only  necessary  to  mention  Ghari,  which  =  24  min. 

§  h.    CASTES   AND   TRIBES    IN   THE   BOMBAY   PRESIDENCY. 

The  most  important  tribe  in  the  Bombay  Presidency  is  the  Ma- 
ratha.  According  to  the  Tatwa  (part  of  the  Jyotish  Shdstra)  Maha- 
rashtra, the  land  of  the  Mardthas  extends  N.  to  the  Chdndod  Hills  in 
about  N.  lat.  20°  30'  and  W.  along  those  mountains  to  the  Wain 
Gangd,  E.  of  Nagpur  and  S.  to  about  Qoa.  The  Marathas  are  to  be 
found,  to  the  number  of  several  millions,  scattered  over  this  tract. 
But  the  part  which  is  more  especially  Maratha  is  the  Kohkan-Ghat- 
Mathd,  "the  top  of  the  Konkan  Ghats,"  a  tract  25  m.  broad, 
divided  into  the  Mdwals,  the  Khords,  and  the  Murrhens.  The  people 
of  these  places  were  the  soldiers  of  Shivaji,  who  conquered  for  nim  a 
large  portion  of  the  Dakhan.  It  is  said  by  Grant  Duff  that  they 
are  remarkable  for  their  simple,  inoffensive  demeanour,  but  are 
hardy  and  patient,  and  have  been,  and  may  still  be,  led  to  daring 
enterprises.  In  many  respects  thev  resemble  the  Rdjpiits,  but  are 
far  more  temperate  and  frugal.  The  Peshwds  were  Maratha  Brdh- 
mans  of  the  fconkan,  and  Konkanists,  hence  pretend  to  superiority 
in  caste.  The  Brdhmans  of  this  tract  are  possessed  of  great  intelli- 
gence, and  a  capacity  for  intrigue  not  to  be  surpassed. 

The  Pdrsis. — The  Pdrsls,  so  called  from  their  original  country, 
Pdrs,  Persia.  They  migrated  to  India  in  the  7th  century,  and  are  of 
larger  stature  than  the  other  peoples  of  Bombay.  They  are  fire- 
worshippers,  but  endeavour  to  maintain  the  purity  of  all  the 
elements,  whence  their  dead  bodies  are  placed  in  towers  to  be  de- 
voured by  vultures  and  then  dissolve  into  dust.  In  this  way  they 
fancy  that  none  of  the  elements  are  polluted.  They  are  easily  dis- 
tinguishable by  their  hats,  which  have  a  square  front  but  sink  down 
towards  the  back  of  the  head,  so  as  to  form  a  hollow  in  which  they 
often  put  flowers.  Their  numbers  do  not  reach  200,000,  of  which 
the  greater  part  reside  in  or  near  Bombay.     They  eat  meat  and 


Sect.  I.  CASTES  AND   TRIBES  — THE   PARSfs.  43 

drink  wine,  and  many  of  them  wear  European  clothes.  Their 
women  are  remarkable  for  their  morality,  and,  taken  as  a  body,  they 
are  the  most  molized  people  in  India. 

After  their  arrival  in  India,  the  Parsis  were  governed  by  Pan- 
chdyats  »  lit.  councils  of  5,  consisting  in  Bombay  of  12  members, 
and  in  the  districts  of  such  a  nuniber  as  circumstances  allowed. 
Up  to  about  60  years  ago,  Surat  was  looked  upon  as  the  head- 
quarters of  the  Pdrsls.    There,  and  generally  in  the  districts,  the 
Panchdyats  acted  more  or  less  independently  of  Bombay.   About  20 
years  ago  the  Bombajr  Panchayat  began  to  lose  authority,  and  a 
movement  began  outside  it   for  drawing  up  regulations  as  to  in- 
heritances, marriage,  and  divorce,  and  the  Panchayat  now  acts  only 
as  trustee  for  Pdrsi  charities,  and  as  ctistos  of  places  of  worship  and 
of  the  Towers  of  Silence.     No  compulsory  contributions  are  levied, 
except  a  small  fee  for  registration  of  marriages.    There  is  a  fund 
for  support  of  the  poor  in  charge  of  the  Panchdyat,  and  another 
managed  by  Sir  Jamshidjfs  Pdrsi  Benevolent  Institution.      Dis- 
bursements are  made  from  interest,  and  capital  is  untouched.     Part 
of  the  fund  is  devoted  to  educational  purposes,  both  in  Bombay  and 
in  the  districts.     There  is  a  Dharam  Said  for  the  Pdrsi  poor  at  the 
foot  of  the  Towers  of  Silence  in  Chaupatti.     No  Pdrsi  is  ever  seen 
begging.     There  is  also  a  fund  for  parymg  the  Jaziyah,  or  capitation 
tax  levied  on  the  Parsis  in  Persia.     Manikji  Limji  Atdriya  is  still 
agent  for  the  Pdrsis  in  Persia,  and  resides  at  Tehran.     In  spite  of 
the  petition  to  the  Shdh  respecting  the  wrongs  inflicted  on  his  Pdrsi 
subjects,  no  redress  of  grievances  has  been  vouchsafed.    There  are  no 
statistics  as  to  the  increase  of  numbers  of  the  Pdrsis,  and  the  census 
before  last  is  not  reliable.     The  two  most  prominent  conversions  to 
Christianity  are  those  of  the  Rev.  Dhanjlbhdi  Naurozji,  who  resides 
in  Bombay,  and  the  Rev.  Hormazdjl,  who  lives  at  Pund  ;  there  are 
other  conversions,  but  none  to  Isldm.     The  Pdrsis  would  willingly 
enter  the  army  as  officers,  and  Mdnikjl  Khurshidjl  applied  for  a 
commission  for  his  son,  but  it  was  refused.     The  pay  of  privates  is 
too  small  to  induce  Parsis  to  enlist,  but  they  have  no  other  objection. 
There  is  a  Pdrsi  in  the  military  service  of  a  Native  State.     The  most 
learned  Pdrsis  at  present  are  Klhurshldjl  Rustamjl  Kdma,  who  knows 
Zand  and  Pahlavt    Two  Dastiirs  (the  highest  rank  of  Pdrsi  priests) 
are  very  learned.     One  is  Pesliotanji  Bahramjl  Sanjdna,  who  is  head 
of  the  Zand  College,  which  is  located  in  one  of  the  3   large  fire- 
temples  in  Girgdoh  Road.     Another  temple  is  in  Chandanwadi ;  and 
the  3rd  in  Aggdri,  into  which  temples  none  but  Pdrsis  may  enter. 
If  illegitimate  children  are  brought  up  as  Pdrsis,  they  are  received  into 
the  community.     A  Pdrsi  gentleman  married  an  English  lady,  and 
after  her  death  married  her  sister  in  Switzerland.     There  is  no  in- 
stance of  an  Englishman  marrying  a  Pdrsi  woman.     Bigamy  is  not 
allowed.     Widows  may  marry  again,  and  do  so.     There  are  no 
Pdrsi  women  of  disreputable  character. 

Bhils,  orBdmosis. — "  These,  although  their  office  is  the  same  when 
employed  on  the  village  establishment,  are  different  castes  of  people, 
but  they  resemble  each  other  in  many  of  their  habits  ;  both  are  pro- 
fessed thieves.      The  Rdmosls  belong  more  particularly  to  Mahd- 


44  INTRODUCTION.  Sect.  I. 

rdslitra.  The  BkQs  in  the  Mardtha  country  are  only  found  in 
Khandesh,  and  along  the  Sahyddri  range  N.  of  Junnar.  In  villages 
they  generally  hold  the  office  of  watchman  ;  and  when  a  country  is 
settled,  they  become  useful  auxiliaries  in  the  police  ;  but,  under  a 
weak  government,  or  when  anarchy  prevails,  they  quit  their  habi- 
tations, and  become  thieves  and  robbers.  The  Edmosis  use  the  sword 
and  matchlock,  the  Bhils  more  commonly  the  bow  and  arrow  ;  the 
latter  are  less  domesticated  than  the  former.  Bhils  abound  to  the 
N.  of  the  Nirbada  and  over  the  greater  part  of  Gujardt.  When 
employed  on  the  -vdllage  establishment  they  are  in  that  province 
called  Burtinneas"    (Grant  Duff,  vol.  i.,  j).  34.) 

Bohrahs, — "  These  are  a  well-to-do  class  of  Muslims  who  venerate 
the  representative  of  Hasan  Sabdh,  who  died  1124  a.d.,  the  prince 
of  the  assassins.  His  representative,  Saiyad  Muhammad  Husain, 
oJlias  A'gha  Khan  Muhulati,  after  a  struggle  with  the  Shah,  fled  from 
Kermdn  to  India,  and  is  now  residing  in  Bombay.  There  are  in  the 
Surat  Collectorate  4,57*7  trading  Bohrahs,  who  have  their  head  quar- 
ters in  the  city  of  Surat,  where  their  chief  priest,  the  MuUtl  Sahib, 
resides.  They  go  great  distances  to  trade  and  visit,  and  some- 
times settle  in  China  and  Siam."  {Bombay  Gazetteer,  vol.  ii. 
p.  38.) 

After  the  death  of  'Alf  s  two  sons,  murdered  a.d.  660,  the  family 
of  'All  fell  into  obscurity.  The  followers  of  'Ali  assumed  the  title 
of  Imamis,  regarding  the  Imdm  as  semi-divine.  After  the  death  of 
Imam  J'atir  Sddik,  a.d.  769,  the  Ism'ailis  arose,  who  traced  the 
Imdmi  succession  through  Ism'ail  J'afir^s  son,  who  died  in  his 
father's  lifetime.  The  other  'Aliites  traced  it  through  another  son 
of  J'afir  to  Muhammad  Mahdi,  w^ho  disappeared,  but  is  supposed  to 
be  still  living.  The  Shi'a*  doctrines  were  adopted  by  the  Persians 
on  the  foundation  of  the  Safavi  dynasty  in  a.h.  905  z=  a.d.  1499,  and 
from  that  period  till  the  present  time  have  prevailed  as  the  national 
religion  and  law  of  Persia,  notwithstanding  the  efforts  made  by 
Ashraf  and  Nadir  to  substitute  the  Sunny  creed.  According  to  Sir 
H.  Rawlinson,  A'ghd  Khdn,  whose  real  name  is  Muhammad  Husain, 
is  a  lineal  descendant  of  the  6th  Imdm,  and  he  is  the  Pir,  or  Saint 
of  the  Khojahs.  Irf  a  celebrated  case,  tried  at  Bombay  in  June, 
1866,  a  body  of  the  Khojahs,  headed  by  Ahmad  Habfb  Bhai,  sup- 
ported by  700  to  800  adult  followers,  petitioned  that  A'gha  Kjigin 
should  be  removed  from  being  the  head  of  the  sect.  They  con- 
tended that  the  Khojahs  had  been  Sunnis  from  the  time  when 
they  had  been  converted  from  Hinduism.  This  diWsion  of  the  sect 
began  in  1830,  and  the  seceders  moved  to  Chinch  Bandar  in  1861, 
and  built  a  Mosque  there.  The  Khojahs  do  not  perform  the  Hajj 
or  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  but  they  go  to  Kerbela.  The  Shi'as  pray 
with  their  hands  open,  and  pray  3  times  a  day,  not  5  ;  the  Sunnis 
pray  with  their  arms  folded,  the  Shi'as  with  their  arms  straight  down 
at  their  sides.  A'ghd  Khdn  rebelled  in  Persia  in  1838,  and  in  1840 
fled  to  Sindh.    The  Khojahs  gave  him  so  much  money  that  he  was 

*■  See  Morley's  "  Administration  of  Justice  in  India,"  page  250. 


Sect.  I.  CASTES   AND   TRIBES— HALIS — WARALIS.  45 

able  to  levy  and  maintain  a  body  of  horse,  which  aided  us  in  1841- 
1842,  for  which  he  got  a  pension  in  1843.  He  came  to  Bombay 
in  1845.  There  are  2,810  families  of  Khojahs  in  Sindh;  in 
Kathiawad,  5,000 ;  in  Bombay,  1,400 ;  in  Zanzibai^,  450 ;  in 
Maskat,  4do. 

Halls,  lit.  "  ploughmen,"  are  hereditary  servants,  or  serfs,  and  are 
of  various  tribes — Chodhras,  Ndikds,  Dhondias,  and  Kolls.  They 
live  in  groups,  forming  distinct  hamlets.  Their  dwelling  is  a  hut 
with  a  single  room,  made  of  cane,  plastered  with  mud,  and  thatched. 
A  piece  of  matting  to  sleep  on,  and  a  few  earthenware  cooking 
vessels,  are  all  their  fumitui'e.  The  men  wear  a  scanty  and  coarse 
cloth  called  a  dhot,  with  one  for  the  head  called  fdlin.  The  women, 
a  sheet  called  sdlio.  Their  master  gives  them  these  once  a  year,  or 
more  generally  they  buy  them  out  of  their  extra  earnings.  They 
are  fed  in  the  public  room  of  their  master's  house  on  millet,  bread, 
pulse,  and  a  jug  of  whey.  They  work  from  6  a.m.  to  sunset.  When 
there  is  no  work  in  the  fields,  the  Hdli  cuts  faggots  and  takes 
them  to  market.  On  the  price  of  this  he  subsists,  as  he  gets  no 
grain  from  his  master  at  such  timp.  When  the  serfs  of  different 
masters  marry,  the  man  continues  to  work  for  his  master  and  the 
woman  for  hers.  The  children  are  divided,  or  if  there  is  only  one 
son  his  seiTices  are  shared.  A  Avidow  may  marry  again,  but  her 
son  by  the  first  marriage  is  bound  to  the  service  of  her  first  hus- 
band's master.  Treated  with  kindness,  the  Halis  are  contented,  and 
from  their  extreme  ignorance  are  happier  and  perliaps  better  fed 
than  if  they  depended  on  themselves. 

Depressed  Castes. — Hindus  consider  the  touch  of  these  castes  pol- 
lution. They  are  Dhers,  Bhangias,  and  Mhdrs.  They  are  generally 
employed  as  sweepers.  A  few,  however,  have  been  educated,  and 
there  is  one  in  a  government  office  at  Bombay. 

Kolis. — These  in  the  Ahmaddbdd  Collectorate  alone  number 
208,053,  and  are  divided  into  Talahda,  numbering  146,517,  and 
Chuvalia,  57,750.  Under  the  Marathas  they  were  in  a  chronic  state 
of  revolt,  were  treated  as  outcasts,  and  called  Mehvds,  or  "  faithless." 
Some  of  them  are  now  village  watchmen,  trackers,  and  labourers, 
but  most  are  well-to-do  husbandmen.  They  are  undoubtedly 
aborigines,  and  belong  to  the  dark  races. 

The  Wdralis. — The  following  is  the  account  of  this  tribe  given  by 
Dr.  Wilson  in  the  7th  vol.  of  the  "  Trans,  of  the  Roy.  As.  Soc.j" 
p.  14  :— 


"  When  Dr.  Smyttan  and  I  went  out  to  view  the  village  of  Umargaupa, 
we  found  three  or  four  WAralls,  who  bad  come  down  from  the  jungles 
with  the  view  of  disposing  of  bamboos  which  they  had  cut.  Their  hair 
was  black  and  lank ;  their  bodies  were  oiled ;  and  altogether  they  had  a 
very  wild  appearance.  They  spoke  MarAthi,  and  seemed  to  be  highly 
amused  at  having  a  European  to  speak  with  them.  On  questioning  them, 
we  found  that  they  have  no  connection  either  with  the  Brdhman  or  the 
Hindii  religion,  that  they  have  priests  of  their  own,  and  very  few  re- 
ligious rites  of  any  kind,  and  that  these  rites  principally  refer  to  mar- 


4G  INTRODUCTION,  Scct.  I. 

riages  and  deaths.  They  move  about  in  the  jungles  according  to  their 
wants,  many  of  their  villages  being  merely  temporary.  Their  condition 
is  well  worthy  of  being  inquired  into.  In  an  old  book  of  tr-'ivels,  I  find 
their  tribe  represented  as  much  addicted  to  thieving.  In  the  Pur^as, 
they  are  spoken  of  as  the  Kdlaprajd,  in  contradistinction  to  the  common 
Hindiis,  who  are  denominated  the  SubhrAprajd.  There  are  other  tribes 
in  the  jungles  whose  state  is  similar  to  theirs,  and  should  be  investigated. 
The  wildness  of  their  country  and  the  difficulties  and  dangers  of  moving 
in  it  are  obstacles  in  the  way  of  research. 

"  They  were  the  most  ignorant  persons  I  have  ever  met  with.  They 
answered  all  my  questions  with  the  exclamation,  *  How  is  it  possible  for 
Its  to  know  such  matters  ?  *  and  laughed  most  immoderately  at  my  inquiries, 
both  as  to  their  novelty  and  the  idea  of  my  expecting  them  to  know  any- 
thing about  them.  Two  days  afterwards,  at  a  neighbouring  village,  I  sat 
down  beside  a  small  company  with  the  view  of  examining  them  at  length 
respecting  their  tenets  and  habits.  Amongst  other  questions,  I  asked 
them  if  Siey  expected  to  go  to  God  after  death.  *  How  can  we  get  to 
God  after  death  ? '  said  they ;  *  men  even  banish  us  from  their  abodes ;  how 
will  God  allow  us  to  approach  him  ?  * 

**  After  leaving  Kakholl,  two  marches  from  Ddman,  we  visited  a  con- 
siderable number  of  other  htctteries  belonging  to  the  Wdralis,  and 
situated  in  the  Company's  territories.  The  principal  of  them  were  those 
of  Kuddd,  Parjl,  Dhabdrl,  Phalsunl,  Kinhauli,  Thaldsarl,  and  Pirn  purl. 
The  boundaries  of  the  country  of  the  Waralls  it  is  difficult  to 
specify.  Their  principal  locations  are  Nehar,  Sanjdn,  Udwach,  BAharach, 
Asharl,  Thaldsarl,  and  Gambirgad.  They  are  also  found  near  the 
coast,  but  less  frequently  the  farther  south.  Their  total  number  may  bo 
about  10,000. 

"  The  Wdralis  are  more  slender  in  their  form  than  the  common  agri- 
culturists in  the  Mardtha  country,  and  they  are  somewhat  darker  in  their 
complexion.  They  seldom  cut  either  the  hair  on  their  heads  or  beards  ; 
and  on  ordinary  occasions  they  are  but  slightly  clothed.  Their  huts  are 
sometimes  quadrangular  and  sometimes  circular,  and  on  the  whole  are 
very  convenient,  being  formed  by  bamboos  and  bramble  twisted  into  a 
framework  of  wood,  and  so  thickly  covered  with  dried  grass  as  to  be  im- 
pervious both  to  heat  and  rain.  They  do  not  rear  many  cattle  ;  but  they 
have  a  supei-fluity  of  domestic  fowls.  The  wood  which  they  fell  near  the 
banks  of  some  of  the  principal  streams  brings  them  some  profit;  and 
altogether  they  appear  to  be  in  comfortable  circumstances.  It  is  pro- 
bable, from  tneir  consciousness  of  this  fact  and  their  desire  to  preserve 
themselves  from  the  intrusion  of  other  tribes,  that  many  of  them  are  not 
unwilling  to  be  esteemed  sorcerers.  They  are  immoderately  addicted  to 
the  use  of  tobacco,  which  they  purchase  on  the  coast ;  and  almost  every 
man  amongst  them  carries  the  materials  for  striking  a  light  for  smoking, 
in  a  hollow  cocoa  nut.  They  are,  unfortunately,  fond  of  ardent  spirits, 
and  the  Pdrsis  have  many  shops  in  the  wilderness,  placed  under  Hlndi!L 
servants,  for  their  accommodation.  The  scarcity  of  money  is  no  obstacle 
to  their  indulgence,  as  liquor  can  be  procured  for  grain,  gi-ass,  wood,  or 
any  other  article  which  may  be  at  their  disposal. 

"  There  are  many  ImU,  or  family  divisions  amongst  the  Wdralis,  such 
as  the  RAvatiA,  Bh&ngard  (that  of  the  chief),  Bhdvar,  Sankar,  Hleyand, 
Meria,  Wdngad,  Thakarid,  Jhadavd,  Karbat,  Bhanddr,  Konddrid,  &c. 
The  clans  indeed  are  so  numerous,  that  we  are  forced  to  come  to  the 
conclusion  that  they  must  at  one  time  have  been  a  very  powerful  people. 
The  population  appears  to  be  at  present  neai'ly  stationary.    On  account 


Sect.  I.  CASirs  and  tribkh-  the  katodis.  47 

of  the  tmlieolthincss  of  the  jungles,  many  of  the  children  are  cut  ofP  at  a 
very  early  age.    No  person  marries  in  his  own  clan. 

'*  The  Wdralt  villages  have  not  the  common  officers  found  in  similar 
places  among  the  Max&thas.  They  have,  generally  speaking,  a  head  maii, 
who  is  in  some  degree  responsible  to  the  government  for  their  behaviour. 
The  W^ralis  are  not  particularly  noted  for  crime.  Unless  when  calamities 
overtake  them,  they  are  not  frequent  in  their  visits  to  the  images  of 
W&ghid,  their  deity,  which,  at  the  best,  are  only  rude  forms  of  a  tiger. 
They  have  an  annual  service  for  the  dead,  when  their  hhagaU,  or 
elders,  repeat  incantations,  kindle  lights,  and  strew  flowers  at  the 
place  where  the  ashes  of  the  dead  have  been  scattered.  They  par- 
tially observe  the  two  festivals  of  the  Shimgd  and  Dird/i,  which  arc 
connected  \7ith  the  vernal  and  autumnal  equinoxes,  and  which,  though 
celebrated  by  the  Hindiis  in  general,  are  often  supposed  to  be  ante- 
Brdhmanical." 

The  KdtodU, — The  Kdtodis  receive  their  name  from  the  occupation  on 
which  they  are  principally  dependent  for  support,  the  manufacture  of  the 
Kat,  or  terra  japonica,  from  the  Khair  tree,  or  Acacia  catechu.    They 
principally  inhabit  the  part  of  the  northern  Eonkan,  which  lies  along 
the  base  of  the  Sahyddri  range,  and  is  intermediate  between  the  N&e^ik 
and  Fund  roads.    A  few  of  them  may  be  occasionally  found  on  the  £. 
face  of  the  Ghdts,  in  the  same   latitude  as  the  district  above   men- 
tioned.   Major  Mackintosh,  who  has  written  an  interesting  notice  of  the 
manner  in  which  they  prepare  the  catechu,  and  of  some  of  their  peculiar 
habits,  speaks  of  them  as  also  inhabiting  the  jungles  of  the  Ath^visi  be- 
tween the  Ddman  Gangd  and  Tapti  Bivers.     *'  They  may  be  considered 
as  nomades  to  a  certain  extent,^'  he  says,  "for,  notwithstanding  they 
always  reside  in  the  same  countiy,  they  frequently  change  their  phice  of 
residence.   If  we  are  to  believe  their  own  account,  they  have  been  settled 
in  the  Athdvlsl  from  time  immemorial.    They  have  the  tradition  among 
them  that  they  are  descendants  of  the  demon  lUvana,  the  tyrant  monarch 
of  Lank&,  and  the  same  whom  the  God  Rdma  vanquished,  and  whose 
exploits  are  related  by  the  distinguished  poet  Valmlki."    They  have  not 
settlements  of  their  own,  like  the  W^a)is,  but  they  live  as  outcasts  near 
villages  inhabited  by  other  classes  of  the  community.    They  are  held  in 
great  abhorrence  by  the  common  agriculturists,  and  particularly  by  the 
Br^hmans,  and  their  residences  are  wretched  beyond  belief.    Among 
other  things,  they  eat  rats,  lizards,  squirrels,  blood-suckers,  the  black- 
faced  monkey,  swine,  and  serpents.   They  will  not  touch  the  brown-faced 
monkey,  which  they  say  has  a  human  soul.  They  will  pawn  the  last  rags 
on  their  bodies  for  a  dram.    The  natives  have  a  great  dread  of  their 
magical  powers.    Their  names,  like  those  of  the  Wdralls,  are  entirely 
dikerent  from  those  of  the  Hindiis.   Of  a  future  state  they  know  nothing. 
When  a  death  takes  place,  they  give  food  to  crows,  and  call  out  M/va  I 
Mva  I  crow  1  crow  1    They  say  it  is  an  old  custom,  but  do  not  know  the 
reason.    The  cost  of  a  wife  is  fixed  at  2  rs.    Marriage  is  performed  by 
placing  a  chaplet  of  leaves  on  the  bride's  head,  and  then  on  the  bride- 
groom's ;  after  which  both  are  smeared  with  turmeric.    When  they  go  to 
tiie  jungle  to  prepare  Kdt,  they  hold  their  encampments  sacred,  and  will 
suffer  no  one  of  another  caste  to  approach  without  giving  warning.    The 
K6t  is  prepared  from  the  inner  portion  of  the  khair  tree,  by  boilLig  and 
then  inspissating  the  juice.    Before  felling  a  tree,  they  select  one,  which 
they  worship  by  offering  to  it  a  cocoa-nut,  burning  frankincense,  and 
applying  a  red  pigment.    Then  they  pray  to  it  to  bless  their  under- 
taking. 


48 


INTRODUCTIOX, 


Rect.  I, 


SKELETON  ROUTES. 


1.  Tour  to  Hie  Pnncipal  Caves  in  (lie  Homhay  Presidency.  — 
Bombay  to  Eleplianta,  Thdna,  Bhdiidtip,  Kdnhari,  Kalydn,  the 
Temple  of  Amamath,  Nashik,  Ahmadnagar,  Jimnar,  Fund,  Sholapiir, 
Tuljapiir,  Bljapiir,  Kaladgl,  Bddamf,  Dharwad,  Bel^h,  Gadak 
and  Lakkuiidi,  Kolliupur,  Panhala,  Sdtara,  MahdbaleSiwar,  Fund, 
Bombay. 


From 


Bombay 
Elephauta 
Thdua    . 
Bhanddp  . 

Ednhaxi 

Kalydn    (to 

back)     . 
Kalydii  . 
Karli 
Ndshik  . 


and 


Railway  or 

To 

OTHER  Carriage, 

Miles. 

Time.   Expense. 

Boat. 

d.  h.  m. 

rs.  an. 

Eleplianta     . 

Boat 

5 

0    10 

3    5 

Thana                .    . 

Boat  .        .        .    . 

12 

0    4    0 

10    0 

Bhandup 

G  I.  F.  Ry.   . 

4 

0    0  12 

0    0 

Kdnhari    .        .    . 

Bullock  cart,  pony, 

or  palanquin  .    . 

*» 
i 

0    2    0 

5    0 

Kalydn  . 

Cart  or   palki  for 
5  m.,  then  12  ni. 

in  G.  I.  P.  Ry.   . 

17 

0    3    0 

6    8 

Amarndth         .    . 

Cart  .       . 

9 

0    2    0 

8    0 

Karlf     . 

G.  I.  F.  Ry.  . 

51 

0    3  31 

4  13 

Nashik      .        .    . 

G.  I.  F.  Ry.      .    . 

:52 

0    4  14 

7  13 

Ahnin<lnn:^'nr . 

61  m.  to  Nandgdoii ) 
by  G.  I.  F.  Ry.,  [ 
02  m.  by  tonga  .  ) 

G.  I. 

F.  Rv. 

12'I 

0  12  28 

6  11 

Tonga  23    0 

=  28  11 

.Tunnar      .        .    . 

Tonga 

•JO 

0    8    0 

22    0 

Puna 

Tonga                .     . 

(H) 

0    8    0 

22    0 

Sholapur  ,        .    . 

G.  I.  P.  Ry.   . 

144 

0    K  2.'> 

26     0 

Bijapur . 

Tonga       .        .    . 

00 

0    i>    0 

22    0 

Tuljapiii-  .        .    . 

Tonga    . 

:>0 

0    8    0 

20    0 

Kaladgi . 

Tonga    . 

•>4f 

0    9    0 

20    0 

lid^ldim     .        .    . 

Tonga       .        .     . 

20 

0    5    0 

10    0 

Gadak    . 

Tonga    . 

:!($ 

0    7     0 

18     5 

liakkun^i  .       •    • 

Tonga 

12 

0    3    0 

9    0 

Dhdrwd4 

Tonga    . 

.47 

0    7    0 

30    0 

Belgdon    .        .    . 

Tonga        .        .     . 

48 

0    7    0 

30    0 

Yelamma 

Tonga    . 

70 

0  10    0 

.35    0 

Gotiir  and   Mahdr 

baleshwar      .    . 

Tonga       .       .    . 

213^ 

6    0    0 

68    0 

Gokak(toand  back) 

Tonga    . 

36 

0    7  30 

27    0 

Fund.        .        .    . 

Tonga               .    . 

77 

0    9  80 

30    0 

Bombay 

G.  I.  P.  Ry.  . 

119 

0    7    0 

11    3 

Ahmadnagar     .    . 
Junnar  . 
Puna. 
SholdpAr 
Sholdpilr  (to   and 

bock)  .    . 

B^dpiir . 

Kaladgi  .    . 

Bdddmi  . 
Gadak     (to      and 

back)     .        .     . 
Gadak    . 

I)hdrwd4  .        .    . 
Belgdoil   (to    and 

back) . 
Belgdoil    . 

Gotiir    . 

Mahdbaleshwar     . 
Puna.       .       .    . 


The  charge  for  Tongas  varies  very  considerably  in  different  locali- 
ties. As  soon  as  the  traveller  gets  off  the  Mail  Road,  he  may  have 
to  pay  a  rupee  a  mile,  or  even  more.  In  fact  he  is  entirely  at  the 
mercy  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Tongas,  and  it  is  very  much  to  their 
credit  that  they  seldom  or  never  attempt  to  charge  more  than  what 
is  reasonable.  The  charges  of  course  do  not  include  food  and  potables, 
which  the  traveller  must  provide  for  himself  at  large  stations,  and 
carry  with  him  in  a  tiffin  basket.  Wherever  there  is  a  mess-man  he 
Avill  be  able  to  get  curry  and  rice  always,  and  sometimes  fowl  and 
soda-water. 

2.  To  visit  tlie  Temples  and  Mosques  in  Kdthiawdd. — Bombay  to 
Surat,  Bhaunagar,  Wallah,  Songadh,  Palitand,  Shatrunjay,  Rdjkot, 
Nowaiiagar,    Dwdrka,     Bet,   Virawal,    Somndth,    Jiindgddh    and 


Sect  I. 


ROUTES  TO  CAVES — LAKGUAGES. 


49 


Gim^,  Jaitpur,  Gondal,  Rdjkot,  WadhwAn,  Ahmaddbad,  Bhardch, 
Bombay. 


From  To 


Railway  or 
OTHER  Carriage,   Miles.  Time.   Expekhe. 
Boat. 


Bombay . 

Sonit 

Bhaunagar 

Wallah 

Songa^h 

Palitdni    . 

Songadli 
R^Jkoi 
Nowaiiagar 
Dwirka 
Dw&rka . 
Virdwal     . 

Viriwal . 
Jundga^h . 
Jim&ga4h 
RiUkot  . 
Wadhwan . 
Al^maddbacl 
Bhanich    . 


8urat     . 

Bhaunagar        .    . 
Wallah  . 

Songadh  .        .     . 
Palitdiia 
8hatraiijay       und 

back  to  So]ig>i4h 
Rcgkot  . 

Nowanagar       .    . 
Dwarka . 

B^t  And  back    .    . 
Virawal . 
Somndthand  back, 

and  stay  1  day  . 
Jimdga4h 
Girnar  and  back    . 
imkof  . 

Wadhwan .        .    . 
Abniadabdd  . 
Bhanich    .        .    . 
Bombay 


d.  h.  m. 

n.  in. 

B.  B.  and  C.  I.  Ry. 

164 

0  11  45 

12  IS 

Steamer    .       .    . 

90 

0  12    0 

6    0 

Tonga    . 

22 

0    3    0 

l4    0 

Tonga               .     . 

12 

0    2    8 

7    0 

Tonga    . 

14 

0    2    0 

8    0 

Tonga  and  cai-t    . 

20 

0    4    0 

8  14 

Cart  or  tonga 

78 

12    0 

15    0 

Cart  .... 

58 

0  20    0 

10    8 

Steamer. 

90 

0  12    0 

20    0 

Cart  and  boat   .    . 

40 

0    4  15 

20    0 

Steamer 

138 

0  18    0 

25    0 

Cart  .... 

4 

2    0    0 

5    0 

Cart 

53 

3    0    0 

9  15 

Chair         .        .    . 

10 

10    0 

8    0 

Cart 

60 

3    0    0 

11    4 

Cart  .... 

72 

10    0 

14    8 

B.  B.  and  C.  I.  Ry. 

80 

0    6    0 

6    4 

B.  B.  and  C.  I.  Ry. 

105 

0    3  40 

8    3 

B.  B.  and  C.  I.  Ry. 

203 

0  10    0 

15  13 

§  U  LANGUAGES   OF   THE   BOMBAY  PRESIDENCY. 

Amongst  the  Bhils  and  Kolis  and  other  wild  tribes  there  are  many 
dialects,  but  the  3  principal  languages  are  Hindustan!.  Mardthi,  and 
Gujardtl,  as  given  m  the  vocabulary  and  dialogues.  The  Hindi!uit^ 
spoken  in  the  Bombay  Presidency  is  fer  from  being  as  pure  as  that 
in  use  at  Dilli  and  LaMmau,  and  is  mixed  with  Mtu^^hi  and  Portu- 
guese words.  Nevertheless,  in  the  families  of  high-class  Mu^am- 
madans,  such  as  those  of  the  descendants  of  the  Niiwdb  of  Surat, 
of  LiUfullali,  and  of  the  Nuwdb  of  Nashik,  the  true  Urdii  will  be 
heard. 

The  Marathi  language  has  two  distinct  lingual  elements,  the 
Scythian  or  Turanian  and  the  Sanskrit.  Almost  all  the  words  with 
initial  cerebral  letters,  and  those  with  the  double  letter  ih,  are  Scy- 
thian. But  the  proportion  of  Sanskrit  words  in  Mardtnl  is  much 
larger,  and  may  amount  perhaps  to  almost  ^ths  of  all  the  words  in  the 
language.  The  earliest  mention  of  the  Mardtha  country  is  in  the 
Mdndvanso,  where  it  is  said  that  Ashoka,  in  the  i7th  year  of  his  reign, 
A.C.  246,  deputed  the  patriarch  Mdha  Dhammarakkito  to  Mahdratta, 
which  is  the  Pdll  form  of  Mahdrdsh^ra.  From  that  time,  if  not  earlier, 
Sanskrit  words  began  to  be  introduced  into  Mard^hl  But  it  must  be 
remembered  that  tnough  these  words  were  more  or  less  assimilated  to 
the  Scythian  element,  they  are  used  by  the  Mard^hl  people  in  a  purer 
form  than  that  which  they  have  retained  in  any  of  the  other  pro- 
vincial languages  in  India.  Even  the  ^ammar  of  Mardthl  is  much 
influenced  by  Sanskrit,  and  the  declension  of  the  nouns  is  effected 
by  Sanskrit  words  used  as  post-positions.  The  Mard^ha  numerals 
and  pronouns  are  borrowed  from  tne  Sanskyit,  from  which  also  come 
all  tne  technical  words  in  theology,  literature,  and  science.  The 
ancient  inscriptions  in  the  Cave  Temples  of  Mahanish^ra  are  in  Sans* 


IBomhay'-lSSO,] 


£ 


50  INTRODUCTION.  Sect.  1. 

krit  aiid  Pali.  The  oldest  specimen  of  Maratlii  is  an  inscription  on 
a  stone  found  near  Government  House  at  Parell,  which  relates  to  a 
grant  of  land,  and  is  of  the  date  of  1181  a.d.  The  literature  of 
Marathi  consists  of  poems,  founded  on  the  Sanskrit  epics  and  Purdruis, 
and  of  love  songs  and  Balcliars  or  Memoirs  of  Native  Princes. 

The  Gujardti  is  a  more  unformed  language  than  the  Mardthi,  and 
its  literature  is  more  scanty.  Authors  in  Gujardti  are  now  beginning 
to  appear,  such  as  Bahrdmji  Merwanjl  Malabar!  and  Ardasir  Dosabhdi 
and  others. 

A  few  words  may  be  required  as  to  the  system  of  transliteration 
adopted  in  this  book.  It  is  the  same  as  that  of  Prof.  D.  Forbes, 
author  of  the  "  Urdd  Dictionary,"  and  was  used  in  the  former  edition 
of  the  Handbooks  in  1859.  The  vowels  are  the  same  as  the  Italian, 
a,  dy  i,  iy  u,  A  The  diphthongs  are  e  compounded  of  a  and  i  ;  ai, 
compounded  of  a  and  i ;  o,  compounded  of  a  and  u  ;  and  au  com- 
pounded of  d  and  u. 

Taking  the  consonants  as  they  stand  in  the  English  alphabet,  c  is 
not  used  at  all,  k  being  used  for  it. 

J)  may  be  either  dental  or  cerebral.  In  the  latter  case  it  is  marked 
by  four  dots  over  it  in  Hindiistdni,  which  is  represented  by  d  here. 

H  has  two  forms  in  Arabic,  Persian,  and  Hindustani,  the  strong 
aspirate  is  represented  by  A. 

K  has  two  forms  in  Hindustdni  taken  from  the  Arabic,  the  gut- 
tural k  is  here  k. 

L  has  two  forms  in  Martithl  and  Gujardti,  the  second  and  peculiar 
form  is  here  /. 

N  lias  in  Marathi  a  peculiarly  nasal  and  also  a  cerebral  sound  as 
well  as  the  common  sound.  The  former  is  represented  here  by  ?/, 
and  the  latter  by  «. 

Ry  besides  the  common  sound,  has  a  cerebral  one  in  Hindustani, 
which  is  here  j\ 

S  has  three  forms  in  Hindustdni.  The  two  derived  from  the 
Arabic  are  denoted  here  by  ?  and  *. 

T  has  two  other  forms  in  Hindustdni  besides  the  common,  denoted 
here  by  t  and  t, 

Z  has  four  forms  in  Hindustdni,  the  three  borrowed  from  Arabic 
are  denoted  here  by  z,  z,  and  z. 


Sect.  I. 


VOCABULARY. 


51 


VOCABULARY  AND  DIALOGUES. 


English. 
One 
Two 
Three 
Four 
Five 
Six 
Seven 
Eight 
Nine 
Ten 
Eleven 
Twelve 
Thirteen 
Fourteen 
Fifteen 
Sixteen 
Seventeen 
Eighteen 
Nineteen 
Twenty 
Twenty-one 
Twenty-two 
Twenty-three 
Twenty-four 
Twenty-five 
Twenty-six 
Twenty-seven 
Twenty -eight 
Twenty-nine 
Thirty 
Thirty-one 
Thirty-two 
Thirty-three 
Thirty-four 
Thirty-five 
Thirty-six 
Thirty-seven 
Thirty-eight 
Thirty-nine 
Forty 
Forty-one 
Forty-two 
Forty-three 
Forty-four 

Forty-five 

Forty-six 

Forty-seven 

For^-eight 

Forty-nine 


Hindustani. 

MabathI. 

GUJAKAXi. 

Ek 

Ek 

Ek 

Do 

Don 

Be 

Tin 

Tin 

Trail 

Chai- 

OhAr 

Char 

PAnch 

Pdnch 

Pdiich 

Chhah 

S4h4 

Chha 

S&t 

Sdt 

Sdt 

Ath 

Ath 

A'th 

Nau 

Naw,  Nau 

Naw 

Das 

Dihd 

Das 

Igdrah 

AkrA 

Agidr 

Bdrah 

Bir& 

Bdr 

Terah 

TerA 

Ter 

Chaudah 

Chawadii 

Chaud 

Pandrah 

Pandh&rd 

Pandar 

Solah 

Sou 

Sol 

Satrah 

Satra 

Sattai* 

Ath^rali 

Athra 

Arddh 

Unis 

Ekunis 

• 

Oganls 

Bis 

Vis 

Wis' 

Ikis 

Ekvis  • 

Ekwis 

Bd'is 

BAwls,  Bewis 

Bdwis 

Te'is 

Tewis 

'J'ewls  or  Trcwia 

Ohaubis 

Chowis 

Chowis 

Pachis 

Panchwis 

Pachchis 

Chhabbis 

Tawis 

ChhaWwis 

Sata'is 

SattAvls 

Sattdwls 

Atha'is 

Aththdvis 

Aththawis 

Untis 

Ekuntis 

Ogantls 

Tls 

Tis  * 

Trls  ■ 

Iktis 

Ektis 

Ektris 

Battis 

Battis 

Batrls 

Tetis 

Tehtis 

Tetrls 

Chautis 

Chautis 

Chotris 

Paintis 

Pjwtls 

Pdiitrls 

Chhattis 

Chhattis 

Chhatrls 

Saintls 

Sadtls 

Sddtiis 

Athtis 

AthtlR 

Adtris 

Unchalis 

EkiinchdUs 

Oganchdlis 

Chdlis 

Chdlls 

Chdlls 

Iktilis 

Ektdlls 

Ekatdlls 

Be'Alls 

Betdlls 

Behet4i1fs 

TetAlis 

Tretdlls 

Tehetdlls 

Chau'dlls 

Chavvetdlis 

Chumdlls  m*  Ohau 
dlls 

Paintdlis 

Panchetalls 

Plstdlls 

ChhiydUs 

Shetdlls 

Chhentdlis. 

SaintdUs 

Sattetalls 

.     Sudtdlls  CT  Sadtdl 

Athtdlis 

AththeUlls 

Adltdlis  or  Udtalis 

Unchds 

Ekunpaunas 

Oganpachas 

£2 


52 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect.  I. 


Ekglish. 

Fifty 

Fifty-one 

Fifty-two 

Fifty-three 

Fifty-four 

Fifty-five 

Fifty-six 

Fifty-seven 

Fifty-eight 

Fifty-nine 

Sixty 

Sixty-one 

Sixty-two 

Sixty-three 

Sixty-four 

Sixty-five 

Sixty-six 

Sixty-seven 

Sixty-eight 

Sixty-nine 

Seventy 

Seventy-one 

Seventy-two 

Seventy-three 

Seventy-four 

Seventy-five 

Seventy-six 

Seventy-seven 

Seventy-eight 

Seventy-nine 

Kighty 

Kighty-one 

Eighty-two 

Eighty-three 

Eighty-four 

Eighty-five 

Eighty-six 

Eighty-seven 

Eighty -eight 

Eighty-nine 

Ninety 

Ninety-one 

Ninety-two 

Ninety-three 

Ninety-four 

Ninety-five 

Ninety-six 

Ninety-seven 
Ninety-eight 
Ninety-nine 
A  hundred 


HlND^STANi. 

Pachds 

Ikdwan 

Bdwan 

Tirpan 

Chauwan 

Pachpan 

Chhapan 

Satawan 

Ath&wan 

Unsath 

Sdth  * 

Iksath 

Bdsath 

Tirsaith 

Chousath 

Painsdth 

Chhiydsath 

Satsath 

Athsath 

Unhattar 

Sattar 

Ikhattar 

Bahattar 

Tihattar 

Chauhattar 

Pachyattar 

Chhihattar 

Sathattar 

Athhattar 

• 

Unas! 

Assi 

Ik^sl 

Be'Asl 

TirAsi 

Ghaurasi 

Panchasl 

ChhiAsi 

Satdsi 

Athasi 

Naudsi 

Nauwe,  Nawad 

Ik&nawe 

B4nawe 

Tirdnawe 

Chaurdnawe 

Pach&nawe 

Chiyduawe    . 

Satdnawe 
Athanawc 
Nindnawc 
San 


MAKi-THf. 

Pannds 

Ekawan 

B&wan 

Trepan 

Chaupan 

Panchawan 

Chhappan 

Sattdwan 

Aththdwan 

Ekunsdth 

Sdth 

Eksa^ht 

Bdsa^ht 

Tresa^ht 

Chausa^ht 

Pansai^ht 

Tdhdsd^ht 

Satsa^ht 

Adsa^ht 

Ekunhattar 

• 

Sattar 

Ekdhattar 

Bdhdttar 

Trydhdttar 

Chaurydhattar 

Pafichydhdttar 

Shdhdttar 

Satydhattar 

Aththydhdttar 

Ekunaishiii 

Aishln 

Ekdnyshin 

Bydnysyhiii 

Trydiiyshin 

Chdurydnyshln 

Paiichdyshiii 

Shdnyshin 

Satydnyshlfi 

Aththydnyshln 

Ekunnawad     or 

Navydnyshln 
Nawdd 
Ekydnnav 
Bydnnav 
Tradnnav 

•   ■ 

Chaurydnnav 

Panehdnnav 

Shannav 

Satydnnav 
Athyannav 
Navyannav 
Shambhar 


GUJAKATI. 

Pachds 

Ekdwau 

Bdwan 

Trepan 

Choppan 

Panchdwan 

Chhappan 

Sattdwan 

Aththdwan 

Ogansdth 

Sdth 

Eksat 

• 

Bdsat 
Tresat 
Chosat 
Pdnsat 
Chhdsat 
Sadsat 
Adsdt 
Aganoter 
Sitter 
Ekoter 
Bohoter 
Tohoter 
Chumoter 
Panchot^er 
Chhoter 
Sittoter 

Iththoter  or  Aththo- 
ter 

• 

Oganyahesi 
Hensi 
Ekydsi 
Bydsl 

Trydsl 

Chordsl 

Parichdsl 

Chhdsi 

Satydsi 

Athydsi 

Nevyasi 

Newuii 
Ekdnnun 

• 

Bdnnun 
Trdnnun 
Chordnnun 
Panchdnnun 

* 

Chhdnnun  or  Chha 
newu;  ChhannuA 
Sattdnuu 
Afhthd^un 
Nuwd&nun 
So 


feect.  1. 

VOCABULARY. 

ExausH. 

Hindustani. 

Mabathi. 

GUJABATt 

Two  hundred 

Dosau 

Don  sheii 

Raro  or  Basen 

Three  hundred 

Tinsau 

Tin  shen 

Tran  seii 

Four  hundred 

Chdrsau 

ChAr  shen 

ChAr  sen 

Five  hundred 

Pdnch  sau 

Panch  shen 

PAnch  sen 

Six  hundred 

Chhah  sau 

SAhA  sheu 

Chhasen 

Seven  hundred 

S4t  sau 

SAt  sheii 

SAt  sen 

Eight  hundred 

Ath  sau 

Ath  shen 

Ath  sen 

Nine  hundred 

Nau  sau 

Naw  shen 

Naw  sen 

A  thousand 

Hazdr 

HajAr 

Ek  hajAr 

Ten  thousand 

Das  hazdr 

DahAhajAr 

Das  hajAr 

A      hundred 

Tiikh 

Laksh 

Ek  lAkh 

thousand 

A  million 

Daslikh 

DAhA  laksh 

Das  lAkh 

Ten  millions 

Krof 

Kot 

Karod 

Fractions. 

Ajmrndnk, 

Ajfurnank. 

A  quarter 

Pdo 

PAw 

PA 

A  half 

A'dhA 

ArdhA 

Ardho 

Three-qua.rters 

Pauni,  Paun 

PAwiin 

Pono 

One-and-a- 

Saw^ 

SawA 

SawA 

quarter 

One-and-a-half 

Deyh 

Dlr 

Dod 

One-and-three- 

PAune  do 

PAwne  don 

PonAbe 

quarters 

• 

« 

Two-and-a- 

Sawd  do 

SawA  don 

SawA  be 

quarter 

Two-and-a-half 

Ai-hdl 

Adits 

Adl 

Two-and-three- 

PAune  tin 

Pawne  tin 

PonA  tran 

quarters 

Three-and-a- 

SawA  tin 

SawA  tin 

SawA  tran 

quarter 

- 

Three-and-a- 

SAre  or  sArhe  tin  Sade  tin 

SAdAtran 

half 

Three-and- 

PAune  chAr 

Pawne  chAr 

PonA  chAr 

three-quarters 

• 

• 

Four-and-a 

SawA  chAr 

SawA  chAr 

SAwA  chAr 

quarter 

Four-and-a- 

SAye  chAr 

SAde  chAr 

SAdA  chAr 

half 

• 

Four-and-three- 

quarters 
A  third 

PAune  pAnch 

Pawne  pAnch 

PonA&  pA&ch 

TisrA  l^i^sah 

Ek  tritlyAns 

Ek  tritiyAnsh 

Two-thirds 

Do  tisrA  i^i^sah 

Don  tyitlyAns 

Be  tritiyAnsh 

A  fourth 

ChauthA  ^isAah 

Chautho  bhAg 

Chotho  hisso 

A  fifth 

PAnchwAn 
hi^^ 

Ek  panchumAiish 

Ek  panchamAnsh 

A  sixth 

Chhatha  hi^sah 

Ek  Sha^htha- 
mAiish 

Ek  sashtAnsh 

A  seventh 

SAtwAn  hi^^ah 

Ek  SaptAmAnsh 

Ek  saptamAnsh 

An  eighth 

*AthwAn  hi§Bah  Ek  a§htaniAnsh 

Ek  ashtamAiish 

A  tenth 

DaswAn  hissah 

Ek  dashAnsh 

Ek  dasAnsh 

53 


54 

INTRODUeTIOX. 

hect.  1. 

E^^GLISH. 

Hindustani. 

Marathi. 

GUJABATi. 

MantJix. 

Mahiiw. 

MaJiine. 

Makinna. 

Jamifliy 

Muharram 

Pausli 

Po§h 

February 

Snfar 

Mdgh 

MAgh  or  Mdha 

March 

Rab'lu  '1  awwal 

Phalgun 

Fagan 

April 

Rab'iu  '1  mm 

Chaitr 

Chaitr 

May 

Jamada 
'1  awwal 

Yatshakh 

Vaishakh  or  Vaisakh 

June 

Jamdda '1  akhir  Jyeshth 

Jeth 

July 

Bajab 

A^adh 

Ashdd  or  Asdd 

August 

Sh'abAn 

Shrdwan 

Shrdwan 

September 

Eamazdn 

Bhddrapad 

Bhadarwo 

October 

Shawwdl 

Ashmn 

Ashwan  or  Asho  or 
Ashwin 

November 

Zi  K'adah 

KdrtiV 

Kartak  or  Kartik 

December 

Zi  '1  hajj 

MdrgashirBh 

Mdgashar  or  Mdr- 
gashirih 

Days, 


War, 


War, 


War. 


Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday 
Saturday 


East 
West 
North 
South 

Spring 
Summer 

Autumn 
Winter 


Itwar 
Plr 

Man  gal 
P>udh 
Jum'a  rdt 

Jum'aah 
Sanichar 


Mashrik 
Maghrab 
Shimdl 
Jamib 

Bahdr 
Garmd 

Khlzdn 
SarmA 


Abyss 
Air 
Atom 
Asheu 


PAtal 
Hawd 
Zarah 
Rdkh 


Raviwdr,  Aditwdr 

Somwar 

Mangalwdr 

Budhwdr 

Guruwar,  Brihas- 
patwdr 

Shuki'wdr 

Shaniwdr,  Mand- 
wdr 

Purr 
Pashchim 
Uttar 
Dakshin 

Vasant  jritu 
Unhdld,    Grlshm 

ritu 
Sharad  ritu 
Hinwdld, 

Hemant  ritu 

Doh,  Agddh  jal 
Hawd,  Vdyu 
Parmdnii,  Kan 
Bdkh 


Rawiwar  or  Aditwdr 
{in  writing)  Raweu 

Somwdr  (in  writ- 
ififf)  Some 

Mangalwdr  (i/i  writ- 
ing) Bhome 

Budhwdr  {in  writing) 
Budhe 

Bphaspatwdr  or  Gu- 
ruwdr  (in  writing) 
Gureu 

Hhukai-war  (in  writ- 
ing) Shukre 

Shaniwdr  (m  writing ) 
Saneu 

Purv,  Ugaman 
Paschim,  Athaman 
Uttar,  Ottar 
Dakshan,  Dakhkhan 

Vasant  ritu 
Undlo,  Hundlo 

Sard  fitu 
Shidlo 


Doh,  Dahro,  Pdtdl 
Hawd,  Vdyu 
Parmdnncn,  Kan,  Raj 
Rdkh 


r               Sect.  J. 

VOCABULARY. 

do 

ENGTilSH. 

HiNDlJSTANi. 

Marathi. 

GUJABATI. 

Bank  of  river 

jS'adikd 

Naditsd      kdnth, 

NadinoKdnthof;/'Tir 

kindrah 

Nadichentir 

Bay 

Kol,  Kh&ri 

Kol 

Akhdt 

Beach 

Kinarah 

Samudr  Kindrd 

Samudr  kdntho 

Bridge 

Pul 

Piil 

Pul 

Bubble 

Papoth 

Budbudd 

Parpoto 

Burning 

Sozish 

Jalnc 

Balwuii 

ChalV 

Khari 

Khadii,Sitadhdtu  Chdk,  Khadl 

Channel 

Nahar,  Khdrl 

Khddl 

Khddi,  Samudrdhuni 

Clay 

Mat! 

Chikana  mdti 

Chiknl  mdti 

Cloud 

Abr,  BAdal 

Abhr,  Dhag 

Wddal 

Charcoal 

EoUah 

Kolsd  ' 

Koelo 

Cold 

Thand 

Shltal,  Thand 

Tdhdd,  Tdhddun 

Continent 

Ehand,  Iklim 

Mahd  dwlp 

Khand,  Mahddwlp 

Darkness 

AndherA, 

Andhdr  Andhak  dr 

Timir 

^ulmdt 

Kdlokh 

Deluge 

Tiif  An  i  ntih 

Jal  pralay 

Jal  pralay 
Unddl 

Depth 

'Amak,  Onden 

Ondl 

Dew 

Shabnam,  6s 

Daiiw 

Jhdkal 

Drop 

KatrAh 

Thipkd,  Thenb 

Chhdnto 

Dust 

Dhiil 

Dhiil,  Raj 

Dhiil 

Earth 

Zamin,  Dunyd, 

Prithwi 

Mdti,  Jam  in, 

Mittl 

Prithwi 

Earthquake 

Zikilali 

Bhiikamp 

Dharti  kamp,  Kam- 
paro,    Bhu  kamp, 
Dharni  kamp 

Ebb-tide 

Ot 

Ohat,  Ohtl 

Ot 

Ferry 

Hoi-l 

Tar 

Tar 

Flame 

HVulah 

Jwdld,  Jal 

Jhdl,  Baltun  bhadko 

Jot 
Chamkdro,  AjwdUiu 

Flash 

Jhalak,  Ujala 

Tsamak,  Jhalak 

Fire 

A'g,  Atash 

Agnl,  Ag 

Dewtd,  Ag,  Agni 

Flood-tide 

Bhartl 

Bhartl 

Bhartl 

Fog 

Dhudn 

Dhuken 

Dhiiwai' 

Ford 

Utdr 

Utdr 

Pdr 

Fountain 

Chashmah 

Jhard 

Jharo 

Frost 

Him,  PdU 

Him 

HfAm 

Fuel 

Jaldne  ki  chlz 

Sarpan,  Phdiitln 

Sarpan 

Gravel 

Kankar,  Eeti 

Reiir,  Kankar 

Kdkrd  reti,  Jddi  reti 

Hail 

Zhdlah,  Old 

Gdrd 

Old 

^                    Heat 

Garmi 

Garmi,  Uahnatd 

Garmi 

Highway 

Shdh  rdh,  Sarak  Kdjmdrg 

Rdj  mdrg,  Dhori  rasto, 

J 

Mhoto  rdhd 

Hillock 

Tekri 

Tenk 

Diingrl,  Tekrl 

Ice  . 

Barf 

Barph,  Thidzale 
len  pdni 

-  Baraf,  Thljelun  pdnl 

Island 

Jazlrah,  Tdpii 

Bet,  Tdpi 

Tdpu,  Bet 

Inundation 

Bel 

Jal  pralay 

■Rel,  Piir ' 

liake 

Tdldb,  Sarowar  Sarowar 

Sarowar 

Lightning 

Bijli 

Vij 

Bijli 

Marsh 

Daldal 

Pdnthal  dzdgd 

Anjan 

Mountain 

Pahdr 

Parvat,  Dongar 

Parwat,  Dungar 

Ocean 

Samundar, 
Sdgar 

Sdgar,  Sindhu 

Mahd  samudr,  Sdgar 

r>6 


INTRODUCTIOX. 


Sect.  I. 


English. 
Path 
Plain 
Pond 

Promontory 
Quicksand 
Bain 
River 
Sand 
Sea 

Shower 
Smoke 

Snow 

Spark 

Soot 

Stone 

Stream 

Tempest 

Thunder 

Valley 


Water 

Well 

Whirlpool 

Whirlwind 

Wave 


Hindustani. 
Kastah 
Maiddn 
Tdldb 

Chorbalu 

Barish,  Bai'sat 

Nadl 

Ret 

Darya 

Jharl 

Dhiidn 

P414barf 

Chingl 

Kdjal 

Patthar 

Jhar4 

Tiifdn 

Garaj 

Khiil 

Paul 

Kii^n 

Bhanwar 

Bagiila 

Mauj 


Mabathi. 
Mdrg,  Wdt 
Maiddn,  Pdta 
Talen 

Bhiilnechi  touk 
Rutan 
PdTis' 

Nadl,  Sdiita 
Retl,  Walii 
Samudr 
Pawasdchi  sar 
Bhiir 

Barph,  Him 
Thingll,  Thingl 
Edjal)  Mas 
Dhondd  dagad 
Odhd,  Jhard 
Wkdal,  TuphAn 
GAjnen,    Megh 

garjnd 
Khoren,  Dard 


PAni 

Vihir 

Bhonwrd,  Jala 

bhram 
Wawatal,  Tsakra 

wdt 
Lahar,  Ldt 


GUJABATi. 

Rasto,  Wdt,  Marg 

Meddn 

Taldw 

Bhiishlr 

Garkijdy  tewi  reti 

Warsdt 

Nadl 

Reti 

Dariyo,  Dario 

Warsdtnun    jhdptun 

Dhunmddo  or  Dhun- 

wddo 
Baraf 

Changl,  Kdjll 
Dhons,  Mes 
Paththar 
Jharo 
Topdn 
Gadgaddt,    Megh 

garjnd* 
Oriin,    Dungrou 

wachchemun 

meddn,  Khln 
Pdni,  Jal 
Kuwo 
Wamal 

Watoliyo  wd 

Moje,  Daridni  lahar 


Kinship, 

Ancestors 
Aunt 


Boy 

Bride 

Bridegroom 

Brother 
Bachelor 


Childhood 
Children 


Sagdi, 

Ajddd 

Phuphl,Khdlah, 
Chachdnl, 
Mamdni 


Chhokrd,  Larkd 

Dulhan 

Diilah 

Bhdi,  Birddar 
Kii'drd, 
Mujarrad 

Bachpan 
Bachche 


Samhandh,         Sagpam^  Sambandh. 


Piirvaj,  Wadll 

Kdki  (paternal), 
Mdmi  (wife  of 
maternal  uncle). 
At     (father's 
sister),  Mdwasi 
(mother's  sister) 

Mulgd 

1^'awari 

War,  Nawaradev 
naward 

Bhdii,  Bandhu 

Kumdr,  Brahma- 
chdri,Lagnana 
ghdleld 

Bdlakpan,  Porpan 

Muleii,  Lekreii 


Piirwaj,  Waddwa, 

Wadilo,  Bdpdddd 
Kdki,  Mdmi,  Mdsi 


Chhokro 
Kanyd,  Wahu 
War  rdjd 

Bhdi 

Kunmdro,  Kunwdro 


Bdlpan 
Chhokrdn 


Nect.  1. 

VOCABULARA'. 

kU 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Marathi. 

GUJABATi. 

Cousin 

Chicherd, 

Tsulat  bhdii  (son 

Pitrdi,  Moldlbhdi 

Suserd, 

of  paternal 

Mamard, 

uncle),  Mdmc 

Khalera, 

bhdii  (maternal 

Bhdi 

uncle's  son),  Ate 
bhdii  (paternal 
aunt's     son), 
Mdi^s    hhkd 
'  (maternal 
aunt's  son) 

Daughter 

Larkl 

Mulgl,  Lek,  Ean- 
yd 

Dlkrl 

Dower 

Jahlz 

Andan.  Stri  dhan  Strl  dhan 

Dwarf 

Bilishtl  ddmi 

Thengnd,    Khujd  Wdmanjl,  ThlAgnnn 

manushya, 

mdnas 

Wdman 

Father 

Bdp 

Bdp 

Bdp,  Pitd 

Father-in-law 

Susard 

Sdsrd 

Sasaro 

Female 

'Aurat 

Stii,  Bdyako 

Ktrl,  Bdyadf,  Bdi 

mdniliK 

mdnas 

Girl 

Ohhokrl 

Mulgl 

Chhokrl 

Grandfather 

Dddd 

Ackd 

Dddo,  Bapdwo,  Ma- 
mdwo 

Grandmother 

Dddi 

^ii 

Ajl,  Dddl 

Heir 

"Wdris 

Wdrls 

Wdras 

Husband 

Khdwind, 

NawardjGharkarl  War,  Pati 

^ 

Khasam, 
Shanhar 

pati,  Dddld 

Infant 

Bachchd    dudh  Tdnheii  miU 

Dhdwamun  chhoka- 

pltd 

run 

Inheritance 

Wars 

Wdrafld 

Wdraso 

Kinsman 

Saga 

Bhdiiband 

Kutumbl,  Gotri 

Male 

Mard 

Purush 

Purush 

Man 

Adml 

Manushya, 
Mdniis 

Mdnas 

Manhood 

Admlpand 

Mdnuspan, 
Praudhpand 

Mdnasdl 

Marriage 

Shddl 

Lagn,  Wiwdh 

Lagn                  [shri 

Mother 

Mdii 

Ai,  Mdtd 

Md,    Mdtd,    Mdtd 

Mother-in-law 

Sdns 

Sdsii 

SdHU 

Mortal 

Mareaisd,Mauti 

Martya,Marandd- 

Mfitiyu  tulya 

(deadly),KdtU 

hin 

Nephew 

Bhatijd,  Bhdnjd  Putanyd       (bro- 

Bhatrijo,  Bhdn^j 

ther  88on),Bhd- 

» 

chd       (sister's 
son) 

Niece 

Bhatiji,  Bhdnji 

Putanl,  Bhdchi 

Bhatrijl,  Bhdnji 
Bhdnejl 

Nurse 

Ddi,  Diidh, 
Hldni 

Ddl 

Dhdw 

Old  Age 

Bufhdpd 

Mhdtdrpan,    Vri- 

Ghadpan,  Wridhdw- 

ddhatwa 

asthd 

Old  Man 

Budh^,  Zdlf 

Mhdtdra,Vridhdh  Doso 

manushya 


^H 

INTRODUCTION. 

«ect.  !. 

English. 

Hindustani. 

MarathI. 

GUJARATI. 

Old  Woman 

Budhi,  Zdlfah 

Mhdt&ri 

Dosi 

Orphan 

Yatim  ' 

Porka 

Wagarmd  bdpun,  Na 
bdpun  na  mdyun, 
or  Namdelun  chho- 
krun 

Posterity 

Nasi,  Aulad 

Wansh,  Santati 

Wansh,  Santati 

Sister 

Bahln 

Bahln 

Behen 

Son 

Bet4 

• 

Mulga,  Patr,  Lek 

Dikro 

Step-mother 

Sautell-mai 

Sdvatr  dl 

SdwakI  md 

Twins 

Towiim 

Juld 

Jol 

Uncle 

Chachd,  Kdkd, 

Kakd,  Mdma, 

(Paternal)  Kdkd, 

PhupherA 

(maternal)  Mds6, 

(paternal), 

Mdmo,  Kno 

Mdmii,  Khdlii 

(maternal) 

Widow 

BewA,  Kdnd 

Widhwd,  Rdnd 

Widhwd,  Rdndirdnd 

Wife 

Jorii 

Strl,  Bdyako 

Bdirl,  Wahn  dhanl- 
ydnnl  bayadl 

Woman 

'Aurat 

Strl,  BAyako  ma- 
nias 

Stri,  Bdi  mdnas 

Young  Man 

Jawdn  Adml 

Tarund  manu- 

• 

shya,  JawAn 
manushya 

Jawdn,  Juwdn  mdnas 

Youth 

Jawani,  Shal)ab  Jwdni,  Tdrunya 

Juwani,  Joban 

Pai'tx  of  tlir 

Badan  he 

Shariruchn  hhdg. 

,     Sluirirnd  hhig.  or, 

Body. 

'azu. 

avayara. 

Ankle 

Takhna.  Ohiitf, 

Ghotii 

Ghunti 

K'ab 

[haduH 

Arm 

BtizAi 

Bdhu,  Bhuj 

Bdhu,  Bhuj  pank- 

Back 

Pith 

Pdth 

Wdnso,  Pith 

Back-bone 

Kli-h 

Kand,  Kdnta 

Wdnsdnl  wachchc- 
nun  hdd 

Bile 

mt,  Safni 

Pitt 

Pitt 

Blood 

LoM,  Khun 

Rakt 

Lohi,  Rakt 

Beard 

DArhl 

Dkxhi 

Ddhaai 

Body 

Badan 

Sharir,  Aiig 

Sharir 

Bone 

Haddi 

Had 

Hdd 

Brain 

Magphz 

Magaj 

Bhejuii 

Breast 

Chhati 

Chhdtl,  Ur 

Chhdtl 

Breath 

Dam 

Dam,  Shwds 

Dam,  Swds 

Cheek 

Gdl 

Gdl 

Gdl 

Chin 

Thuddi 

Hanawatl 

Thudi 

Ear 

Kan' 

Kan 

kdn,  Karn 

Elbow 

Kuhni 

Kopar 

Kopriyuii 

Eye 

Ankh 

Dold,  Netr, 
Lochan 

Aukh,  Netr 

Eye-brow 

Bhauii,  Abrii 

Bhrii,  Bhunwdi 

Bhawuii 

Eye-lash 

Palak 

Papanltsd  Kesh 

Ankhnl  pdmpan 

Face 

Chihrah,  Munh 

Tond,'  Mukh 

Chfthero 

Fat 

Mota,  Farbih 

Pusht,  Tsarbi 

Jddo  (adj.),  Chai-bi 

(adj.),  Charl)! 

(subs.) 

(subs.) 

;sect.  1. 

VOCABULARY. 

oy 

English. 

HlNT>USTANi. 

MARATHi. 

GUJAHATi. 

Finger 

UngU,  Angusht  Bot; 

Angli 

Fist 

Miith 

Miith 

Muth 

Flesh 

Gosht 

Mds 

Mdns 

Foot 

Panw 

PAy 

Pag 

Forehead 

Peshani 

Kapdl 

KapAl,  LeUt 

Gland 

Giltl 

Pind,  Mans 
granthi 

Pind,  MAs  granthi 

Gum 

Gond 

Of    the    teeth) 

Ddntanu  thad 

Hiradi,  (exuda- 

■ 

tion  fi'om  a  tree] 

Dlk,  Goiid 

Hair 

BA\ 

Kesh 

Bdl,WAl,Mowdla,Kes 

Hand 

Hath 

HAt,  Kar 

Hath 

Head 

Sar 

Shir,  Doken 

Mdthuii 

Heart 

Dil 

Hfid,  Hridya 

Hfid,  Haiyun,  Dil 

Heel 

Erl 

Tdiich,  khoiit 

Edl 

Hip 

Chutar 

KamaretsA    kha- 
w&td 

Jhangno  thdpo 

Jaw 

Jabj-d 

Jabdd 

Jadbun 

Joint 

Sdndha 

Sdndha 

Sdndho 

Kidney 

Gurdl 

Miitra  piiid,  Gurd  Mutra  pind,  Gurdi 

Knee 

Zdnil,  Ghotau 

GudghA,  DophA 

Ghiitan 

Knuckle 

Girih 

Per'en,  Salidli 

Bedkun,Periyuii,  Per 

Leg 

Tang 

Tiingadl 

TaAg 

lip 

Month,  Lab 

(Inth 

Ot,  0th,  Ohot 

■  7               •         ^                            • 

Liver 

Kaleja  or  Kale- 
jah 

.  Kailj 

Kalejuii 

Loin 

Kamar 

Kamar 

Kamar,  Ked 

Lnngs 

Shush 

Phupphiis 

F^fasun,  Fufus 

MaiTow 

Clodii 

Asthisdr,  Hiidan- 

Asthi  sar,  Hadkan- 

talii  mendu 

manhcno  mcdo 

Mousta<^;hcs 

Mucliheu 

:\Iighi 

Muchh 

Mouth 

Muiih 

Toiid,  Mukh 

Mukh 

Nail 

NAkhuii 

Nakii 

Nakh 

Neck 

Gardan 

Mdn,  Grlwa 

Gardan,  Bochi 

Nose 

Nak 

Ndk 

NAkh 

Palate 

Tdlil 

Tdlii 

TAlwun 

Pulse 

Nabz 

• 

NMlchen  udnen 

Ndd,  Nadl 

Ribs 

Phdnsli 

PhdsH 

Pdnsli 

Side 

BA7,t 

Kiis* 

Kuksh 

Skin 

Chamra 

KAtadl,      Tsarm, 
Tsamdeii 

Twacha,  Chdmdl 

Sinew- 

Patthii 

Sndyu 

Sndyu 

Skull 

Khopri 

Mastakdchi   kan- 
wanchi 

Khopri 

Shoulder 

Khdnda 

Khdnda  Skandh 

Khando 

Spittle 

Thiik 

Thunki 

Thuk 

Sweat 

Paslna 

(iham 

Parsevo 

Stomach 

Pet 

Pot,  Jathar 

Jathragni,  Pet 

Tear 

Ansu 

A'siin,  Ashru 

Ashru 

Temples 

Kanpati. 
ShaVlkah 

Kanpattl 

Ankhnl  bajun. 

Thigh 

Rdn,  Jdngh 

MAndl,  Jangh 

Jiing,  Ran 

Throat 

Gala 

Gala" 

Galun 

ou 

INTBODUCTIOX. 

♦Sect,  i. 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Mabath!. 

GUJABATf. 

Thumb 

Angi!itha 

A'ngatha,  An- 
gushth 

HAthno  angotho 

Toe 

PAiiu  ka 
angutha 

PAydchen  bot 

Pagnun  Anglun 

ToDgue 

Zabdn,  Jlbh 

Jlbh 

Jlbh 

Tooth 

Ddnt 

Dant 

DAnt 

Waist 

Kamar 

Kamar,  Kati 

Ked 

Windpipe 

Nail 

Naraden,  NaU 

GalAni  najl,  Nardl 

Wrist 

Pahuncha 

Mangat 

Poncho,  KAndAu 

Vein 

Hag,  Nas 

Shir,  Nas 

Nes,  or  Nas 

Beauty 

Khiibsiiratl 

Saundarya,    Sun- 
darpanA 

Swanip,  Blip 

diseases. 

Amrdz, 

Bog, 

Bog, 

Ague 

Tap-i-naubat 

AntaryA  tdp,  Jwar 

TAhAdlyo  tAw 

Bald 

Ganjd 

TakalyA,     (bald- 
ness) Takkal 

TAlkun  upar  kesh 
nahln  te 

\ 

Blind 

AndhA,  NiblnA  A'ndhla 

Andhlo 

Bruise 

("hot,  KuchUl 

ThentsA,  KhontsA  ChhundAurin,  Kach- 

i*awaurm 

Cholera 

Wabd,  Haizah, 

Dzarl  marl,  Pat- 

Aghok,  WAkho,  Kog- 

Hag  ok 

ki 

liyo 

Cold 

Sardi,  Zukdm 

HiAw,       ThAAdl 

,  Thandl 

(catarrh) 

Sardl 

Cough 

Ehdiis 

KhoklA,  KhAnsi 

KAswAs,  KhAnsi, 
Khoklo,  Udharas 

Consumption 

Kshay 

Kshaj' 

Kshay,  Khai 

Deaf 

BahrA 

BahirA 

Bihiro 

Death 

Maut 

Mrityu,  Maran 

Mot,  Maran 

Digestion 

Hazm 

Jime,  PAchan 

PAchan,  Jarwun 

Dream 

KhwAb 

Swapn 

Swapn,  Sapnun 

Drowsiness 

Nind 

Gungi,  Susti 

Ghen,  Sustl 

Dumb 

Giingd 

MukA,  MonA 

Gungo,  Mungo 

Fainting 

Ghash 

Murchchha 

MurchhA,  Behosh 

Fever 

Tap 

TAp 

TAw,  Jwar 

Fracture 

Tiit 

Asthi  bhang 

Hastl  bhang,  HAdkuii 
bhAge  chhe  te 

Gout 

Ni^cfis 

WAtaroga 

Najlo 

Hunger 

Bhi'ik 

Bhiik,  KshudhA 

Bhilkh,  KshudA 

1 

Indigestion 

Bad  hazml 

Apachan.  Ajlru 

Ajiran,  Apacho 

Inflammation 

Sozish 

Bakta     dosha 
SantApan 

Lohi  wikAr 

Jaundice 

Kanwal 

KAmalA 

Kamalo 

Tiame 

Langrd 

LangdA 

Tjangdo 

Madness 

Diw&nagl 

Wed,  Khiil 

GAndopanun 

Measles 

PansA,    Gowart  Gowar 

Gowar 

1 

Numbness 

Sunsatd, 
Thithur 

Mehrl,  SunepanA 

BehermAri  jawun 

Ophthalmia 

Ankh  dukhnd 

Dole   yene,  Netr  Ankh  dukhwA  Awawl 

r6g 

Pain 

Dukh,  Dard 

PidA 

ShVil,  PidA 

beet.  1. 

VOCABULARY. 

61 

English. 

HiNDUSTAKI. 

MarAthi. 

GUJARATI. 

Kanh 

UbhAr,    Garmi 
ddnah 

GhAmolen,  Pural 

Ar&i 

Rheumatism 

B&i 

Sandlii  wdyu 

Sandhi  wAyu,  Wut 

Sickness 

Bimarl 

Bog 

Mandagl,  Jiw  chuno 
thay  chhe  te  chun- 
thddo 

Sleep 

Nlnd 

Nij,  Nidra 

tJngh.  Nidrd 

Smallpox 

Sitald 

Devi 

Sell,  Sitia  devl 

Spasm 

Khinch 

Petka  wal 

Tin,  Khench 

Sore 

(adj.)  Dukhtii 

Khat,Kshat,Bhag 

ChAdu,  Ojhdo,  Ogh- 

hii4,(8.)Pakla, 

wado 

GhAo 

Squint-eyed 

TirchhA  dekhne 
wdlA,  TerA 

Tirpd  pAhne 

UndM  pultino 

Stammering 

Larhar 

Totaren  bolne 

Bokduu,  or,  Toladuu 
bolwuu 

Swelling 

Siijd 

Siij 

Sojo 

Symptoms 

Nishdnen 

Chlnh,  Lakshau 

CMnh,  Lakshan 

Thirst 

PiyAs 

Tdhau 

Taras 

Voice 

Aw&z 

Swar,  Awdj 

Swar,  Awaj 

Watching 

Jdgnd 

Jdgtd 

Pohoro  bharwo,  Jiig- 
wau,  (protecting) 
R&khwun 

Weakness 

Z'aifi 

Ashaktatd 

NabaUi 

Wound 

Zakhm 

Ghdy,  Khat 

Gh&,  Jaklun 

Wrinkle 

Chin,  Kalchar 

Surakuti,  Chirmi 

Kachll,Karchll  kack- 
lun 

QiiadrujjL'ds, 

CMrpd'e. 

CJiatufJijxid, 

Chojmgan  janawar. 

Alligator 

Magar,  Ghajiyal  Magar,  Susar 

Magar,  Susar 

Animal 

Janwar,9aiwdi] 

L  Jiw,  Prani,  Jana^ 

Janwar,  PrAiii 

Antelope 

Chltal,  Haran 

W<11 

Haran,  M^ig 

Haran 

Ass 

Gada 

Gadhav 

Gadhediin 

Bat 

Chamgldar 

Wdgiit 

WdgluA  (yr  Wagol 

Bear 

Richh 

Aswal,  BhAlii 

Rlchh 

Beast 

Taiwan 

Chatu^hpad, 

Pashu 
BAn  dukar 

Pashu 

Boar 

Jangli  siir 

Suwar,  Rdni  dukar 

Brute 

Halwfin 

HaiwAn,  Pashu 

HewAn 

Buck 

Hamd 

KAlwit 

Hamo 

Buffalo 

Bhains 

Mhais 

Bhens,  PAdo 

Bull 

Nargdo 

Pol,  Sdnd 

SAnd 

Calf 

Bachera 

WAnsariin 

WAchhardun 

Camel 

tJnt 

TJiit 

tJnt 

Chameleon 

Girgit 

Saradd 

Sarado 

Cat 

Billl 

MAnj'dr,  Billf 

BilAdi 

Cattle 

Mawdshf, 

Guren 

Dhor 

Dawdh.  Dhoi 

t 

Colt 

Bacherd 

Shingaruii 

Wachher 

Cow 

GAe 

GAy 

GAy,  Gai 

Peer 

Haran 

Haran 

Haran 

Doc 

Hinii 

Harni 

Harani 

t}2 

l^TRoDUCTIo^^ 

sect,  i 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Makathi. 

GUJAKATi. 

Dog 

Kutta 

Kutrd,     Shwdu, 
Kukkur 

Kutro 

Elephant 

Hatlil 

Hattl,  Gaj 

Hdthl 

Elk 

8Ambar 

Sdrhbar 

Sdmbar 

Ermine 

KaJ^um 

Sinjydb,  Kdkum 

Sinjydb.  Kdkumii 

Ewe 

Bheri 

Mendhi 

Mendhi,  Gheti 

Foal 

Bachhcri 

Hhinganiii,  Bach- 

Wachherun 

hero 

"* 

Flock 

Gallah 

Kalap,  Jhufid 

Jhuiid 

Fox 

Lomri 

Khonkad, 
Konkad 

Lomdi 

Frog 

Mendak 

BedT^ik 

Dedko 

Goat 

Bakr'd 

Bakrd,  Bokad 

Bakrun 

Hare 

Khargosh 

Sasd 

Saso,  Saslo 

Horse 

Ghojra 

Ghoda,  Wdrd 

Ghodo 

Hound 

SbikAr  kd  kutta  ParadhltsA  kutrd  Shlkdri  kutro 

Hyena 

Tars,  Kaftar 

Taras 

Dipdun 

Jackal 

Siydl 

Kolha 

Shiydl 

Kid 

Halwan,   Bakri 

L  Bakrun,  Karadiin  Bakrinun  bachchuA 

kd  bachcha 

Lamb 

Mendlic  kd 

• 

bacha 

Koukruu 

Ghetfnnuii  bachchui 

Leopard 

Chitd,  Tenduji 

Chittd 

Dipdo 

Lion 

Sher,  Sinh 

Sinh 

Sinh,  Sahln,  Sdwaj 

Lizaixl 

Chhipkali 

Pal 

Pdl 

Mai-e 

Ghori 

Ghodi 

(4hocli 

Monke}' 

Bdndar,  Laiigui 

Wdnar,  Makud 

Wdnar 

Mouse 

(^huhi 

Uhdir,  Miishaiv 

tJndar 

Mule 

Khachar 

Khenchar 

•  Khachar 

Muskdeer 

Mushk  havaii 

Kastiiritsa  mrig 

Kastiirl  mpji' 

Muskrat 

Chichundari 

Chichundari 

Chachundra 

Otter 

Ud-bllAs 

Pdn  mdiijar 

Daiidi  kutniii 

Ox 

Bail 

Bail 

Balad 

Panther 

Chitd,  Tendiid 

Bibali'i 

Chitto 

Pig 

Siir 

Dukar 

Dukai' 

Porcupine 

Sahi,  Shalya 

Salu 

Sdbudi 

• 

Rabbit 

Khargosh 

Sasd 

Safialo,  Saso 

Ram 

Mendhd 

Mendhd 

Mendho 

Rat 

Chiilid 

Ghus,  Mushak 

Miish,  Ghiis 

Rhinoceros 

Gainda 

Geiida 

Gendo 

8able 

Samiir 

Samiir 

Samiir 

Sheep 

Bher 

Mendhd 

Ghetuii,  Mendhuii 

Squirrel 

Gilahri 

Khdr" 

Khaierl,  Khiskoli 

Tiger 

Bdgh 

Wdgh 

Wdgh 

Wolf 

Bheriyd 

Ldudgd 

Warn 

Birds, 

PaHndah. 

PalisM. 

PaMii. 

Adjutant 

Khages 

Khagendra 

Baglo 

Brood 

Pote,  Bachche 

Win,  Wet 

Murghi  wagere,  Pak 
shindn  bachcbun 

Chicken 

Murghi  kd 

Kombadichen  pi- 

Murghi  wager6  pak 

bachah 

liiu 

,  ehindn  bachchun 

fcect.  1. 

VOCABULAKY. 

b«J 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Mabathi. 

(JUJABATi. 

Cock 

Murgh,  Khuriis 

Kombada. 
Knkkut 

Margho 

Crane 

BagU 

Karkocha,  Sdras 

Baglo 

Crow 

Kauwii 

Kawala 

Kagdo,  Kdff 

Dove 

FAkhtah 

PdrwA  (Columba  Khabutar  pdrewuu 

(Enas),  Kabutar 

Duck 

Batak 

Badak 

Batak 

Eagle 

HumA,  'Ukab 

Garud 

Garud  pakshi 

Falcon 

ShAhin 

SasAnA 

Bdj,  Sakro 

Fowl 

Murgh 

Kombadeii 

• 

Marguii 

Game 

ShikAr 

Paradh,  Shikar 

Shikar 

Goooe 

Hans 

Hans 

Hans 

Hawk 

BAz 

Bahirl,  Sasand 

Bdj,  Sakro 

Hen 

Murghi 

Kombadi 

Marghl 

Heron 

BaglA 

Kraunch 

Baglo 

Hoopoe 

Hudhud 

Hudhud 

Hudhud 

Jungle  fowl 

Jangll  murgh 

Ban  kombadeu 

Rdnl  kukdo 

Kite 

Chll 

Ghdr 

Chll 

Nightingale 

Bulbul 

Bulbiil 

Bulbul 

Ostrich 

Shutur  murgh 

Shdhd  mric? 

Shdhdmrig 

Owl 

Ulii,  Chughd 

Ghubad 

• 

Ghuwad 

Parrot 

nm 

Popat 

Popat,  kiroto 

Partridge 

Tltar 

Titar,  Kawadd 

Titar' 

Peacock 

Mor,  Xaiis 

Mor,  Mayih- 

Mor 

Peahen 

Momi 

Ldiidor,  Mayuri 

l)hel,  Momi  mddd 

Pheasant 

Tadarw 

Kukke  kombada, 
Knkkud  kumbhu 

,  Kukkut  kumbdo 

Pigeon 

Kabiitar 

Kabutar 

Khabutar 

Quail 

Lawa 

Ldwd 

Ldwri 

Sparrow 

Chirya 

Chimanl,  ChicU 

Challi 

Spur-fowl 

Jangli  murgh 

Rdn  kombadd 

Rdni  kukdo 

Wagtail 

Dhobi  chiriya, 

Khanjan,  Khanj- 

•  Dhobi    chiryo,    Ma 

Mamola 

rit 

molo 

Fulws, 

Machhliijan. 

M(Ut'. 

Jldchhlio. 

Bombelo 

Bobila 

Bohbil 

Boubilo 

Crab 

Kenkra 

Khenkadeu 

Karchalun 

Eel 

BAm 

Niwatd,  Bam 

Bdm 

Hilfla  (the  Clu 

-  HilsA 

Hilsd' 

Hilsd 

pea  aloM) 

Mahasir 

Masir 

Mahasir 

Mahdsir 

Mango-fish 

Amb  machhll 

Tapshi 

Bhing 

Oyster 

KAlii 

Kdlav 

Kdlu 

Pomfret 

Chhamma 

Sarangd,  Halwd 

Chhamanuii 

Porpoise 

Siis,  PAur  ma- 

Gddd 

Darial  dukar 

chhll 

Sepia,  or  J  cuttle  Suphen 

MhdkiU 

• 

Gddo 

fish 

Carp,  orf  Cj/jm 

.  Rohi,  Rohu 

Rohi 

Roh 

nag    dc7iticu 

■ 

latux 

Shark 

Magar  machhll 
Nihang 

:,  Grdh,  Muahl 

Mushi 

64 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect.  I. 


English. 
Shrimp 
Skate 
i^le 
Turtle 
Whale 


Ifueots. 

Ant 

Bee 

Beetle 

Bug 

Butterfly- 
Caterpillar 

Centipede 

Cochineal  worm 

Fire-fly 

Fly 

Gnat 

Grasshopper 

Leech 

Locust 

Louse 

Maggot 

Millepede 

Moth 

Scorpion 

Silk-worm 

Snail 

Snake 

Spider 

Swarm 

Tick 

Vermin 

Wasp 

White  ant 


HiNDIJSTANi. 
Chingirl 
Ldkad 
Jhlpl 
Kachhwa 

Wal     machhll,  Timi 
Hiit. 


Mabathi.  Gujarati. 

Kolambi/jhiiiga    Kolabhi,  Kolanl 
Bh^as  L&kad 

Jhipatl,  Leph         Jhipdi 
Kdsava  Eachchhap 

Magarmachh 


Hasliar&tn'l'       Kitak  or  Kide. 

•  •  • 

arz,  Kire. 

MungijCheiinti,  Mungi 
(white)  Dlmak 
Shahd  ki  makhi  Madhu  mashi 


Xi(ako, 


Kldi 


Gubrauta  (cop- 

ris) 
Kha^al 
Tltrl 
Jhdnjhd 

Kankhajur& 

Eirm  kl]*a 

Shabtdb 

Makkhl 

T>&hs 

Tidi 

Jonkh 

Tiddl,  Malakh 

Jii 

Kirm 

Kankhdjiira 

Parwanah 

Bichhii 

Resham  kd  kir^ 

GhonghA 

Sdmp 

Makfl/Ankabiit 

Jhand  (of  bees) 

Chamiikan 
Klye  makore 
Bar,  Zambdr 

Dimak 


Mogar  (a  mallet) 

Dhenkiin 
Patang,  PAkoll 
Surwant,  Kusa- 
nid,  Kusarin 
Ghon,  Shatpadi 
KirmijAche  kiden 
Kddzaw4 
M^hi 

Machchhar,  dans 
Tol,  Gawatya  tol 
Dzdlii 
Tol* 

KidA,  AH 
Kanakhdjiira 
Patag,  Tasar 
Winchii 

Beshmdtsa  Kida 
Gogal  gdy 
Sap,  sarp 
Sutera,  Koli 
Ghongat  (of  bees) 

mohal 
Gochid,  Gochadl 
Kide,  Kid,  Muugi 
Gdiidhil  inasi, 

Kumbhdrin 
Wdlwl,  Udai 


Madh  mdkh, 
Bhamro 


Makan 
Patahgiyuii 
Kaiimlo,  Kdnmliyo 

Kido 
Kdnsalo 

Kirmajno  jiwado 
A'giyo 
Mdkh 

Machchhar,  Ddns 
Tid 

Jdlo  or  Jaro 
Tld 

■       ■ 

Jii 

Kldo 

Kankhajuro 

Tiio 

Wichhii 

Keshamno  Kido 

Gokalgdy 

Sdp,  sarp 

Karoliyo 

Mdkhno  dhaglo  or 

Sanmddy 
Chiino,  Chlmodi 
Kldl  makodl 
Dili!in  pddi!iari  makh 

Udhal 


Stones,  etc,  Pattliarivaghaira,  Daga4  wagaire,       PatJiaro  ivagerc. 

Agate  Aklk  Aklk  Aklk 

Alum  Phitkarl  Turti,  Phatki  Fatkl,  Fa^a^idi 

Amethyst  Marjls  Yakut  Ydkut 

Antimony  Surmah  Surmydchl  dhdtii  Surmo 

(CoUyrium  of)  Ku^al  Surmd 

Brass  Pltal  Htal  Pital 

Cat's-eye  'Ainu  1-hirrali  Lasani  Lasanio 

Crystal  Billaur  Bilori  Kautt  Kdch,  Bilor 


beet.  1. 

VOCABULARY. 

(^C^ 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Mabathi. 

GujabAti. 

Copper 

TAmba 

Tdmbeu 

Trdmbnn,Tardmbua 
Tdmbun 

Coral 

Murjdn 

Powaleii,  Prawdl 

Parwdtuii 

Carnclian 

'AW: 

Tdmbrd,  nr 

Ldl,  Dholo  Akfk 

Pdndhrd  Akik 

Diamonl 

Almas,  Hira 

Hird 

Hire 

Dross 

Mail,  Kit 

Mai,  Kit 

Mel,  Kit 

Emerald 

Zamarrud 

Pdts,  Markat 

Pdnuii 

Flint 

Abrak 

Chakhmakh 

Chakmak 

Gold 

Sond 

Soneii 

Sonun,  Sunuii 

Iron 

Lohd 

Lokhaiid,  Loh 

Lohodlun,  Lodhuii 

Jet 

Sang-i-miisa 

Kdr 

Sange  mushd 

Jewel 

Jauhar 

Batn 

Katn 

Lapis  lazuli 

Ldjaward 

Ldjaward 

Ldjaward 

Lead 

Sisd,  Surb 

Slseii 

Sisuii 

Loadstone 

Sang-i-ma^na- 
tis,  Ahanruba 

•  Loh  chumbak 

Loh  chuTTibak 

Marble 

Sangi  marmar 

Sang  marmar 

A'raspdhdn 

Metal 

Dhdt 

Dhdtn 

Dhdtu 

Mine 

Khdn 

Dhdtuchi  khdn 

Dhdtunf  khdn 

Mineral 

M'adanl 

Khanij 

Khanij  (i./?,  what 
comes  out  of  a 
mine,  Khdndmdn- 
thi  je  nikle  te), 
Dhdtu 

Pearl 

Moti 

Motiu,  Muktd 

Moti 

Quicksilver 

Simdb,  Pard 

Pdrd 

Pdro 

Ruby 

Yd^t 

Mdnik,  Ldl 

Mdnek,  Ldl 

Sapphire 

Nllam 

Shani,  Nil 

Nil 

Silver 

Chdndi 

Kupeii 

Rupuii,  Chd 

Steel 

Pauldd 

Tikheii 

Tlkhuii 

Sulphur 

Gandhak 

Gandhak 

Gandhak 

Talc 

Abrak 

Abhrak 

Abarak 

Tin 

Kalai 

Kathll 

Kalai 

Topaz 

Pukhrdj,      Za- 
barjad 

Pushkardj 

Pokhrdj 

Touchstone 

Kasauti 

Kasoti 

Kasotl 

Turquoise 

Flrozaii 

Perodzd 

Piroj 

Apparel, 

PoHhak^  Zihds. 

Poshdk, 

Poshdh. 

Boot 

Jiitl,  Mozah 

Charmi  payamojd 

Jodo 

Bracelets 

Pahunchi 

Chudd,  Kar 

PohoAchi,  Chudt 

bhi!i$han 

Brocade 

Kimkhvdb 

Kinkhdb 

Kinkhdb 

Button 

Ghundi 

Gundi 

Borlyun 

Cap 

Kutdh 

Topi* 

Topi 

Chain 

Zanjir,Lubddah  SdnkhU 

Sdnkli,  Sdnkal 

Cloak 

Jubbah,     Ang- 

Ghougadi,  Motd 

Ghughadi,  Mhoto 

arkhd 

dagld 

daglo 

Clothing 

Llbds 

Wastren,  Pang- 
hrunen 

Lugddn,  Wastrc 

Coat  (of  an 

Pagld 

Pagleii 

Aiigrakho,  Daglo 

European) 

(of  an  Indian)  Kurtl,  Kabd 

Angarkha 

[Bomfxiy- 

-1880.1 

p 

66 


li^TnODUCTION. 


Sect.  I. 


English. 
Cotton 
Drawers 
Ear-rings 

Embroidery 

Fan 
Girdle 

Glove 

Gown 

Handkerchief 
Linen 

Lining 

Loop 

Kecklace 

Needle 

Pocket 

Pin 

Ribbon 

Ring 


Seam 
Shirt 
Shoe 

Silk 

Skii-t 

Sleeve 

Stocking 

Thimble 

Thread 
Turban 

Veil 

Velvet 
"Woollen 

Food. 

Asparagus 
Appetite 

Barley 
Boiled 


HiNDUSTAKi. 

Rt:ii,  Kap&s 
Pdi  jamah 
Jhumkd,    Kun- 

dal,  Awezah 
Chikan-dozi, 

Gulkari 
Pankhd 
Kamarband 

Dastdnah 

Peshwdz 

Riimdl 
San 

Astar 
Phdnsd 
Har,  Kanthi 

Siii 

Khisd 

Tanchni 

Pattl,  Kor,  Fit 

Angushtarl,  (for 
nose)  Nath, 
(for  toes) 
Bichwa 

Dokhtj  Joj* 

Kamis 

Juti,(hom)Ndl 

Rishm 
Ddmau 
Afitin 
Mozah 
Angusht  pandh 

Dorl,  DhAg6 
Pagri 

BurV:'a 

Makhmal 
tJn  kd  kapi:d 

Khurdii,   Andjj 
Tfi'dm., 

Ndgdaun 
Bhiikh,  Ishtihd 

Jau 
Ubald  hiid 


MABlfHi. 
Kdpiis 

Ijdr,  Pdyjdmd 
Kundal,  l^air^- 

bhii^han 
Kashldd,  Bnti 

Pankhd,  Vijhund 
Pattd,  Kamar- 
band 
Hdtdtsd  mojd 

Gaun,  Dzhagd, 

Peshwdj 
Rumdl 
Tdgdchen  or  Sa^- 

dchen  kdpad 
Astar 

Mudan,  Phdsd 
Mdl,    Hdr,   GaM 

pattd 
Sui,  Sii 
Khisd 
Tdntsni 
Phit 
Angathi,  Mudrd, 

Mudi,    Kad^n, 

Mandal 

• 

Shiwan,  Dun 

Kamlj 

Jodd,  Pdyposh, 

Motsd 
Reshim 
Gher,  Ghol 
Bdhi,  Astani 
Pdymodzd 
Angustdn,  Bot 

Slit,  Dord 
Pdgoteii,  Mundd* 

sen 
Burkha,  Ofhnl 

Ghuugat 
MakhmaJ 
Lonkarlchen 

A'sparagas 
Bhuk,  Ki^hudhd 

Jau 

Ukadleld,  Rdiid- 

hcia 


GUJABlxi. 

Rii 

Ijdr,  Leiigo,  Payjdmo 

Chokdun,  Eimdal, 

Kadi 
Bharat,  Chikan 

Pankho,  Winjno 
Kamarbandh 

Hathnun  mojun, 
Dastdnd 

Gawan,  Jdmo,  Pesh- 
wdj 

Romdl 

Shannun  kdpad 

Astar 

Fd&do,  Fdnso 
Galiyuii  Kanthi, 

Hdr,  Gop-mdld 
Soi,  Soy 

Gajwun,  Khisuii 
Tdnchnl 
Pdto,  Fit 
Wintl 


Shiwan 
Khamis 
Jodo,  Paposh 

Resham 

Gher 

Bdnhi 

Pagnnji  moju 

Angusthnl,  Aiigothl, 

Angothadi 
Doro 
Pdghdl 

Burkho,  Ghuughat 

Makhmal 
tJnnun  kdpad 

Blwjan, 

Kdgdan 
Ruchi,  Bhukh) 

K^hudhd 
Jav 
Pakiiwclun,  Rdndhc- 

luu 


Sect.  I. 

VOCABULARY. 

©7 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Marathi. 

GUJA&iTi. 

Beef 

Gde  k&  Gosht 

Go  mdns 

Go  mds 

Bean 

BA\\&y  Lob4 

Ghewdd,  Warwa 

Walor 

Bread 

Rotl 

Bhdkar,  Poll, 
PAnw 

RotU,  Poll,  Pdiiuii 

Breakfast 

Ndshtah 

Nyahdri 

Hdjarl,  Kdshto 

Brinjal  (or  egg- 

' Baingan 

Wdngen 

Wengan 

plant) 

Bottle 

Shishah 

Shisd,  Eupd 

Shishf 

Broth 

Shorbd 

Mdsdchi  karhi, 
Rasd 

Sherwo 

Batter 

M^kah 

Loni 

Mdnkhan 

Cabbage 

Kobl 

Kobl 

Kobi 

Cauliflower 

PhiU  karam 

Phiilkobi 

Phrtlkobi 

Cheese 

Panlr 

Panir 

Panlr 

Cork 

Biij,  DattA 

Biij 

BAch 

Cream 

Mal^' 

Malai,  Sdi 

Malal 

Curds 

Dahl 

Dahin,  Chakkd, 
Dadhi 

Dahl 

Dainty 

Laziz 

Pakwdnn,  God 

Mi^htdn,  Pakwdn, 
Swddi^hth  ann, 
Lejatddr 

Dinner 

Khand 

Jewan,  Bhojan 

Jaman,  Bhojan 

Drink 

Shurb,  Pine  ka 

k  Pey,  Pdnly,  Piny- 

■  Pliiiin,  Piwdno  pa- 

chiz 

dtsd  paddrth 

ddrth 

Feast 

Ziy^at 

Jewandwal,  San^ 
Meiwdni 

Ujdnf,  Mehmdni 

Flesh 

Gosht 

Mds 

Mdns,  Gost 

Flour 

Kt& 

Pith,  Kanik 

Lot,  Medo,  K\o 

Fried 

BhunneU  hud 

Talaleleii 

Talelun 

Glass 

Edch 

Kdnts,  Kdnchc- 
chen 

Kdch,    Edchnun 

Gravy 

Ab-gosht 

Mdiis  ras 

Madsuo  ras 

Greens 

Tarkdrl 

Bhdji 

Tarkdrl,Shdk  bhdji, 
Shdk  tarkdrl 

Guest 

Mihmdn 

Pahnnd 

Parona 

Host 

Mezb4n 

Yajmdn,  Ghard- 

hani 
Murambd,  Mu- 

Ghar  dhani,  Yajmdn 

Jam 

Murabbd 

Murabbo 

rabbd 

Jelly 

Rubb 

J61i,  PhalpAk 

Chiknun 

Knife 

(pen)      ChAkii 

,  Tsdkii,     Surf, 

Chdkii 

ChhuTi 

Chhiirikd 

Milk 

DiWh 

Diidh,  K^hlr 

Diidh 

Millet 

BAjri 

Barag 

Bdjri 

Minced 

Koft,ah 

Chhindleleii 

Ehimo  karwo 

Mustard 

R4i 

Rdyl,  Mohri 

B.df 

Mutton 

Bher  kd  gosht 

Mendhrdchl 

Ghetannu,  or  Bhednu 

sdguti 

mdiiS 

Napkin 

Dastmdl 

Pus^en 

Mhodun,  Luchhwdno 
rumdl 

Oil 

Tel 

Tel 

Tel 

Pickle 

Achii* 

Lonchen 

Athdnu 

Pepper 

Mirch 

Kdiln  mircu 

Marl' 

V  2 

68 

INTRODUCTIOX. 

dcC V*  X  • 

English. 

HindiistAni. 

MabIthi. 

GUJARATI. 

Plate 

B&san 

(silver  or  gold) 

(silver)  Ruperl  sA- 

BupjAchen  bA- 

man,  (a  plate)  Ki- 

mAn,  (a  plate) 

kabi,  Thai! 

/ 

BAsan 

RoaHt 

Bhi^na 

BhAian 

KabAb 

Bice 

Chdwal,(boiled)  TAndiil,  BhAt 

BhAt,  ChokhA 

Bhat,  Dhdn 

Bait 

Nimak 

Mith,  Lon,  Lavan  Mithun,  Ldn 

Sauce 

Chatni 

Olavan 

Chatni 

Spoon 

Chamchah 

ChamchA 

Chamch6 

Stewed 

Dampukht  kiyA  Mand  agnita  pAk 

Dhime,  dhlme  tApc 

■ 

rAndhelu 

Sagar 

Shakar,  Mi^ 

SAkar,  Chini 

EhAnd 

Supper 

'AshA,  Bit  hiid  RAtrichen  bho- 

SandhyAkAlnuii  bho- 

khdnd 

jan 

jan 

Sweetmeats 

Mlthdi 

MlthAi 

MlthAl,  Halwo 

Tablecloth 

Dastar  KhwAn 

MedzAchi  ChAdar  PAntharan                                        | 

Tray 

ThAH 

Tabak 

ThAli,  Khumcho 

VpaI 

Bachhre    kd 

WAnsarAchl  sa- 

Wachchhno  mAs 

gosht 

gutl 

Vinegar 

SirkAh 

SirkA 

Sharko 

Wheat 

Gehiiii 

Gahtiii 

Gahiiii 

Wme 

SharAb 

DrakshAchi  diird 

DarAkhno  dAru 

House,  Furni- 

GJuir Sdmdn 

GJiar  Oluirdnta- 

Gluir  ane  g1iarn§ 

ture,  <Jr. 

len  sdnuln, 
wagaire 

sdman  ityddL 

Arch 

KamAn 

KamAn,  Mehrab 

KamAn,  Mehnib 

Bag 

Thaill 

Pishwi,  Thalli 

Kothll.  Theli 

Basket 

TokrA,  Pitai-A 

TopM,  PAnti,  Pe- 
thArA,  Karand 

Topli,  Toplo 

Barber 

QajjAm 

HajAm,  NhAwi, 

HajAm,    Walaiid 

Bearer 

i^ammAl 

A'nnArA,  or  VAh- 
iiArA  (of  pAlkl) 
Bhoin,  KahAr 

Bhoi,  AnnAr,  LAwnAr 

Bath 

QammAm 

Hami),m  khAnA, 

NAhawAni  or  snAn- 

NhAnlchidzAgA, 

karwAni  jagA, 

SnAii 

HamAm 

Bed-room 

Eh^Ab  gAh 

NidzAwyAchl 
kholi 

SuwAno  ordo 

Beam 

ShAhtlr 

BahAl,  Tulal 

BhArwatiyo 

Bench 

Chaukl 

BAnk 

BAjat 

Bell 

GhantA 

GhantA 

Ghatit 

Bedstead 

Palang 

KhAt;  Palang 

KhAtlo,  Palang, 
PalaAgdi 

Bedding 

BichhAnA 

BiclihAnA,  Shej 

Goddun,    PathAri, 
BichhAnun 

Box 

Sandiil:,  Pcti 

Peti,  Dabbl 

Peti,  DAbdl 

Board 

Takhtah 

Phali,  TakhtA 

PAtlyun 

Bolt 

HurkA,  Belna 

Khii,  Adkan 

Atkan,  Adgro 

Brick 

Tnt 

rt,  Wit ' 

Tilt   ' 

Bucket 

Doi 

Dol,  Pohrd,  BAldl  Dol,  BAldi 

Building 

'imarat 

ImAi-at,  Baiidist 

ImArat 

Candle 

Mom  batti 

Men  batti 

Men  or  Min  batl 

Sect.  1. 

VOCABULARY. 

ey 

English. 

Hindustani. 

MAnATHi. 

GujabAtI. 

Carriage 

Gdri 

Wddan,  Gddi 

Gddi,  Wdhan 

Carpet 

Shatranjl 

Hatranji,  Gdlitsd 
bichhdyat 

SetraAji,  Galicho 

Casket 

pibbA 

Dabbd 

Ddbdo 

Cellar 

Bhaunra 

talghar,  Bhuydr 

Bhoiiyrun 

Chink 

Chhed,  Chir 

Phkt,  Chir 

Fdt,  Chir,  Chlro 

Chamber 

Kothri 

Ehoii,  Kothadi 

Ordl,  Kothadi 

Chimney 

Diidddn 

Dhurddeii 

Dhumddiyun 

Chair 

Kursl 

Ehursl 

Kursl 

Chest 

Petl 

Petl,  Hadpd 

Petl 

Cistern 

Hauz 

Tdkl,  Ku'nd 

Tdnkt,  KuAd.  Ho] 

Cook 

Bdwarchi 

(ABrdhmancook)  Kasoiyo 

A'tsdrljSwayaih- 

pdki,  Babarchi 

Corner 

Kond 

Kon,  Eoprd 

Kon 

Connting-house 

Daftar-khdnah 

Pedhi  (of  Indian 

bankers) 
Phanl,    Vin- 

Pedhl,  Dukdn 

Comb 

Kanghi 

Kduskl 

charnl 

Cover 

Ghildf,  DhiiknA  Dzhdnkan 

Dhauknuii,  Padbidaii 

Coverlet 

Palang  posh, 

Palan?  posh,  Pd- 

Chddar 

Razdl 

sodd,  Chddar 

Cup 

PiyAl'ah 

Pydld,  Katord 

Pydlun 

Cupola 

Gumbaz 

Ghumat 

Ghunmat 

Cradle 

PAlnA 

Pdlnd,  Tdrleft 

Pdlnun,  '  GhodlAii, 
jhodi 

Curtains 

Parde  (musqui- 
to)     machch- 

Padda 

• 

Paddo 

• 

harddni 

« 

Discharge 

Ilizd,  Rukhsat 

Nirop,  Bajd 

Rajd  (dismissal),  (of 

Baitarafi 

(dismissal) 

a  gun)  Bdr 

Door 

Darwdzah 

Darwddzd 

Bdr,  Kamdd 

Drain 

Mori 

Nal,  Ndld,  (of  a 
house)  Mori 

Mori,  Nal 

Expenses 

Kharch, 
Akhrajdt 

Kharts 

Kharach 

Floor 

Zamin 

Dzamin,  Bhui 

Jamin,  Bhoy 

Footman 

Paidal,  Piyddah 

,  Pdddtsd  manu- 
shya,  Pyddd 

Pyddo 

Foundation 

Paydh 

Pdyd 

Pdyo 

Furniture 

Sdmdn 

Sdmdn,  Saraii- 
jdm 

Sdman,   Sarr.njdm 

Gardener 

Bdghbdn,  Mdli 

Mdli 

Mdli 

Groom 

Ghorewdld,  Sdis  Ghodewdld,    Mo- 

Ghodawdlo,  Charwd- 

tadddr 

ddr 

Hall 

Diwdn  khdnah 

Diwdn  khdnd 

Ewdn 

Handle 

Dastah 

Dastd,    Miith, 
Ddndd 

Hdtho,  Dasto 

Hire 

Kirdyah 

Hel,  Bhdden 

Bhdduii,  Majuri 

Hole 

Siirdkh,  Chhed 

Bhonkil,  Bil, 
Kholgd 

Bil,  Chhidr 

Jar 

Ghard,  Khum 

Baranl,  Ghadi, 
Madken 

Ghado 

• 

Kettle 

Batiid 

peg,  Haudl 

peg,  Taplluii 

70 

INTRODUCTIOK. 

sect.  i. 

Enolisu. 

HiNDlJSTANi. 

MarAthL 

1 

GUJARATt 

Key 

ChAbl 

TsAwi,  KilU 

Kunchl 

Kitchen 

Bdwarchi 

Swayampdk  ghar, 
Babarcnikhdn4, 

RasoduA,  Babarchi 

Ehdnah 

khdnun 

Mutbakh  khdn4 

Labourer 

Mazdiir 

Madztir 

Majiir 

Lamp 

ChirAch,  Dip 

Diwd 

Diwo,  Dlpak 
Pustak  khdnun 

Library 

Eitdb  kh4nah 

Pustak&laya,  Pus- 

tak  kh^d 

Tiime 

Chiind 

TsunA 

Chuno 

Lock 

Kufl 

Tdld,  Kuliip 

Tdlun 

Looking-glass 

'Afnah 

A'rsi,  Darpan 

Darpan,  Arsl, 
Chdtlun 

Mat 

Chatil 

BoryA,  Anthrl 

Hashlr,  Chatdl 

Oven 

Tanir 

Bhattl 

Bhaththl,  Tandiir 

PAlki 

Pdlki 

PAlkl,  MydnA 

Pdlkhl 

Pillar 

Sutiin,  Thamb 

Ehdmb,  Stambh 

Thdmbhlo,  Sthambh 

Pillow 

Takiyah 

Ushl,    Takyd, 
Girdl 

Takyo,  Oslsun 

Porch 

Dewj-hl 

Dewyhl 

Dewdl,  Osarl 

Porter 

Mazdi!ir,  (at  the 
door   of    a 
house)  DarbAn 

Helkarl 

Helkarl 

Plaster 

Lep  (med.) 

EaphlM,  gildwd. 

Lep 

malham  and 

Lep  (med.) 

Marham 

Pot 

Deg 

Bhdnden 

Tapili,  Handl 
Chndpruu 

Hoof 

Chhappar 

Chhappar 

Scissors 

Kainchl 

Kdtar,  Kainchl 

Kdtar 

Servant 

Naukar 

TsAkaa-,  Dds, 
Sewak 

Chdkar 

Sheet 

ChMar 

ChAdar,  (of  paper) 

Chddar,Pichhodl,(of 

TAu 

paper)  Tdw 

Slave 

Ghuldm 

GuUm,  Dds 

Guldm,  Chelo 

Snuffers 

Gul-tardsh 

Diwydchl  kdtar 

Gul  Kdtar 

Soot 

KAjal 

Mas 

Kdjal,  Mes 

Stair 

Darjah,  Slyhi 

Jina,  Shidl,Dddar  Dddar,  Nlsami 

Step 

Payah 

Pdyrl 

Pagthiyuii 

Storey 

Manzil 

Majld 

Mdl,  Medo,  Majlo 

Sweeper 

Jh4ri!i  kash  (low 
caste  servant), 
Mihtar,Bhangi, 

HaUlkhor 

Dzhddndrd 

Jhddu  korndr 

Table 

Mej 

Mej 

Mej 

Tailor 

Darjl,  KhiyAt; 

Shiiiipi 

Darjl 

Terrace 

Agist,     Chabil- 

Gachchl,  Chau- 

Agdsf 

tarah 

thard 

Tile 

Nariya 

Kaiil,  Khdpar 

Nallyuii 

Top 

(Summit)     Sar 

,  Shendd,  Shikhd, 

ToAch,  Shikhar 

Sikhar,  (play- 

(plaything) 

0 

thing)  Latti 

Bhaurd 

Tongs 

Chimt4 

Gdwo 

Chipiyo,  Chimto 

Torch 

MasVal 

Mashdl,  Diwatl 

Masdl 

Torch-bearer 

Mash'alchi 

DiwatydjMashdl' 

•  Masdlchi 

chl 


Sect.  I. 


VOCABULARY* 


71 


Enqlish. 

Wages 

WaU 

Washerman 

Water-carrier 


Window 
Wood 

Bit 

Bridle 

Curry-comb 

Girth 

Martingale 

Saddle 

Spur 

Spectacles 

Stable 

Stirrup 


HlNDdSTiNf.  MABATHI. 

HawAjib,  Pagdr  Bozmnn&,  PagAr, 

MushAharA 
DlwAr  BhiAt,  DiwAr 

Dhobl  Dhobi,  Parl^ 

Bihishti  PAnakyA 


Ehirkf 
Lalqrfi    (firC'A 

wood)  Hezam 
LagAm 
BAg 

Eharahrah 
Tang 
Zerband 
Zin 
Mahmez 

Chashmah 

Tawllah 

RikAb 


Khidkl,  Jharoko 
LAAkilid,  Lakdl 

Lagdm 

LagAm 

Ehardrd 

TaAg 

Jerband 

Jin.  Khoglr 

PAyAAche  kAnte 

'Ar, 
Chashmi,  Arasi, 

Upanetr 
TabelA,   Ghod- 

shAlA,  PAgA 
Rikebl 


GUJABATI. 
PagAr 

BhlAt,  DiwAl 

Dhobhi 

Bhisti,    P4n{    bhar- 

nAr,    or    LAwnAr, 

PakhAli 
BAri,  Jharoko 
LAkduft,  Sarpan 

LagAm 

LagAm 

Kharero 

Tang 

Jer  band 

Jia,  PAlAn 

KAuto 

Chasmo,  Upanetra 

Tabelo,  GhodshAl  or 

PAgA 
PAwdun,  RikAb,  trr 

RikAb 


A  Garden, 

Fruit 

Husk 

Kernel 

Stone  or  seed 

Almond 

Apple 

Apricot 

Cherry 

Betel  nut 

Cocoa  nut 

Citron 

Custard-apple 

Date 

Fig 

Grapes 

Guava 

Lemon 

Lime 

Mango 

Mangosteen 
(fruit  of  the 
GiMTcinia 
purpurea) 

Melon 


Bdgh, 

Mewali 

ChhUkA 

Mafhz,  Giidd 

Blj,  Tukhm 

BAiiAm 

Seb 

ZardAlA 

ShAhAlA 

SApiyArl 

NAryal 

Chakotard, 

Turanj 
SitA  phal 
KhajAr 
Anjlr 
AngAr 
JAm 
LlmA 
LimA 
A'm 
Kokam 


Eharbiisah 


Bdffj  BagUid.  Wddiy  Bdg, 

Phal  Mewo,  Fal 

SAl '  ChhAl 

Mokh  Gar 

BAAthA,Bi,Anthil  Gotlo,  GotH,  Blj 

BadAm  BadAm 

Seb  Seb 

DzhardAlii  JardAlu 


SupArl,  Phopha} 
NAral 

_  * 

Toraujan,  MAhA- 

Jung 
SitA  phal 
KhajAr 
Anjlr 
DrAk^h 
PerA 
NimbA 
NlmbA 
AmbA 
Kokamb 


SopArl,  Fofal 
NAi-ival,  Shri  fal 
TuraAj 

SitAfal 

KhAreky  Ehajur 

Anjlr 

DrAksh,  DarAkh 

Jamrukh 

Limbu 

KAgadi  limbu 

Keri,  A'mbo 

Kokamb 


KharbAj,  (water  Tai'buch,  Tarbuchiin, 
melon)  TarbAj,  Khadbuj,  Kaling- 
KAllAgad  dAn  ' 


72 

INTRODUCTION. 

Sect.  I. 

English. 

Hindustani. 

MabAthi. 

GujarAti. 

Mulberry 

Rh^httit 

Tuten 

Shetut 

OUve 

Zaiti!in 

Aliv 

Jalpdf,  Jctun 

Orange 

NArangl 

Ndrangi 

Ndrangi 

Peach 

8haft,iilii 

SbaphtdM 

Sheftdlu 

Pear 

Ndshpati 

Ndshp&ti 

Per 

Pine-apple 
Plantain 

Anann^ 

Anands 

Anendsh 

KeU 

Keleii 

Keld,  Keluu 

Plum 

A'lii  bukharA 

Aid  bukhar 

Alu,  Amrd 

Pomegranate 

An&r 

Dd^imb,  andr 

Dddam,  or,  Ddlam 

Quince 

.^afarjal,  Bihi 

bhriphal 

Safarjal,  (seed) 
Beddnd 

Baisins 

Kishmish 

Manukd,  Kismis 

Kdlidrdkh 

Sugar-cane 

Gandd,  Paun^^ 

,  U'ns,  Ikshu 

Shemdi 

Tamarind 

Tamar  i  Hindi, 
rmlf 

ChiAch 

A'mli' 

Walnut 

Akrot:,orAkhro1 

;  Akhrot,  Akhrod 

Akhrot)  or  Akhod 

Tree9   and 

Jliar  aur  PMh 

DzM4en     dm 

Jhddo,  WriJt-aho, 

Flowers. 

phalen. 

nc  Pliulen, 

Anemone 

Sha^4i^'n 
num^n 

Guleldla 

Gul  Idld 

Bambii 

Bdns 

Bdmbii 

Wdiis 

Blackwood 

Shisham 

^\sa,\{Dalhergia 
Sum) 

.  Shisam 

Coffee 

Kahwah,  (the 

Bund  (the  berry) 

BuAd 

berry)  Bun 

Kawd  (the  in- 
fusion) 

Cypress 

Sarv 

Sanl 

Sarowar 

Figtree 

Darakht  i  anjlr 

Anjir,       Anjfrd-  Aiijiruiijhdd 

chen  dzhdr 

Mallows 

Gul  khaini 

ShakaxtelijDllpa- 

Gole-Kheru,    Dil- 

sant 

pasand 

Myrtle 

WilAyati 

MatU 

MatU,    Khoshboddr, 

Mihdi,Menhdf 

Mendm 

Pine 

Sanaubar 

Raral 

Shanobar 

Tamarisk 

JhAii,  TAgh, 
Babin 

Kesari 

ChlnnI 

Teak 

SiSg 

Sdg 

Sdg,  Sdgwdn 

Vine 

AngtirkA 
darakht,  TAk 

Drdkshachl  wel 

Drdkh 

Anise 

Sau&f 

Shepu   or   Badl- 

shep 
Kobl 

Suwd 

Cabbage 

Kobi 

Kobi 

Capsicum 

MughUi  mirch 

Mirchi,        Mogli  Marchu& 

mirchl 

Caraway 

Ajmiid 

Ajmodd 

Ajmod,  Warydli 

Cardamom 

IlAchi 

Eldodd,      Elchl- 
chen  jhdr 

Elchi 

Carrot 

G&jar 

Gddzar 

Gdjar 

Chamomile 

B&bi^nah 

Bdbund 

Bdbi!ineh 

Coriander 

DhaniyA 

Dhand 

Kothmi 

Cresses 

HAlim 

Hdli'nw,  A'hllnw 

Hdlem 

Jasmine 

CharobeU 

Jdl,  Mogri 

Champell.  Jal 

K^ect.  1. 

VOCABULARY. 

73 

English. 

HimJUSTANi. 

Mabathi. 

GUJARATf. 

lily  (water) 

Kama],  Sosan 

Bhui  kamal,  Nag- 
champak 

•  Kamkl 

Nosegay 

Guldastah 

Tura,    Phiildi'itsA  Fulno  dado,  or  toro, 

guchoJih 

or  goto 

Poppy 

Khash  khash 

Aphlncheii  dzhar  Ehaskasnun, /»?% 

Post 

Aflnnuii  jbdd 

Bosc 

GuUb 

Guldb 

Goldb,  or,  Guldb 

Tomato 

WilAyati  bain- 
gan 

■  Wildyatl  wdiigl 

Tnlip-tree 

Ldlah 

Ldld 

Ldld,  Gulldld 

Violet 

Banafshah 

Banaphshd 

Banafsd 

Wreath 

Sihrd 

Mdld,    Gajrd, 
Weni 

Fiilni  mdld,  or  Hdr 

Bark 

Chhdl 

Sdl 

Chhdl 

Berry 

DAnah 

Ldhan  phal 

Ddno 

BloBsom 

Kalf 

Mohr,  Pushp 

Phiilnl  kail 

Branch 

D&li,  Sh^kh 

Khdndi 

Pdll,  Ddiikhri 

FlOflB 

Reshah 

(ThrPAcl)    Tantu, 
Siitr,  (of  wood 
Hirkd,  Shird 

Re^ho 

Flower 

Phiil 

Phiil 

Fiil,  Pushp 

Gnm 

Gond 

Gond,  Dlk 

Gundar 

Tieaf 

Patta 

Pdu 

Pdn 

Plant 

BiitA 

Ropd,  Aushadhi 

Ropo,  Chhodwo 

Root 

Jar,  (origin)  ArI 

Miil 

Miil,  Jad 

Trunk 

Tanah 

Khod.  Kdnd 

Jhddnun  thad 

Cucnmber 

Khlrd,  Kakri 

Kdkdi 

Kdk'adi 

Fennel 

Sod 

Wadishop 

Warydll 

Fenugreek 

Methi 

Methl 

Methl  ' 

FlaL 

San 

Dzawas,  Atsi 

San 

Garlic 

Lasan 

LflAiin 

Lasan 

Gourd 

Kadu 

Bhompld,  Ddiigar 

Kadu,  Dodhl 

Hemp 

San 

Tdg,  San 

San 

• 

Indigo 

Nil 

Nil  (the  colour) 
Kdllgull 

Gull 

Ivy 

'Ishk  pechd 

Latd,  Wei 

Ashak  pecho 

Leek 

Kdndd 

Kdndd 

Kdndo 

Lentil 

Masiir 

Masi!ir 

Masiir,  Masiiml  ddl 

Lettuce 

Edhti 

Kdhu 

{                Linseed 

Alsi 

Alshl 

Alsi 

Mint 

Podlnah 

Pudind 

Fudno 

Nettle 

Gaznah 

Khdj  Koltl 

Kdkchd 

Nightshade 

MakOy  Inabu  \s 
salab 

Ringnl 

Riiignu 

Onion 

Piydz 

Kdiidd 

Ediido 

Parsley 

Ajmiid 

Ajmodd 

Ajmud 

Peas 

Matar,  Miing, 
Mdsh 

Wdtdnd 

Mag,  Tuwar 

Rue 

Ispand,  Suddb 

Satdp 

Sihetdb 

Saffron 

Z'afardu 

Keshar 

Kesar 

Sorrel 

Ohiikd.Turshah, 
Chukr 

Tsukd 

Chuko,  Khatum 

Spinach 

Pulak 

Pdlak 

Pdlakh,     Choldni 
bhdjl 

74 


INTRODUCTION. 


k)cCX«  x* 


English. 

Squill 

Turnip 

Jet-d'eau 

Aqueduct 


HlNDI^TgTANI.  MABAtHI. 

Iskll  Kdndd 

Shalgham  Bhalgam 

Fauwdrah,  KdraAjeii 

Chashmali 

Nal  Nal,  pdt 


GUJAltlTf. 

Kdndo 

Salgam 

Cliasmo 

Pdunino  nal 


Aradle  Land, 

Barley 

Bam 

Bran 

Cart 

Chaff 

Com 

Fami 

Farmer 

Field 
Grass 
Harrow 
Harvest 

Hay 

Hedge 

Husbandry 

Labourer 
Landlord 

Meadow 

Plough 
Reaper 
Reaping-hook 

Sower 
Spade 
Straw 

Stack 

Tenant 


Wheat 
Wild 


Kdhil  i  zird'at 

Zamin. 
Jau 
Kothd 
Chokar 
Chhakrd,  Gdrl 
Bhiisd 
Andj 
Chak 


Jlrdlti  dzamin         Khedwdjog  bhoi. 


Jav 
Kothdr 
Koiidd 
Gddd 
Bhiis 
Dhdnya 

Dhdnydne  ghet- 
leli  dzamin 
Kisdn,  Khetddr  Dhdrekarl 


Yoke 


Khet 
Ghdns 
Hengd 
Fasal,  Dirau 

Siikd  ghdns 

Bdr 

Kheti 

Mazdilr 
Zamin      ka 

Malik 
Murghzdr 

Hal 

Dirogar 

Ddsd 

Bonewdld 
Bel,  Kndali 
Pardl,  Karbi 

Tal,Todah,Ganj 

Pattdddr 


Gohviii 

(adj.)  Jangall, 
(subs.)  Jan- 
gal,  Baydbdn 

J  lid 


Shet 

Gawat,  Tsar 
Kulav,  Ddntalefi 
Hangdm,      Kdp- 

niche  divas 
Wdjalelengawat 
Kupan 
Shet  kdm,  Kpshi 

karm 
Madziir,  Bigdrl 
Phajinddr,     Dza- 

minddr, 
Kuran 

• 

Ndiigar 

Edpandrd 

lid 

• 

Pernard 
Dali,  Khoreii 
Kdd,  Pendhd 


Jav 

Kothdr,  Bhauddr 

Thulun 

Gdduu 

Bhusuii,  Bhuso 

Andj 

Ijdre  lidheli  jamln, 

Ijdro 
Ijdraddr,  Zaminddr, 

Khedut 
Khetar 
Ghds,  Ehad 
Ddnto 
Mosam,      Kdpnino 

Wakhat,  Bhamuii 
Sdkun  ghds 
Wdd 
Khetiwddi 

Majdr 
Jaminddr 

Meddn,      Ghdsno 

ugawdni  bid 
Ndngar 

Khetar  karndrd 
Dardnti    or   Kdtar- 

wdnun  hathiydr 
Wdwnaxo,  Bopndro 
Pdwado 
Pardl,    Pendo    (rice 

straw)  ;  Kadab 
Bhag,  Kudhwo 


Gani,    Udwl, 

Kumbherl 
(Of   a  building)  Ganotiyo,  Khedut 

Bhddekari, 

Dhdrekarl, 

Sdrekari,  Kiil 
Gahiin 
(adj.)  Rdndtsd, 

(subs.)  Jangal, 

Osdd  dzdgd 
Dzukad,(ofoxen)  (Of  oxen)  Jhusri 

Jodi' 


Godhdm 

Jangal,    Padtd     ja- 
mln,  Werdn 


Sect.  I. 


VOCABULARY. 


75 


English.        Hindustani.         MarathI. 


Of    Banking 
andAcoounts. 

Account 

Acquittance 

Address 

Advance 

Advertisement 

Agent 

Agreement 

Answer 

Apprentice 

Asset 

Auction 

Balance 

Banker 

Bankrupt 

BiU 

Bond 

Broker 

Business 

Buyer 

Capital 

Charges 

Commerce 

Constituent 

Contract 

Credit 

Creditor 

Custom-house 

Date 

Day-book 

Debit 

Debt 

Debtor 

Delay 

Demand 

Evasion 

Excuse 

Export 


Factor 
Famine 


Sahuk&H  avr 
jama  Itlmrch. 

yisAb 

Farigh  KJiatti 
Pata 

Ta^dwi 

25ahir  Vhabar, 

IshtihAr 
Gumdshtah, 

Vakil 
Kabiiliyat, 
*  Kar4r 

• 

Jawab 
Sh4gird 
MaujMdt,  Mdl 

milkat 
Harrdj 
Bdkl 

Sdhiikdr,  Sarnif 
Dewdliya 
Hundi,  Chithi 
DastAwez 
DaUdl 

Kdm,  DhandhA 
KharldAr 
Piinjl 
Kharch 
Saudd,  Baipjir 
Munib 

IjArah,  Thlka 
Jam'a 

Karz  khwAh 
SAir* 
Tdrlkh 
Bozndmchah, 

Daftar 
Udhdr 
Karz 

•  • 

KarzdAr 

Muhlat 
Khwdhish 

Bahdnah 

Nikdsl 


Gumdshtah 
Dukdl,  Kaht 


SdrvaJtdrl     wa 
thavid  klvartz 
yd  jyTaJtarni, 

Khdten 

Phdrakhtl 

Pattd 

Agdii  paikd, 

Tagdl 
Dzdhirdt 

Adtyd 


GuJABATf. 

SdhuMrl  anejame 
Mu7'chn6  hiidb, 

Hisdb,  Khdtai\ 

Fdragati 

Eagalnun 

shamdmuii,  Patto 
Aug  udhdr 

Jdher  khabar 

Adtiyo 


Kardr,  Kardr-  Kabiildt,  Kardr 

ndmd 

Dzawdb,  Uttar  Jawdb,  Jabdp 

Shdgird,  Shishya  Shdgird 

Punjl  Awej 


Lilaiiw,  Nildm 
Bdkl 
Sdwakdr 
Diwdliya 
Hundi,  Chiththi 
Khat 
Daldl 

Kdm,  Udyog 
Wikat  ghendra 
Bhdndwal,' Punjl 
Kharts 
Vydpdr 
Adatyd 
Maktd 
Pat,  Dzamd 
Rinkarl 
Mdndwi 
Tdrlkh 
Bodzkhardd, 
Rodzndmd 
Udhdr 
Rin 
Rinl 
Ushlr 
Mdgnen 
Tdlno 

•  •  

Nimltya,  Bdhdnd, 

Sabab 
Mdl  dilsre  baii- 

darl  rawdnd 

karne 
Gumdstd,    Kdrb- 

hdrl 
Dukdl 


Lildm,  Hard] 

Bdkl 

Sardf 

Dlwdliyo 

Hundi,  Aukdo 

Khat,  Khdtun,  Lekh 

Daldl,  Gumdsto 

Wepdr 

Kharld  ddr 

Bhaudol,  PuAji 

Kharach 

Wepdr 

Adtlo 

Ijdro 

Jamd,  Jame 

Mdiigndr 

Furjd,  Mdndawl 

Tarlkh,  Mitl 

Rojmel,    RojndmuA, 

Nodh 
(to)  Udhdrwun 
Karaj 

Karajddr,  Denddr 
Dhll,  Wilamb;  Wdr 
Tagddo 
Andkdnl 
Bahdiiun,  Nimitt 

Rawdnagl,  Mdl  blje 
baudare    rawdne 
karwo 

Adatyo,    Kdrbhdrl, 
Gomdshto 

Dukdl,  Kdl 


7() 

INTRODUCTION. 

beet.  1. 

English. 

FTlNDUSTANI. 

MaeAthi. 

GUJARATI. 

Goods 

MAI,  Jing 

Mdl,  Jinnas 

Mdl,  Sdman 

Grain 

An^i,  Ghallah 

Dhdnya 

Dhdnya 

Handicraft 

IJirfat 

Hdtkdm,  Kald 

Hdthekdm,  Karwdno 
dhaAdho,  Pesho 

Import 

Bdhir  mal 

Bandar!  jinnas 

Bandarmdii    mdl 
Idwawo 

Interest 

(Of  money) 

Bydj, 

(  Of'money)By&i  vidj : 

Biydj,    (influ- 

(influence) Wag, 

ence)  Wasllah 

Wasilo 

Lease 

Patta 

Pattd 

Pato 

Leisure 

Fursat 

Wei,  Phursat, 
Awkdsh 

Fui'sat,  Chhutl 

Letter 

Khat,  Cliithl 

Patr,  ChithtM 
kdgad 

Kdgal,  Patar 

Loan 

Udhar 

Usanen 

Uchhlnun 

Loss 

Nuk^dn 

Totd,  Nuksdn 

Toto,  Nuksdn 

Manufacture 

Edrkhdnah 

Kdrkhdnd 

Kdrkhdnuu 

Market 

Bdzdr 

Bddzdr 

Bajdr,  Ghaut 

Memorandum 

YM  ddsht 

Yddl 

Iddl 

Merchant 

Sauddgar, 
Baip4ri 
SaudA,  Mdl 

Vydpdrl,  Udaml 

Wepdrl 

Merchandize 

Mal 

Mdl 

Message 

PaighAm 

Nirop 

Nirop 

Money- 

Paisa 

Paikd 

Ndnu,  Paisd 

Mortgage 

Giro 

Gahdn 

Gharene,  Girwi.  Giro 

Note 

Chithl,  Pati 

Chitti,  Patr 

Chitthi,  Patr 

Overplus 

Fuzlah 

Jydstl,  Phdjil 

BdkY,  Fdjal 

Packet 

Lifdfah,  Gathri 

Lakhotd,  Tablak 

Lakhoto 

Partner 

Sharlk 

Bhdglddr,  Sara- 
katl,  Hissedar 

Bhdgiyo 

Passport 

ParwAnah 

Parwdnd,  Dastak 

Parvvdno 

Payment 

DinAr  bhamd, 

Dene,  Bhame, 

Bhdrnun,  A'pnuii 

Add  kama 

Jhddbdki  * 

Pedler 

Bisdtl 

Pheriwdld 

Feriyo 

Penalty 

DAnd 

• 

Gunhegdrl,  Dand 

.  Gunhegdrl,  Dand 

Plenty 

ZiyAdagl,  Tfrdf. 

Pughkalpand 

Pushkal,  Ghanuii 

Pledge 

Giro 

Gahdn,  Tdian 

Giro 

Post 

Ddk,  Tappal 

Tappdl,  Ddk 

Ddk,  Tapdl 

Poverty 

Gharlbi,  Iflas 

Garibl,    Darldra- 
pand,  Eaiigdli 

(iaribdi,  Daridr 

Price 

Kimat 

Kimmat,  Mol 

Kimmat 

Principal 

Miil,  Asl 

Muddal,         Miil  Multatw,    Nivam 

(principle,  mo- 

(principle), Kdran , 

tive),  Hetii 

Hetii 

Profit 

Naf 'a,  Fdidah 

Naphd 

Nafo,   Ldbh,  Facdo, 
Hdsil 

Property 

Milkat 

Mdlmilkat 

Mdl,  Milkat 

Bate 

Bhao 

Dar,  Bhdw 

Bhdw,  Nirakh" 

Beceipt 

Basid,  Pahunch  Pdwatl,  Pohonch, 

PonhoAch,       Kabaj, 

Ba^d 

Basit 

Bent 

Kirdyah 

Bhddefi 

• 

Bhdduu 

• 

Sample 

Namtinah 

Namund,  Mdsld 

Namuno,  Maslo 

Scarcity 

Kami,  Killat, 

Kamtlpand 

Taiigl,  Achhat 

Kahti 


Sect,  I. 


VOCABULARY. 


77 


English. 
SeUer 
Shop 
Signature 

Sum-total 
Trade 

Trustee 

Usage 

Wages 

Warehouse 

Wealth 

Wharf 


Hindustani. 
BAi' 
Diikan 
Dast     khaU, 

Kull  jam'a 
Baip4r,  Saudd 

Ziminahddr 

Sarrishtah, 
Kdidah 
Pagdr 

Kothi 

Daulat 

Ghdt 


Of  Sliipping,     Jalidz  hi  hdhat. 


Anchor 
Boat 

Cable 
Cargo 

Commander  of 

boat 
Compass 
Ferry-boat 
Flag 
Mast 
Mate 
Oar 

PaGsenger 
Prow 

Kope 

Budder 

Sail 

Sailor 

Stem 

Twine 
Voyage 

Yard 

Of  Law  and  Ju- 
dicial Matters. 

Abuse 


Langar 
Ndo 

Zanjir  langar  kl 
Bhartl,    BAr    i 

jahdz 
Ndkhudd 

Ku|;b  numd 

Guxdre  ki  ndo 

BAotd 

Dol 

Mu'allim 

Bind,  Chappii 

'Abii^ 

Mdng 

Bassi,  Dor 
Sukkdii 
P41,  Bddbdn, 

S^rh 
Khala9l,MalU^, 

D&ndi 
Dabiisd 

Stitli 
Jahdzi  safar 

Kdthi 

• 

Shir' a  avr 
faujddH. 

Gall  (to  abuse) 
bar&bar,'Amal 
na  kamd 


MASAfHi. 

WiknArA 

Dukdn 

Sahi,  or,  Sal,  Has- 

tdk^har 
Ekandar  beri  j 
VydpAr,  Udim 

Jimmeddr 

Tsdl,  Wahlwdt 

llojmurd,      Dar- 

mdhd,  Pagdr 
Wakhdr 
Daulat 
Dhakkd,  Ghdt 

Galhatcn  Sam* 
handk, 

Ndngar 
Machwd,  Ndw, 

Taraii 
Langar  dor 
Bhargat 

Tdudel 

« 

Hokd 

Tar 

Bdwtd,  Nishdn 

Dol 

Mdllm 

Waleii 

Utdni 

Ndl 

• 

Dor 

Sukdn 

Shld* 

Ehaldshi,  Ndwd- 

di 
(Stem)  Wardm 

SutH 

Jal    prawds,    Sa- 

})har 
Parwdn,  Kdthl 

Kdyadd  it  a  nydya 
jyraltarnl, 

Shiwl,  Gali  (bad 
use),  Gair  up- 

yog 


GUJABATI. 
Wechndro 
Dukan 
Sahi,  Matuu 

Kul,  Ekaudar  berij 
Wepdr,    Udyog, 

Dhaiidho 
Jimmeddr,  Jimmo 

lendr 
Wahiwat,      Dhdro. 

Bit 
Pagdr 

Wakhdr 
Dolat 
Danko,  Ghdt 

Walidtf,hdhat, 

Ndngar 
Machwo,  Hodi 

Langainu  dordun 
Wdhan    upar   chaf* 

hawelo  mdl 
Tandel 

Wdhd^no  huko 
Hodi 

• 

Wdwa^ 
Dol 

• 

Mdlam 

Halsun 

Utdru 

Ndl,  Wahdnnuii 

mdthuu 
Dordun 
Sukdn 
Sahado 

Khdrwo,  Khaldsi 

Wdhdnnun  pachh- 

wddun 
Dorl  ' 
Darivdnl  shafar 

Paiwdn,  Kdthi 

Kdyadd  tathd  addlat 
jrrakarni. 

Gal :  (to  misuse)  Ger 
rite  niimal  karwuii 


78 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect.  I. 


English. 

Acquittal 


Adultery 
Amputation 


Arbitration 
Arbitrator 
Attorney 
Award 


Bail 
Bribery 

Civil  Court 

Chain 

Clause 

Clerk 

Confession 

Convict 


Conviction 

Copy 
Crime 

Criminal  Court 
Decree 

Defendant 

Deed 

Denial 

Divorce 

Evidence 

Executioner 

Executor 

Ex-partc 
Fee 

Fine 
Forgeiy 

Gaol 


Hindustani. 
ChhiithnA,    Be- 

gunah      tha- 

hrdn4 

ChhindU,  ZinA 
Kdt  d&lnd 


Panchdyat 
Panch 
Vakil 
Thardw 


Zdmin 
Kis^wat    dend, 

Ldnch  dend 
Diwani  'addlat 
Zanjlr 
Ba^am 
Kdfkun 
I]p:dr 
Gundhgar, 

Kaidi  jig  par 

gundh     sdbit 

hiii 
^abiit  i  gundh 

Nallfl 
Gundh 

Faujddrl  'addlat 
J^ukmnamah, 

Fai^alah 
Muddi  'alaihi 
Dastdwez 
Inkdr 

Xim,  Fdrigh 
khat 

Shahddat, 
Gawdhl 

Jalldd,  Phdnsi 
denewdld 

Wa§iyat  cha- 
Idne  wdla 

Ek  tarf  i 

Dastiiri, 
M'amiil 

Dand 

Jhiitd       dastd- 
wez bandnd 

Kaidklianah 


MABlTHi. 

Sutne,  Muktatd 


Vyabhichdr 
Edpne,  Angchhed 


Paiitsdit 

Pauts,  Lawdd 

Wakll 

Paiitsdsa  niwddd, 
Huki!im  ndmd, 
Pantsdit  ndmd 

Dzdmin 

Ldnts 

Diwdni  addlat 
Bidi 
Kaiam 

Kdrkiin,  Parbhii 
Potukal 

Aparddhi  t^ar- 
waleld 


Gunhydchi  sdbiti 

Nakal,  Prat 
Ganhd)  Aparddh 
Faudzddrl  addlat 
Hukiim       ndmd, 

Niwddd 
Pratiwddl 
Khat,  Patr 
Nakdr,  Ni§hedh 

Wiwdh  sambandh 

mochan 
Sdksh,  (Proof) 
Purwarl,Pramdn 
Aiitak 


GujaratI 
Chhutak  jawun,  (to 

pronounce)    Nira- 

parddhi    ^harawa- 

wuii 
Vyabhichdr,        Bad- 

karm,  Chhindlun 
Angchhed,   Angkdp- 

wun,  Sharlmo  kol 

awayaw  kdpwun 
Pauchdt,  Lawddi 
Panch,  Lawdd 
Wakll 
Pauchdt    ndmun, 

Panchno     t^^erdw 

or  Chukddo 
Jdmin 
Ldnch,      Kushwat 

khori 
Diwdni  addlat 
Bedf 
Hakam 
Kdrkiin 

Mdnwun,  Kabiildt 
Aparddhi     ^hareluii 

mdnas 


Gunhani       sdbitino 

thardw 
Nakal 

Aparddh,  Gunho 
Fojddri  addlat 
Hukmndmun,Fesalo. 

Niwddo 
Pratiwddl 
EJiat,  Dastdwej 
Nakdr,       Inkdr, 

Ni^hedh 
Taldk 

Purwdri,  Pramdn 

Fdnslkhor 


Mfitlekh  tsdla-  Mjityu   patr   chald- 

wandra  wandr 

Ek-tarphi  Ek  tarafl 

Dasturi  Dasturi 

Dand  Dand 

Bandwaleld  Khoto       bandwatno 

kdgad  dastdwej 

Tuning,    Baudis-  Turaug,  Kcdkhdnua 

hdla 


Sect.  !• 

VOCABULARY. 

7d 

EK6LISH. 

HlND^STANf. 

Mauathi. 

GujarAti. 

Gallows 

Phdu8i  ke  lakre  Phdnsl   dciiydts4 

Fanslndn       Idkdan, 

khAmb 

Fdiisi 

Highwayman 

Kazza^:, 

R4hzan 
Phdiisi  dend 

WAtmAryA 

Wdtpddo 

Hanging 

TAngne,  Phdushl  FAusl  dewuii,  Trfitkd- 

dene 

wawun,  Tdngwun 

Judge 

Mun^if,  K&zi 

NydyAdhlsh 

Nydyddhikdrl 

Legacy- 

Hibah,Tarikah 

Mritlekhddu 

Wdrsho 

Legatee 

Tarkah  w41a 

MritlekhdAnAdhi- 

Mritlekhddnddhi- 

kdri 

kdrl,  Wdras 

Murder 

Khiin 

Khi^n 

Khun 

Murderer 

Khrtni 

Khunl,     Khi^n 
karndrA 

Khdni 

Nonsuit 

N&  manziir 

Harne, 

Ndmaiidziir 

Ddwo  rad  thdi  te 

Notice 

Khabar 

Siichan,    Dzdhir- 

Jdher  khabar,  Suchnd 

Oath 

Kasam 

AiUxUal 

Shapath,  An 

Sam,  Sogand 

Pardon 

Mu'Afi 

Mdphi,  Kshamd 

K^hamA^  Mdfi 

Perjury 

Jhiithi  Icasam 

Khoti  shapath 

Khotd  sam 

PlaintifE 

Mudda'l 

WAdi 

Wddi,  Fariyddi 

Prison 

Kaid  khiinah 

Kaid  khdnd, 

Bandhi  khdnun 

Turung 

Prisoner 

Kaidi 

Kaidi 

Kedi 

Proof 

Dalil 

Pramdn,  Purdwd 

Purdwo,  Pramdn 

Punishment 

Saz4 

Shikshd 

Shik^d,Sajd,Na8ihat 

Quarrel 

Ka?iyah 

Jhagdd,      Tantd, 

Kajiyo,  Kankds, 

Bhdiidan 

Kalah 

Beader 

Parhnewala 

Wdtsndrd 

Wanchndfo 

Respite 

Muhlat 

Shik^hechl     tah- 

Mehtal 

kubl 

^ 

Right 

HakH^ 

Hakk 

Hak,  Kharun 

Scourge 

Chdbuk,  Kord 

Tsdbrtk,  Kordd 

Kordo 

Sentence 

ThahrAo 

Shik^etsd     tha- 

rdw 
Mukaddama, 

Shajddewdno  hukam 

Suit 

Mul^addamah, 

Mukadamo,  Khatlo 

D'awA 

Khatld, 

Summons 

alab  khat. 

Awdhan,  Jortalab  Hdkam  nctdnun 

Sammdn 

boldwun.  Tedun 

Testator 

Wa^iyat  karne- 

Myitlekh  karndrd  Mrityu  pati-  karndro 

Theft 

WHilai 

Chorl,  Duzdi 

Tsori 

Chorl 

Thief 

Chor,  Duzd 

Tsor 

Chor 

Tribunal 

'AdAlat 

Addlat,  Nydya 
sabhd 

Addlat,  Nydya  sabhd 

Trial 

Tajwiz,  TapAs 

Insdph,    Tsau- 
kashi 

Tajwlj,  Tapds 

Will 

Wa^iyat  ndmali 

I  Mrityu  patr 

Wasiyat  ndmun 

Witness 

Sh4hid 

Sd£9hi 

Sdhedl,  Sdkahi 

Of  Oovevii- 

Sarkdr  darhdr 

Rajya  jjvakarni. 

MAj  prakarnL 

ments. 

H  bdbat. 

Ally 

Dost 

Dost 

Dost 

Ambas^dor 

Elchl 

Wakil 

Wakil,  Elclii 

80 

INTRODUCTION. 

Sect,  i 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Mabathi. 

GujarAti. 

Authority 

yukm 

Sattd,  Adhikdr 

Battd,  Adhikdr 

Alliance 

Dosti 

Sangan     mat, 
Milan 

Dostl 

Boundary 

Hadd 

SlmA 

Simd 

Canopy 

Chhat 

Chhat 

Chhat 

Capital 

Pae  takht,  Dd- 
ru's    salf.anat 

Bdj  dhdnl 

1 

Bdjdhdnl 

City 

Shahr 

Shahar,  Xagar, 
Piir 

Shehar,  Nagar 

Coin 

Sikkah 

Ndneii 

Sikko.  Ndnu 

Courier 

Kd§id 

Jdsiid 

Jdsud,  Jdsiis 

Crown 

TAj 

Mukut 

« 

Mugat,  Tdj 

Dynasty 

8il8ilah  i  salatln 

VVdnsh 

Waiish 

Deputy 

Ndib 

Wakil,  Karbhdrl, 

,  Wakll,    Kdrbhdri, 

Duyam 

Ndyab 

Duty 

Far?  (excise), 

Dharm,     (excise 

1  (Excise)      Jakdt, 

Zsik&t 

Sdyar 

Dharm 

KcUct 

Farmdn 

Rdjdgyd 

Bdjdgyd,  Bdjdno 
hukm,  Farmdn 

Emperor 

B&dshih, 

Kaisar 

Bddfihdhd,      Bajesh 

Shdhansh4h, 

war 

Chakrawartti 

Empress 

SuUdnah, 

Pddshahdchl  stri 

Bddshdhanl     stri, 

Bddshdh, 

Bdnnl 

Excellency 

NuwdbiMusta- 
tdb,  NiiwAb 

Rdjd  shri,  'A'lijd 

Alijd,  Bdje  shri 

Exchequer 

Khazanah 

Djaradbandlchl 

Jamd  bandlnl 

kacherl 

kacheri 

Foreigner 

Pardesi 

Pardeshl  man- 

Pardeshl,     Parayd 

shya 

rdjnu  mdnas 

Faction 

Toll 

Tat,  Phall,  Pak^h 

Toll 

Gentleman 

Marde       adml, 
SAhib,  'Aghi 

Grihaflth 

Gfihasth 

Granary 

Amb&r,  Kothd. 

Kothdr 

Kothdr,  Ddundimu 
pdlun 

Inhabitant 

Desl 

Rahiwdsl 

Kehwdsl 

Journey 

Musdfiri 

Prawds 

Mushdfari,  Prawds 

King 

Pddshdh 

Kddzd 

Rdjd 

Tiane 

Gall 

All,  Gain 

Gall 

Levee 

Darbdr 

Darbdr 

Darbdr 

Majesty      (ad- 

• Jahdn  pandh 

Shrlmaiit  rdje 

Shrimant,  Rdjeshri 

dress     to     a 

I 

shri 

king) 

Mint 

Taksdl 

Tanksdl 

Tanksal 

Monarch 

Pddshdh 

Rddzd  * 

Pddshahd,  Rdjd 

Native 

Bdshindah 

Mulkl 

Asalno  rehewdsi 

Night-watch 

Rdt  kl  chauki 

Bdtri  idgaran 

Rdtiil  chokl 

News 

Khabar,Akhbsir  Khobar,  Wartta- 

Khabar,  8amdchdr 

mdn 

Nobleman 

Amlr 

Amir,  umi'dw 

Amir,  Umrdw 

Patent 

8anad 

ISanad 

Sanad 

Pomp 

Damdamah 

Daul,  Damdau- 
Idchi  swdri 

Dhiimdhdm,  Dol 

Populace 

Log,  Khalk 

Lok 

Wastl  Lok 

Sect.  T. 


VOCABULARY. 


81 


English. 
Port 
Province 
Queen 
Quarter 

Rebellion 

Register 

Republic 

Retinue 
Riot 

Secretary 
Signet 

Spy 

stage 


State 

Street 
Successor 

Subject 
Throne 
Titles 

Town 
Traitor 


Treaty 

Treasurer 

Tribute 
Tyrant 
Usurper 
Umbrella  of 

state 
Viceroy 


Hindustani. 
Bandar 
Zira 

Malikah,  Rdni 
Hi^sah,  Mahal- 

lah 
Balwd,  Dan^d 
Daftar 
Saltanatlkbalk 

Jilau 

Hullar,  Hangd- 

mah 
Munshi 
Sikkah,  Muhr 
Jdsiis 
Manzil 


Qdlat,  (govern- 
ment) Raj 
Mal^allah 
Jde  nishin 

Ra*aiyat 

Takht 

Khitab 

Kabbah 
Da^^dbdz 


Sul^  ndmah 

Wisd]^ 
Khazdnohi 

Khardj  bdj 
Zalim 
(Jhd^ib 
ChatrSultdni 

Niiwdb 


Marathi. 
Baiidar 
Prdiit 
Rdni 
Mahaldy   Purd, 

Peth 
Band 

Uaphtar,  Bchdd 
Prajdsattdka- 

rdjya 
Pariwdr,  Swdrl 
Gardl,  Daiigd 

Chitnis 

Mudrdi  Mudrikd 

Her 

(day*s    journey) 
Madzal,  Tappd, 
(scaffolding) 
Mdld 

Sthiti" 

Rastd,  Galli 
Jaynishin,    Anu- 

gat  yendra 
Prajd,  Raiyat 
Sinhdsan 
Mardtab,  Kitab 


GUJABATJ. 
BaAdar 
Prdnt 
Rdnni 
Mohio,  ThekdnnuA 

DaAgo 

Nodh 

Prajd  sattdrajya 

Khatlo,  Pariwdr 
HulUd 

Munshi 
Mudrd,  Mohar 
Guptdut,  JdsiU 
Majal 


Safisthdn,  (power) 

Rdj,  Awasthd,  Sthiti 
Rasto,  Gali 
Jdya  nashin 


Raiyat,  Prajd 
Gddf,  Sinhdsan 
Khetdb,  Alkdb,  Ma- 
rdtab 
Kasbo 

Fitiiri,  Fitiir  kamdr, 
Wishwdsghdtki, 
Rdjdrohi 

Tahndmd,  Niyam  Tah,  Kolkardr,  Tab* 

ndmuA 
Khajdnchi 


Kasbd,  Shahar 
Wishwds  ghdtaki, 
Rdjdrohi 


Ehajinaddr, 
BhdA^dri 
Khaft4Anl 
Pzulmi 
Rdjyapahdri 
Ghhatr 


Choth 
Julamgdr 
Chhlnwl  lendr 
Chhatr 


Rddza  pratinidhi  Rdj  pratinidhi 


ProffSithnft  arid       DJmfidJiey 

Xajfb, 


Trades, 
Armourer 

Artificer 

Artist 

Baker 

Beggar 
Blacksmith 


Hathiydr 

bandnewdld 
Edrigar 
Musauwir 
Roti  bandnc* 

wdld 
Fa^ir 
Lohdr 


[Bom6a7/— 1880.] 


DJiande  wa  kamh,     Dha lide  ne  haaa  h. 


Shastra  kdr 


Hathiydr  bandwandr 


Edrigar,  Kasbi,     Kdrigar 
Shilpi,  Edrigar      Easabi 
Bhdjndrd,     Roti-  Rofi  bandwandr 

virdld 
Bhikdrf,  Ydtsak     Bhikhdrl,  Bhikshu 
liOhdr  Lohdr,  Lohd^o 

G 


82 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect.  I. 


Ingush. 

Bookseller 
BTasie; 


Bricklayer 

Butober 

Carpenter 

Confectioner 

Cook 
Pancing-girl 

Druggist 
Pyer 
Farrier 
Greengrocer 

Grocer 

Goldsmith 

Horse-breaker 

Hunter 

Jeweller 

Juggler 

Linen-draper 

Musician 

Fainter 

physician 

ploughman 

Porter 


Bopomaker 

Saddler 
Sculptor 


Shepherd 

Shopkeeper 

Sa^n^er 

Shoemaker 
Singer 

Surgeon 

Tailor 

Turner 


HiNDIJSTANi. 

Eitdb  f arosh 

Thather^    Ka- 


B4j,  Mistari 
j^asdi,  Kas^b 
Sutdr,  Najjar, 

Barhal 
0alw4i 

Bdwarchi 
Kanchini,  R4m- 

janl 
PansAri,  'At.tAr 
RangArA 
N'alband 
Tark^lwdld 


HABATHi. 

Pnstaken  wik- 

ndrd 
EdnsAr,    Pita- 

lecheu      kdm 

karndrd,  KAd' 

sya-kdr 
Gawandi 
Khdtak 
Sutdr 

MithdlwdlA 

Swayampdkl 
Ealdwantin, 
Eanchani 
Gandhi 
Bangdrl 
Ndlband 
Edchhi,  Eunjard 


GAndhl,  PasArl    Pasdri,  EirAnyd 


Sondr 

Chdbnksawdr 

ShikAri 

Jauhari 

Sh'ubadah-bdz 

Bazzdz 

EaUwant 

Na^d^h, 

Musawwlr 
Hakim,  Tl&hih 
Jotiy&,Halwdh& 
TdBzdtTf  (house 

servant)  Dar- 

Un 
Bassi     bandne- 

wdlA 
Zln  bandnewdld 
§uratgar,  Na^^- 


Sondr 

Chdbnk  swar 

Pdradhi 

Johari 

Gdrodl 

Edpadkari 

Wdjaiitri 

Chitdri 

Waidya 
Ndftgaryd 
(of  a  house)  Bar- 
wdn,  Helkari 

Dor     karfidrd, 

Eaiijdrl 
Jingar 
Mi!irtikdr 


Gop,  Pdsbdn 

Diikdnddr 

Arrah-kash, 

Eardnti 
Mochi 
G  d  n  e  w  d  1  d, 

Eawwdl 
9ajjdm,  jard(i 
Darzi 
Eharddi 


Dhangar 

Dukdnddr 

EarwatAdrd 

Mochi 
Gawayi,  Gdndrd 

Shastra  waidya 

Shimpf 

Edntdri 


GVJABATi. 

Pustak,   or    chopadi 

wechndro 
Edusiyo 


Eadiyo 

Ehdtaki 

Suthdr 

Halwdi,      Mithdi 

wd}o 
Rasoyo 
Kdyakan,  Kdmjanl 

Gdndhi 

Bangrej,  Baiigdri 
Ndlbaiidh 

• 

Tdi'kdri  bechndro, 

Pastdgiyo 
Gdndhi,  Eariydiui- 

wdlo,  Wanik 
Sonl 

Chdbuk  sawdr 
Pdradhi 
Jaw6rl 
Gdrodl 
Bajdj 
Wdjantri,  Sdranp:i- 

wdlo 
Chitdri 

Waidya 
Ehedut 
Wdhik,  Majdr 


Doraddu  wanndr 

•  • 

Jingar 

Pathhar  upar  naksh 
athwd  ak^har 
khodndro,  Mnrti 
kamdro 

Bharwdd 

Dukdnddr 

Eardi 

Mochi 
Gawaiyo 

Shastrawaidya 

Darjl 

Eharddi,  Sanghddio 


Sect.  I. 


VOCABULARY. 


83 


ExaUBH. 

Hindustani. 

Marathi. 

GUJABATI. 

Vintner 

Shardb  farosh 

Drdksh&tsd  r^s 
wikndrd 

Ddru  wechndr,  Kaldl 

Waterman 

PAnlwdlA,   Bih- 

Pdnakyd 

Pdnl  wdlo,  Bhisti, 

ishtl 

(boatman)  Ehdrwo 

Weaver 

Shdll,  Juldhd 

Ko9htl,  Winndrd 

Wankar 

Workshop 

KAikhinnh 

Shilpshdld 

Kdrkhdnuii 

Anvil 

Sind^n,  Ghan 

Airan 

Jjohdrnun  hathidr 

Awl 

Naharnl 

Ari  * 

A'ri 

Axe 

Kulh&rl 

Kiirh&d,  Parashu 

Kuhddi 

• 

Brush 

Kiinchl 

Kuiichi,  Mdrjani 

Jbdduu 

Chisel 

Tdnkl 

Vindhhanen 

Widhnuu 

Compasses 

Parkdr 

Earkat 

Gol    chakdun  kdd- 
hwdnun  hathiyar 

Enamel 

Mlndkdrl 

Mind 

Mlndkdrl 

File 

Sohan 

Kdnas 

Kdnas,  Retadi 

Fish-hook 

Gal 

Mdse  dharany- 

Mdchhldn  pakadwd- 

dtsd  gal 

noankodo  athwd  ga- 

Furnace 

Bhatthl 

Bhattl 

Bhaththl* 

Gilding 

TildicAri,    Mu- 

(to    gild)    Rasa- 

Dhor  chaddwuu 

• 

lamm'a  sonti- 

wine,   Muldmd 

kdr 

dene 

Glue 

Saresh 

Saras 

Saresh 

Hammer 

Hathaurd 

Hatodd 

Hathodi 

Hand-mill 

Chakki 

Dzatii'i,  Gharat 

Pdnlnl,  Ghaftti 

Inlay  (to) 

Jarnd 

Dzadan  kdm 

•       • 

Jadwuii 

• 

Line 

Doro 

Dorl 

Dor 

Loom 

tant 

Mag 

Wan  karni  sdl 

Leather 

Chamra 

Tsdmad.  Kdtadeu 

Chdmdun,  Chdmdi 

Mallet 

Mogrl 

Mekhchii,  Mogar 

Mogar 

Mould 

Sdnchl 

Sdntsd 

Blbun,  Sdncho 

Nail 

KUd,  Mekh 

Khild 

Chunk,  Khilo 

Net 

JAl 

Dzdiefi 

Jdl,  Jdluu 

Paint 

Rang 

Rang 

Rang 

Plane 

Randah 

Raiidd,  Roukhnl 

Randho 

Press 

Shikanjah, 

Chhdp,  Chhdpny- 

Chdp 

(Printing) 

dcheii  yantra 

Chhapklianali 

Ruler 

Mistar 

Ankni 

Ankni 

Saw 

Arrah,  Karwat 

Karwat 

Karwat,  Karwatl 

Sieve 

Chalnl 

Tsdlan 

Chdlni 

Screen 

Pardah 

Paddd 

Paddo 

Shuttle 

Mdkhii 

Dhoteii 

Kdiitlo 

Tool 

Hathiyar 

Hatydr,  Adt 

Hathidr,  Yantra 

Water-mill 

Panchakki 

Pdn  tsakki 

Pdnlnl  chakki 

Wind-mill 

Pdwanchakkt 

Pawan  tsakki 

Pawan  chakki 

Wedge 

Pachcliar 

Pdtsar 

Fdchar,  Khunti 

Wire 

Tdr 

Tdr 

Tdr 

School  and 

Maktahf 

Sh^ld  wa  vldyd- 

]Sl»hdl  ane  rvidyd- 

CoUefjc, 

Madrasah, 

laya. 

laya. 

Author 

Musannif 

Graiitlia  kdr 

Granthkdr 

Ball 

GencM 

Chendd 

Dado 

Bat 

Chaugdn 

Ddiidi:i 

• 

Daiidiyui'i 

Blot 

DdgU 

PAg 

^^'^-^                              r.      w 

Book 

Kitab 

Pustak 

Ch()pudi,Pustak,rotlii 
a  2 

64 

INTRODUCTION. 

feect.  1.                1 

English. 

Hindustani. 

Mabathi. 

GUJABATf. 

Chapter 

Rdb 

Adhydya 

Adhydya,  Bdb 

Column 

Saflie  kd  ek 
khand 

Asaii,  Rakdnd 

Asan 

Conclasion 

Khdtimah 

Shewat 

Samdpti,  Chhedo 

Copy 

"Nakl 

Prat 

Prat,  Nakal                                  , 

Dictionaiy 

Lughat 

Kosh 

Kosh,    Shabda    saii- 
graha 

Dance 

Bewulfiif 

Akshar  shatru 

Bewaki!if,    Ak.^har 
shatru 

Education 

T'allm 

Shik§ha 

Kelawanl,  "Widyd, 
Shikshd 

Exercise 

Mashk 

Abhyds 

Abhyds                                         / 

Fable 

Nakl  * 

Go§ht,  Kathd 

Wdt 

History 

Tawdrikh 

Itihds,  Bakhar 

Itihds,  Bakhar 

Index 

Fihrist 

Anukramauikd 

Anukramanikd 

Ink 

Siydhl 

Shdl 

Shdl 

Leaf 

War,  Pattd,Ak 

Patr,  Pdn 

Pdn,  Patr 

Lecture 

Bars,  W'd}? 

Vvdkhydn 

Bhdshan                                         i 

Lesson 

Saba]^ 

Dhadd,  Path 

Sabak.  Pdth 

Line 

Satar 

Regh,01 

Lik,  01,  Paiikti 

Margin 

Hdshiyah 

Kdnth,  Pusta- 
kdchl  kad 

Hasiyo 

Maxim 

Masl 

Mhan,  Wachan 

Kehewat,  Wachan 

Page 

Safiiah 

Prishth 

Pri§hth,  Safo 

Paper 

Kdghag 

Kdgad 

Kdgad 

Pen 

Kalam 

Lekhni 

Kalam 

Pencil 

Saldi,  Surme  kd 
Icalam 

Shishdtsd  kalam 

Shishdnuii  kalam 

Pen-Vnife 

Chdku,  Kalam 
tardsh* 

Tsdkii 

Chdkii 

Pasteboard 

Dafti 

Jdddkdga^l 

Dopl§thdn 

Play 

Khel 

Khel 

Bamat,  Khel 

Play-fellow 

Hamjiif 

Khelgadi 

Bhillu 

Play-ground 

Khelne  ki  jai 

Khelnydchi 
dzdgd 

Ramdwani  jagd 

Poet 

Shd'ir 

Kawi 

Kawi 

Preface 

Dlbdjah 

Prastdwand 

Prastdwand,  Dibdcho 

Professor 

Mu*alIim,Ustdd, 
Mudarris 

Widyd  guru 

Widyd  guru 

Prose 

Nasr 

Gadya 

Bakhar 

Proverb 

Kaiidwat 

Mhaii 

Kehewat                                       i 

Rule 

Kdniin 

Rlti,  Kdnii 

Ritl 

Rhyme 

Bal^r,  Nagm 

Yamak 

Yamak 

Rod 

Chharl 

Chhadl,  Kdthl 

Chhadl 

Scholar 

Tdlib  i  'ilm 

Shishya 

Nisdliyo,  Shishya 

School 

Maktab 

Shdld 

Nishdl 

School-hours 

Maktab  kd  wakt  Shdletsa  wel 

Nishdlni  wakhat 

School-master 

Mudarris, 

Pantojl,  (of  Mus- 

Mehtdji 

A'khiin 

liTn3)  Mulld 

Section 

Kalam,  Fasal 

Warg  {of  a  booh] 
Prakai-n,  Adhy- 
dya 

Warg,  Khaud 

Student 

T  dllb  1  'ilm 

Wdydrthl 

Widydrthl 

Teaching 

Dai's 

Shikawine 

Sikawawaii,   Bhand- 
wawun 

Sect.  1. 

VOCABULARY. 

b 

English. 

Hindustani. 

MABi-THI. 

GUJAEATf. 

Tutor 

AWik. 

Shikawindrd, 
Shik§hak 

Guru 

Verse 

Na^jm,  Sh'ir 

Padya,  Kawitd 

Kawitd,  Charan 

Writing 

Lekh 

Lihine,  l^astdk- 
shar 

Lekh,  Dastdwej 

Word 

Shabd,  Laf  ^ 

Shabd 

Shabd,  Bol 

Colours, 

Banff. 

Manff. 

Baiig, 

Black 

EiUd 

Kdld 

Edld 

Blue 

A'smdnl 

Nil,  Shydm, 
Krifihn 

Nil 

Brown 

Bhiira 

Udi,Baddmi,Tap- 
kiri 

Baddmi 

Dun 

Zard 

Dzardd 

Jardo 

Green 

Sabz 

Hirwd 

Lilu 

Indigo 

Nil 

Nild 

Gull,  Nile 

Lilac 

Jam  kd  rang 

Dzdmbud 

Jdmblun 

Orange 

NArangl  Rang 

Ndraiigl 

Ndrangl  rang 

Purple 

ArghawAni 

LdlTSurkli 

Baiiigani 

Weiigani 

Red 

Tambada,  Ldl 

Ldl,  Ratu 

Scarlet 

LAI 

Rakt,  Ldl 

Ldl,  Rdtu 

Spotted 

CliitU,Ddghddr 

Bibatd,  Chitra 

Ddgel 

Striped 

Dhdiiddr 

Pattit 

Pattiddr 

Vermilion 

Shangarfi 

Hinguli 

Hingldkiyuii 

White 

Sufid 

Pdndhi-d 

Bholuu 

Yellow 

PllA 

Piwald 

Jard 

!l7ie  Senses, 

Jlawdif, 

Indriyeti. 

Indriyo, 

Hearing 

Sunnd 

Shravan,  Shruti 

Shrotra,  Sdmbhal- 

Seeing 

Dekhnd 

Dri^bti 

WUIl 

Dfi^hti 

Smelling 

Siinghna 

Ghrdn 

Ghrdn 

Tasting 

ZaiVah  lend 

Swdd,  Ruchi 

Swdd,  Rasnd 

Touching 

Lagdna 

Sparsh  pratyak§h  Sparsh,  Ldgwuii 

Element 

'Un?ur 

Tatwa 

Tattwa 

Figure 

»Siirat,  Shakl, 
Blip 

Akjiti 

Akriti,  Akdr 

Fragrance 

Khushbii 

Suwds,  Sugandb 

Sugandh,  Suwds 

Hardness 

Sakhtl 

Kathinpand 

Kathanpanu 

Beflection 

Fikr,   (shadow) 

Pardwarttan, 

l*ardwrittan 

'Aks 

Pratibirhl) 

Relish 

Mazah 

Swdd,  Ruchi 

Swdd 

Speech 

Bol' 

Wdni,  Wdcha 

Sambhd§han,  Wdni, 
Bha^han 

Silence 

Sukiit 

Maun,  (be  silent) 

Chup 
Chhdyd 

Maun,  Chup 

Shade 

Sdyah,  Chhdiiw 

Chhdyo 

Size 

Kad 

Akdniidn 

Kad 

Softness 

Narml 

Mjidutd,  Maii- 
pand 

Narmi 

Sound 

Awdz 

A'wdf,  Shabd 

Awdj 

View 

Nazar,  (pro- 

Darshan, Alokan 

Darsaw,  Dekhaw, 

spect)  Madd  i 

{purpose)  Mat 

uai^ar 

86 

INTRODUCTION. 

feect.  1. 

English. 

Hindustani. 

MabIthi. 

GUJABATf. 

Admiration 

Acharj 

Sdnanddshcharya  Wakhdn,  Sdnanddsh- 

chaiya 

Anger 

Ghu§§ah 

Rag,  Krodh 

Rls,  Krodh,  Guso 

Awe 

Khauf 

Dhdk 

Dhdk,  Bhay,  Bhitl 

Belief 

BAwar,  'Al^ldah  WishwAs 

Wishwds 

Choice 

Khwdhish 

Pasafitl,  Marjl 

Pasandagi 

Ck)mpassion 

Ra\^m 

Dayd 

Dayd 

Curiosity 

Rdzjoi 

Jijndsd 

Jijndsd 

Dislike 

I'rA? 

Ndwad,  Aprlti 

Aprlti 

Doubt 

Shak 

Sanshay,  Safideh 

Shak,  Saiishay 

Emulation 

Bardbariki 
Kh-^^^sh 

l*ratispardhd 

Pratispardhd 

Envy 

Qasad 

Hewd,  Iri^hd 

fr^hd 

Enjoyment 

Mazah  lend, 
9a^z  lend 

Upabhog 

Upabhog 

Error 

Rhiil,  Chiik 

Tsiik 

Bhiil,  Chrtk,  Khot 

Fear 

Dar,  Khauf 

Bhay 

Bhay 

Friendship 

Dostl 

Maitri,  Dosti 

Dostl,  Sneh,  Maitrl 

Guilt 

Gundh 

Aparddh 

Aparddh 

Happiness 

Rd^at 

fciukh 

Sukh 

Hatred 

'Addwat 

Dwe?h 

Dwe^h 

Hope 

Ummed 

Ashd 

Ashd,  Umed 

Honour 

A'bni,  'Izzat 

Prati^hthd 

I'ratii^hthd,  Mdn,  Ijat 

Ignominy 

Fazltat 

Aprati^htd,  Apa- 

Gerdbru,  Apratish- 

mdn 

thd,      Apamdn, 
Fajetl 

Ignorance 

BewuViifl, 
Ndddni,    An- 
jdnpand 

Adnyaii 

Ajdnpanun,  Ndddni 

Jealousy 

^asad,  Jaldpd; 
Rashk 

Matsfir 

Matsar,  Adekhdi 

Joy 

Khushi 

Auaiid 

Anand,  Khushi 

Knowledge 

'Ilm 

Gydn 

Ddndl 

Love 

'Ishk 

Priti 

Prlti,  Het 

Mercy 

Ra^m 

Kshamd  buddhi, 

Kshamd  buddhi, 

Daydlupand 

Dayd 

Misery 

Dukh,    Kangal- 
pan,  Santdp 

Dainya,  Garlbi 

Garlbi,  Dukh 

Memory 

Tdd 

Ydd,  Smaran 

Ydd 

Opinion 

Mat,  Khiydl 

Mat,  Abhiprdya 

Mat,  Anumat 

Pain 

Dukh 

Pid'a,  Vyathd 

Dukh,  Wedand 

Pleasure 

Sukh 

Sukh,  Santosh 

Sukh,  Majd 

Season 

'A^l,     (motive)  (intellect)Buddhi, 

Buddhi,  Kdran 

Sabab 

(cause)  Kdran 

Refusal 

Inkdr 

Nakdr 

Nakdr,  Inkdr 

Shame 

Sharm 

Ldj,   Lajjd,  Sha- 

Sharam,  Ldj 

Sorrow 

Gham 

ram 
Dilgirl,  Duhkh 

Uddsl,  Santdp 

Temper 

Mizdj 

Swabhdw 

Swabhdw 

Understanding 

Samajh 

Samaz,  Buddhi 

Samjan,  Buddhi 

Vanity 

Ghuriir,     hiydl  Pokalpand 

Dhambhpanuii 

i  bdt;il,  Abhi- 

mdn 

. 

Wisdom 

'Aklmandi 

Shahdnpa^ 

Buddh 

Zeal 

Ghalrat,  Garmi 

Asthd ' 

Asthd,  Dilsoji                             i 

Sect.  I.  DIALOGUtS. 

3  I 


1  S  i  iiiill 


ii  III  i  |3  P 
I  mtijl      ||lf!l1l|i|  l| 

5       1         -     I 


I     1     ^    ■   •  =1 
3  sS  I  5^  III  It  t4 

1   I?  S.  i|l|  I  11  i^i  ill     .St.  4» 

I  j^liiil  ii  ii  if  ii  i 


88 


INTRODUCTION. 


Sect  I. 


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ill    .    5   I    f  s   -g   -a  2^3^   3„   II; 

If  11--:^  1^1'  r  °l^5^  I  a  I 

III  III  :i  iy     1 1   |il|l|    |i 

s  i  1 11 1  I  i  I   II  .  i  ,  f 

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It 


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INTRODUCTION. 


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li  !■    s        i    .„•;;  S   s«|.a  |  las  ^1 

I  i  I  fill  I!  I  111  mi  il 


INTHODUCTIOK. 


J  s  .i  sti  I  t  I  '  t  "eI*^!  i 

J      2^3^  ^3-"u'*§  ^j  C  3  «  =  «  ts-a,!  (J 

i  ligtil    Jltiill  111-  |l!l!lllti 


S-S 


g   -a 


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i.i  ^lll-i  -s^slS  ll'^l  1  ^^n|  as 

I    I    I    1    I  5=1  ll    I'-  s    I    11  1 

I  I  s  ?■  *  I  |l^  -|as|  I  ^  Is  I 


UIALOGUEB. 


1 1       I    4   I    I    ||^    i!    |S  J    I    "S     to    J 

•8.11  ■■  ■"  .=  1=!^       e|  li  t  tsl  5"  ^* 

III  ■riii.lli    l!iifl!|iit  i-i.|i 

*il  I  s  ^  I  ill  «|  i    j  I        ^  i 

^-S-   I   5   ^   15.  ^1?3   ^j-   "5      a   -  eZ^ 

1-1  I  !      1  t'i-  'i-'S     I  I.     Jll 
^^1   I   f  JK   jllS     I.  i'i   Sist, 

l||J  i     ,|l!|.ljpt  I  |i|  i!l°| 

iStsI   !        Ilailillljl   I  III   53?Si 

III  1! |i it  II    II 1  ^ J 

i|!  1 1    5  ft  31.J  I  ^  I  4J 

!i!  j  1 1  i-iti  r;il  I  iHmpj 

J53    f   -sSI    ^as2^     =■^■3:3  3     i    ^''S^.f 5^-3»" 

ass>;        2^b5-         3_4      si  -i   S 

=11    a    ^    B    i    I'       s=    ?      I  j|    ? 

t?!  .1   ^    I    lei's      il   -aj  I   •§  1    ss."| 

^s-l^i  ?  I  "lis.  :s-si  !  i  :-  i.S-l 

!li1l  i  I  Jim  Uni  1 1  !  isiil 

(S  g    ^    3    3    a  5^    oS    M    a.  ^    So    o 


94  IXTRODLCTIOS.  Scct.  I. 

J   I   I  I  S     ^1      -      .S|    a    I!    ° 

si  J I  I  i  1    1-  iil|  i  li  .? 

li!*^  it  I  4   llilllllllllsp 

3  3  c  r  B  c-3.  ■=■5         •S-S-5  35a-gat>53-So2:=« 


ii 


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sa  I  a  ^ 


3l!ii   1.     1   5   H^ 
iJ|||    f|      *    a   III 


II 


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II 


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S  J  J  I  i     I       ..     -sf  i  !  S    I 


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gsl'"^'"8 


-Bags    -«!;*-°*=SBS'*5'^Sut. 


Sect.  I. 

il  1^  I 

it  l^  ?.i|  l!  iil..t-.-l|  i  °||  rl? 

3i;       .9  ■50'  =.a2S=.g"toS 

Sa    °-i   I      s  E      3   I  .3   II   •=   '   i    °'2.» 

I  ?i  •?   11^  *  h  1  lil  -III 


llft*l  t  -33    =-  Il 
II^IJ.    7-  5=   5j    -Mi 


IS^f   1  ^?.  ^   8-«         "tg^-5|li|.sl-ss5:i 

,II|S    I.  gS  ■a.s   aS         sla-=S"|.=  ill|-; 

*'!   *3  .a  '  •     siJs  2  t    I,  4  .§  41  _ 

3:    »      ^  5  Is    a»s    5    3      *  -S    a     1-3 

=  .3.1^1  la  ii as. 3=513153  Ijii-lll  ;; 


■a:|||  I  II  f   IJ  :  i    g  !ill^ 
111 


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HI'S    j  leSgs    s«l|3s«-£  I  IfllaseS 


96  I.XTRODUCTIOX. 

§       1       I!     g         II 
«  _  ?       i'     •„■      II 

vf  i  I  -i-^l  liti    it 

^1    9  1  l-sl-s  -'is    --a  »2     ;:;  -a  -3  I 

™^      -s^    'S    St  &  p 


S-l 


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S  s 


•  Et 


III  i  .s  iiiii.»u     1 51  I   I  m 

s  o  s  --txS     HP?  ^           «  ^     a  saiS 

I   i   I        t.|     i  I      I      I J  ^ 

-■t  s'  I  i^ii   iii  •«   «  ii,-      J 

^■^  ^  l~.    It  iFs.-^        1^  H't  1=1 

Silt   1        |i--l|s           S|  ^J  f  3|| 

n    o    o          M       hq    ^               cg  h    bwm 

•i^    i    •?    -    -^1    -§    ^    -al-s.   .-si  t      :;    J£* 

SH'.  I  l|ii=s||i^«|  11  f  I  III 

I   iS   I   il  4^!   ^  .   I    .11 

^    S-l    -alls    tBI    I  i|    I    Sgl 


lllll 
S  its 


II 


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iiifiilii  j 
I  i|Hi!pilii|ilii 

111!  I  J  1  =  ill 


98  ISTROOUCTION.  ScCt.  I- 

I  III  111.4  S  s  S  ^  ^ft  il     I  I 

ii  h'  yn  111    t!l  |i  J  S  I 

3Ml3'9.|lll|;il  lUlllI  sM|  -J  I 

I  111         i  I 

H    45 
1   2 


s  ^l3  lit    I  I  gj|  i-s.s 


iiiiliiti&ii  II I  Ii 


H      H 


ill  ill  1  .■!  ^  c  I  3 

llill!  ai  sill  5  it*i  s  ?  1  5 

sgl         !l3.  s|||  J  |s||.  1  I  J  I 

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,llf!ii!P|J  .|tl    III 

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|l|lis!iallgt|l?  Itslll^l  «.1^ 


3  2       -i    %  ys.    -a-  £     ^  -2  ■!.  :S 


d   kin  i:i|f!  I?  illl  *  I  |i 
ill  IHiHIIilll  f  tt|1  i  i  111 


H        U 


II  I  ;|l  |f  13  I?  I     i  I  J 

*3       i-   iJ-     »       -"I  -r^  al      fi    a  ^ 

3?    ill!    "i.lt  -S-I    Jl  «  I  it 

il-a  lafs    (3tSti  Is  fa'  3  I  il-a 

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J.|S  I  ill  1=  it  a  l-I  I.  a  1^ 

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■:s.-i  htii  ^-iS-s^s^i.  J  I'lais  3  il^ 

j-gfl    4   sei   It   °-  °  •*      i    S  ■« 

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Ell    •S-S^.'l    |°I3"  -ss-  t^^?    =    I  ^' 

Si  PP!  !l  I  .i^  ffii ;  I  H 


IXTRODUCnOS. 


i!  1  li|l  il  III!    ?l;ll    14  ll 
■395  |a-a4l|-a3sJ|-ii3a§-s=-a 


=llf 


■a1«l 


IIS       a  |s     2-S 
1  Is    S    lid?    1      1*2.        ^    °=       - 


I.- 


S    Is  f   Si       3     pjs     I  -ai  .  11 


I 


1^1     s    S'll 

Sii      ^    ^  !-.     ^-„jJ     ^^S^    Z"^^         a     ilS      SI? 


F!-i 


Sect.  I.  DIALOGUES, 

I    M  I    !  I  i  ~    t 

1.  I  f  !    i  -  1  ^-  f: 

in  S  i  II  til     !i  II  i! 

:§s  liti  lia;    I1       Si  II  ill 


i.4  ■51 


So  S      HHs  S  p.  !5  O  6-ifH 

I II  I  J 1 1  Jl  !l  t  H  11 
I  ft  ^  2?  I  -  ti  !M    il    is 


si    a   |s 


W  .  1  I  s  111  '  II  ;  I    III 

|i  *i  I  III    Jili! Jl  ^t  J 

(.eft's    ^&   ^  oJ|S  "-s^ '^1'°  "^a  =■   ^  =■   Ss"-* 

11 1  il :  t^l!|i  1  ^f,^!   J  lip 


'■5°    3i    s 
af  -si   S 


Sect  I. 

11      Ells-     I 


a^'    T-    ^^    stag    -g  g-S    l-s  o    S 

SS.   Al    iJ    13-1    I  9,3  .Isl  T   I 

=  i  II  i|  :^|.S  s  |!i||!j  !. 

^  I&    S'  ^  •3-  I  ^  i 


i  1^  if  ^  sf 

1% 


3     S.^-;;        -s     S 


^1  Hill  2-1!  I  ""  i  1S|  rii  s  J 

<   JiSSel-   Sl^l   1   1^"    l^ss-s    all   s   I 

I  ssisl  !2il  f  111  h:L-|i|  !-i-1 


5  1 


ll  •=• 


|.l'   =1   s   ^      „   sis   S   II 

3|   I J  III  |t|5|.  J|||55^   I  i 


"PI 


=  1. 

S    w    ^    P    « 


aSa3|4|53S| 


Mm  iS  I  J'  'ii  I  i  i  I 
mmMiMMM  m  III 


Sect.  I.  biAtoQCfeS.  10  • 

fj   i  lit  I.,   I   3   I  I  >  la  |S 

t 


111  ii  i  III  li  I  i  I  r|i  ll  II 

ill  P  i  lit  |l  t  i  I  pi  ^1  Ii 

►ssi  ll  S  »a|   II  4  |i|  111  s^  Is 

!v§5  |i  I  .^tlil  il:li2il!5i?.  Ill 

HE-  H  HH  a-  fHHt-MHO  O 

l|«  1  I  11  f  I  I  3   S  *l  il 

^s"    •"  s        c3  I  2  I  ►.  -  ■^1  ai 

■s-  t  S^      .a  1  -g  3  -B^  -^3 

a4i  i         ii  «  I       :  «  :?  I" 

ll  I  *•?  ii  }       ..-I  I?.  il£ 


1 1 1 1 3  i  |Mi 


lo-al     1=     i'^-S'SS    M     B    I    I     .=  6|    -^l    II 

ityiiii!iii?y.i!teii 

-11  III »    S-iii°=j°.   tsJ-   alif^Sl'sSJ's 


104  IKTBODUCTION. 

it  I  ^1  alii    1^ 

•*8>  5  Is  ?  I  3  1      s    ; 

S^gS«a^3  *        Tea         .„„^ 

ilifill  U  iifi   - 

<  <"S      ^'-'3      5-^:Se)^        fetSrt^ 

8s|   '  ja  i  B.  Ili-s-   t~  2  ;|  J 

!  I  P  ^  I  ^  1 

I     I  -,  I  I  I     5 
«a5  i  to~f  a  Ills- 


3,-  *  Jl  S  I   li 

^■~-    "}    8 


n     ^  B      s   s   K   f? 

%  I  =n  1 1 1 

•slai  f  »^-  a  I  ^  3     I 
iU  ^  si  i  ^  s  I     ■! 

p3  I  is  -Ssi  a-^      I 


^3       i1 

■  i  ?i  t- 

It  3  la    fcS 


1^  1 1  = 

Istf  |||a 


1  1   §a 
a  idB- 


|i  i  I 

fl-S    |-=„ 


«  ?  s 


5=        eS    a 


■S 


ji  li  Is 

1^  s=  !l- 

?*-      o-S  =i^ 
I  3 


^1    -aa^^         b  2      -Sags 

■^    .ill      dl   I    3«lt--3=  -S    5 


ill 


.1  lis  jr|=«'l  tits  3s  =3 

i'  I    I     s.  I   |.       .  !  Ill 

^1  ^tl  ^«  I  il     i  Ig  -^'- 

as  -sP-s    1^°    iSaJS-H^    *  sb  •^i=°'§ 


sl 


!  ^1 


106 


IXTItODUCTIOS. 


I    *    s    -I         S    S 


IBI      I   •*   I 

1^1 1|  ll-l '  l^^i  il  1^       His 
ti  83-  lis     ■;§'"  J.  11       f  =  Sg 


S3|i   |ai        ^1   |s 


III         ="1111  ftjll 


^  3^    s«-aji   3  1 


I 


=1  11      Jd|lt|t  tl  ,.J|I  |i|J| 
•s     Isl  i    I  'ai     i  I  i         III 


■ii  «d  ^Si  ^  I  jl  •  I       a        °  i  :i= 
Si  al   i|l  ;  -s  3iil  •!  s  I        3  I  1^ 

I  si  1144 iJiiilf its itisll  lill^l 
if.  S'^  11:  =  IjiIII'  sil'Slf  sii-sl 

1!  1^  lit  s  iiiii|ir:iP'=!#5s/^ii 

i   II    llHlliil?  !  iltllfK  if 

L^      cQ  _      r^      a      ^      J:  ££.      n      i_i  F-i      X      c 


Sect..  I.  DiALoQuea. 

II  Sis  i   i^   ■=    15 


S  t 


„|l  |,f=  iiXiil 


■^      S     '3     "^  a         ■="      "■■■■«- 


!i  ~  i|  I  I  1 .1    i  II       i  III 

sr=iii|   |i  ilflSlla   sill  illlgil 

J3     I    3    si  J^I'S       ■■S:!!^  «•    ail, 

■"i^al    .Sll  Ml    2  5,-1  isS'S-i^sii 

ta   S   S   X  Kl^av;  as 

I  f  S'  I  I  g  I  ;i  I  Is  .'I  ills 

*!!■ '  i  s  •III'  ^-S  l-°l-  «l  i^'Si 

sails      f.  si-S|IS|^     i-tp-i  l^     l^si 

■sliliill  iii||8|l  flill  --inisl 


108                                  ISTBoDt'OTioK.  Seot.  I. 

itfi     ii  1 11 1 '""I  I  jjl|  li 

s^s^l        la  ^  :^|  -I  K-.  5-1  la-  jf 

I||li.|llitllflll3  III  t^l-l-1^' 


I     IMM    pilip 

jliitlffiliil.  ilii 

■|   MS    iS   ts    I   ^i    IMSSII    i    Si*    S^ 

I  's^_   |i    |l   J   -Sg-   s.-|||fl|   llp;   ■;! 

II  iPKp  |tM||.:l|i||f  iili  sl||l| 


Sect  I. 


DIALOGUES. 


109 


ISTKODUCTIOK. 


11  *f  |i    ^       At    I   ^  - 

Ifi  III  i|   sS|t  l^pa     I  Jl  ■§ 

ill  laj.  I-  hii  «si-i.  J..|!  - 

O-3-a  S.S^  ^-c  .;3      2  3     -3  S5  4  *•      -  *  b  B  H      ^  ^ 

01 5*  SSJS  -E  3 -OS'S  .=.■?!       -9  »T,  tS  P       3  S-'i-^'D-      "^  S 

li  lis  -slss^il  5.-l||  IHia  ,3 

i|  W  i!   1      ^  |S   I.    I  I 


3|a 


■all  ||*    la.        .    -j-y  ,1  II  I 

stills      ^&2«l=        Ills.!|lift  ,.«■ 

fe^-S     I'?'"        i^     li     :3     II     ^-a     d"'     ^«     ^ 

it  ilsg  i:  JpI  iI^es  Is'ffJ  ii 
if  till  !l|iir:  llPl  lull  il 


*l    ^l|t  :iS      I    1    ,       li    II    .=13    •s 
aiii.:3«  sl»ss    °  tt    sis*    si'  M~ 


INDIAN   WOKDS    USED    IN    THIS    VOLUME, 


AmIb,  a  "  commander,"  a  title  of  princes  and  nobles,  as  the  Amira  of 
Sindh. 

Ana  (Anna),  the  16th  part  of  a  rupee,  or  about  three  half-pence, 

BahIdub,  brave,  a  title  of  honour  among  Mu^^ammadans, 

Bandab,  a  port,  or  harbour. 

BanglA  (Bungalow),  a  thatched  house,  the  name  usually  applied  to 
the  houses  of  the  English  in  India,  and  to  the  houses  built  bv 
Government  for  travellers  on  the  public  roads,  whatever  their 
construction. 

Baobi,  a  well. 

BiGAM  (Begum),  a  lady  of  rank,  a  queen  or  princess. 

BbAhman,  a  Hindii  of  the  first  or  priestly  caste. 

Buddhist,  a  worshipper  of  Buddh,  or  Sakya  Muni,  who  died  B.C.  543. 

Caste,  class,  sect,  corruption  of  the  Portuguese  ca^ta^  "  race." 

ChakbA,  a  discus,  the  quoit  of  Vishnu. 

Chunam,  an  English   corruption  of  chUnd,  lime,  a  plaster  of  mortar 

made  of  shells  of  a  remarkable  whiteness  and  brilliance. 
Compound,  an  enclosed  piece  of  ground  round  a  bangld ;  a  corruption 

of  the  Malay  Eam^^ong, 

Daghopa  or  Dahgop,  from  de\  "the  body,"  and  ^t/y,  "to  hide"  a 
circular  structure  in  Buddhistic  temples,  supposed  to  contain*  the 
ashes  or  relicts  of  Buddha,  and  occupying  the  place  of  our  altars. 

DabbXb  (Durbar),  a  royal  court.    In  KAthiawAd,  a  palace. 

DhabmsalA,  alms-house,  or  rest«house  for  travellers. 

DiwAN,  a  minister ;  a  prime  minister. 

0ANA,  an  attendant  of  Shiva. 

GhAt,  steps  on  a  river-side,    A  mountain  leading  like  a  step  to  table- 

^abIm  (Haram),  a  sanctuary  j  ladies'  apartments. 
LAkh,  the  number  100,000. 

MANpAP,  or  Mandib,  a  pavilion  in  front  of  a  temple  ;  an  open  shed. 

SABAf ,  a  caravanser&i. 

"Wiv,  a  well  with  steps  down  to  the  water. 


SECTION  11. 

— f— 

BOMBAY  CITY. 

Bombay  City — Harbour  of  Bombay — Landing  Places — HateU  and  Clvbt 
— Conveyances — Public  Offices — The  Cathedral^The  Town  HaU  a^nd  Mint — 
Custom  Souse  and  Docks — Cotton  Screws — Sassoon  Dock^Kol&ba  Memorial 
Churchy  Cemetery,  and  Liffhthouses — Jtoman  Catholic  Chapelr^St,  Andrew's 
Kirh^  Alexandra  Native  6Hrls*  Institution — Police  Courts  Sir  Jamshidjl 
JtjibhcSs  Pd7'si  Benevolent  Institution  ^Sc/u>ol  of  Design — St.  Xavier's  School 
— New  Mphinstonc  High  School — Ookaldds  Hospital — Dwdrkandth's  Temple 
— House  of  Correction — The  Worklumse — Elphinstone  College — VlctoHa 
Gardens  and  Museum — Christ  Church,  BykaUah — Chant  Medical  CoUege — 
Jamshidji  Hospital  and  DharmscUd — Scotch  Mission  Schools — Nul  Market — 
Giradon  Cemetei'ies — Elphinstone  Dock — Mazagdon — St,  Peter's  Church,  Ma- 
zagaon — Government  House  at  Parell — European  Cemetery  at  Parell — 
Kurld  Cotton  Mills — Government  House  at  Malabar  HUl—Valkeshwar — 
Towers  of  Silence — Pdrsi  Dharmsdld — Shooting — Railways  and  Steamers — 
Sights  in  the  vicinity  of  Bombay — Elcphanta —  Vilidr  Waterwoi'ks — Montpezir 
Caves — KdnhaH  Caves — Ba^sin, 


The  island  of  Bombay  is  situated  in 
lat.  18'  53'  45",  long.  72**  52'.  It  is  one 
of  a  group  of  islands  (perhaps  that 
called  Heptanesia  by  Arrian)  of  which 
the  following  are  the  principal,  pro- 
ceeding from  N.  to  S. :— 1.  Bassln ;  2. 
Dravl;  3.  Versova;  4.  Salsette ;  5. 
Trombay,  in  which  the  hill  called  the 
Neat's  Tongue,  900  ft.  high,  is  a  con- 
spicuous mark;  6.  Bombay;  7.  Old 
Woman's  Island ;  8.  Koldba ;  9.  Ele- 
phanta;  10.  Butcher's  Island;  11.  Gib- 
bet Island ;  12.  Karanjd.  Bombay 
Island  is  in  shape  a  trapezoid,  and  a 
very  fanciful  person  might  see  some 
resemblance  in  it  to  a  withered  leg 
with  a  very  high  heel  and  pointed  toe ; 
the  heel  being  Malabar  Hill,  and  the 
toe  Kol&ba.  It  is  11^  m.  long  from 
the  S.  extremity  of  Kol&ba  to  Zion 
Causeway,  over  which  the  railway 
passes  to  the  larger  island  of  Salsette, 
and  from  3  to  4  m.  broad  in  that  por- 
tion which  lies  to  the  N.  of  the  Espla- 
nade. It  is  difficult  to  estimate  its 
area,  as  the  port  S.  of  the  Esplanade 
is  very  narrow;  but  it  may  be  put 
down  as  about  22  sq.  m.    The  pop.  of 


the  City  according  to  the  census  of 
1872  was  644,406,  but  there  is  good 
reason  for  thinking  this  an  under-esti- 
mate,  for  in  1864  the  census  return  was 
816,562.  It  would  therefore  not  be 
incorrect  to  say  that  the  number  of 
inhabitants  does  not  fall  short  of 
700,000.  When  it  is  remembered  that 
the  greater  bulk  of  this  number  of 
people  is  contained  in  the  quarters  en- 
titled Dhobi  TalAo,  Market,  MAndvl, 
Umarkhdrl,  Bholeshwar,  Khetwddl, 
K4m4tipura^  Kh4r4  Tal&o,  Bykalla, 
Td^wdri,  Mazagdon,  GirgdoA,  Chau- 
patti,  and  Tdrdeo,  which  cover  only 
4  sq.  m.,  it  will  be  seen  how  astonish- 
ingly dense  the  pop.  over  that  area  is, 
and  it  speaks  well  for  the  climate  and 
the  sanitation  of  the  Municipality  that 
there  should  be  comparatively  so  little 
disease  there. 

The  word  Bombay  is  written  by 
Indians  Mamb6,  and  sometimes  Bam- 
b^,  from  a  goddess  called  Mamba 
Devi,  to  whom  there  was  a  temple 
120  years  ago  on  what  is  now 
called  the  Esplanade.  It  was  pulled 
down   and  rebuilt  near  the  Bhendt 


113 


I-  T 

(.  i 

I.  ! 

P 

^'  ; 

J  . 

I-  I 

,d  : 

le 


inshore 
iland,  a 
100  yds 
.8.  from 
part  of 
Pirn  and 

ual   for 
at  what 
in  offi- 
|VBt  the 
d  name 
pposed 
bIi  sold 
Apollo 
yards 
!  Wat- 
conve- 
ot  for 
e  con- 
lustom 
nd  0. 
ul  at 
m.N. 
ebag- 
:hing8 
Souse 
jrhich 
ble  is 
^n  in 
Cndia 
ity  is 
>e  re- 
nntil 
l^ven 
since 
tra- 
will 
ould 
pre- 
lock 
the 
late 
are 

rof 

bay 

ary 

ich 

ed 

lis 

the 

^he 

mt 

ETS, 


s 


Sect.  II.         Bomhay  Harbour — Landing  Plaices — Hotels, 


113 


Bdzdr.  The  Mardtha  name  of  Bombaj 
is  Mumbai,  from  Mahlma,  '<  Great 
Mother,"  a  title  of  Devi,  still  trace- 
able in  Mahim,  a  tower  on  the  W.  coast 
of  Bombay  Island.  Some  people  de- 
rive the  name  from  Buon  Bahia,  *'  fair 
haven,"  and  in  support  of  that  ety- 
mology it  may  be  said  that  it  is  un- 
doubtedly one  of  the  finest  harbours  in 
the  world. 

JBombaj/  Ifarhour, — On  approach- 
ing Bombay  from  the  W.  there  is  little 
to  strike  the  eye.  The  coast  is  low, 
the  highest  point,  Malabar  Hill,  beiug 
only  180  ft.  above  the  sea.  But  on 
entering  the  harbour  a  stranger  must 
be  impressed  with  the  picturesqueness 
of  the  scene.  To  the  W.  the  shore  is 
crowded  with  buildings,  some  of  them, 
as  Koldba  Church  and  the  Tower  of 
the  University,  very  lofty  and  well 
proportioned.  To  the  N.  and  B.  are 
numerous  islands,  and  on  the  main- 
land hills  rising  to  an  altitude  of  from 
1000  to  2000  ft.  Pre-eminent  amongst 
these  is  the  remarkable  hill  of  Bdwd 
Malang,  otherwise  called  Mallangadh, 
on  the  top  of  which  is  an  enormous 
mass  of  perpendicular  rock>  crowned 
with  a  Fort  now  in  ruins.  On  the  pla- 
teau below  the  scarp  was  a  strong 
fortress  which,  in  1780,  was  captured 
by  Captain  Abington,  who  however 
found  the  upper  fort  quite  impregnable. 
(See  Grant  Duff,  vol.  ii.  p.  41.)  Views 
of  this  hill  will  be  found  in  Captain 
Mackenzie's  "  Pen  Sketches,"  1842.  The 
port  is  always  crowded  with  vessels  of 
all  nations,  and  conspicuous  amongst 
them  are  2  monitors,  which  constitute 
one  of  the  important  defences  of  the 
Harbour.  These  are  called  the  "Abys- 
sinia" and  the  "Magdala,"  and  are 
armed  with  10-inch  guns  in  2  turrets. 
A  commission  is  still  sitting  to  con- 
sider the  erection  of  further  defences. 

But  the  existing  defences  of  Bom- 
bay Harbour  are  batteries  on  rocks, 
which  stud  the  sea  from  about  oppo- 
site the  Memorial  Church  at  Koldba  to 
the  Elphinstone  Keclamation.  The  one 
most  to  the  ^  is  called  the  Oyster 
Rock,  which  isVjOOO  yds.  from  the 
shore,  and  8400  ft.  S.W.  of  the  Middle 
Ground  Battery.  The  Fort  on  the 
Middle  Ground  shoal  is  in  the  middle  I 

[i^mJfly— 1880.] 


of  the  anchorage,  1800  yds.  from  shore 
The  3rd  defence  is  on  Cross  Island,  a 
the  N.  end  of  the  anchorage,  100  yds 
from  the  shore,  and  4000  yds.  from 
Middle  Ground.  The  higher  part  of 
the  island  has  been  cut  down  and 
armed  with  a  battery. 

Landing  Places. — It  is  usual    for 
steamers  to  stop  for  J  an  hour  at  what 
is  now  called  Wellington  Pier  in  offi- 
cial papers,  but  which  amongst  the 
public  obstinately  retains  its  old  name 
of  Apollo  Bandar,  which  is  supposed 
to  be  derived  from  the  Palla  fish  sold 
at  this  spot  in  old  times.    The  Apollo 
Bandar  is  within  a  few  hundred  yards 
of  the  public  buildings  and  of  Wat- 
son's Hotel,  and  it  would  be  conve- 
nient to  land  there  were  it  not  for 
baggage,  which  perhaps  is  more  con- 
veniently passed  through  the  Custom 
House  at  Mazagdon.    The  P.  and  0. 
steamer,  after  landing   the  -mail   at 
Apollo  Bandar,  proceeds  about  3  m.  N. 
up  the  harbour  to  Mazagdon.  The  bag- 
gage is  then  all  landed,  and  the  things 
are  passed  through  the  Custom  House 
ex|)editiously.    The  only  article  which 
l^ays  a  high  duty  and  gives  trouble  is 
firearms.    If  these  have  not  been  in 
India  before,  or  have  not  been  in  India 
for  a  year,  a  high  ad  valorem,  duty  is 
levied  on  them,  and  they  cannot  be  re- 
moved from  the  Custom  House  until 
the  duty  is  paid,  or  a  certificate  given 
that  a  full  year  has  not  elapsed  since 
the  owner  left  India.    Unless  the  tra- 
veller has  a  friend  in  Bombay  who  will 
send  a  carriage  to  meet  him,  it  would 
be  well  to  have  ordered  by  the  pre- 
vious mail  a  carriage  and  a  bullock 
cart  for  his  luggage  from  one  of  the 
hotels  to  meet  him.    This  will  obviate 
a  considerable  delay  where  there  are 
many  desagremcns. 

Hotels  and  Clubs, — The  best  way  of 
locating  oneself  on  arrival  at  Bombay 
is  to  obtain  admission  as  an  honorary 
member  of  the  Bykallnh  Club,  which 
is  however  inconveniently  situated 
very  exclusive,  and  subject  to  dis 
agreeable  odours  from  the  Flats,  as  the 
low  ground  round  it  is  called.  The 
Bombay  Club  is  in  a  very  convenient 
locality,  close  to  the  public  buildings, 
and    in    a    better    atmosphere ;    the 


lU 


Bonnhay  Cky, 


Sect.  11. 


cuisine  ii  also  excellent  The  best 
hotels  axe  Watson's  Esplanade  Hotel, 
a  large  building  on  the  Esplanade,  and 
open  to  the  refreshing  sea  breeze ;  and 
the  Victoria  Hotel,  kept  by  Palanji, 
ahoat  ^  of  m.  to  the  N.  of  Watson's, 
which  18  small,  but  comfortable.  At 
Bykallah,  also,  there  are  2  hotels,  of 
which  Palanjfs  Family  Hotel  can  be 
recommended.  The  Waverley  Hotel 
in  the  Fort  is  also  well  spoken  of,  and 
belongs  to  the  same  proprietor  as  the 
Ohauk  Hotel  at  Hdtherdn.  The  terms 
are  5  rupees  a  day.  The  hotel  expenses 
altogether  will  be  from  7  to  10  rs.  a 
day.  There  is  also  a  comfortable  hotcd 
at  Khambdla. 

Conveyance. —  Having  secured  a 
pied  a  terre,  it  will  be  necessary  to 
hire  a  carriage,  which,  with  a  single 
horse,  will  cost  5  rs.  a  day;  with  2 
horses  10  rs.  Carriages  can  be  got 
from  the  stables  of  Ludda  Abram, 
Pedroz,  and  others.  There  is  a  very 
convenient,  but  not  aristocratic  mode 
of  travelling  by  the  tramway,  which 
was  opened  in  1 873.  It  starts  from  near 
Grant's  Buildings  in  Koldba,  and  runs 
by  Hornby  Bow  and  Oriental  Bank 
Bead  to  the  Money  School,  on  a  double 
track.  It  proceeds  with  a  single  track 
by  Kalba  Devi  Boad  and  Parell  Boad 
to  Jail  Boad,  and  then  along  Parell 
Boad  by  a  double  track,  passing  over 
a  bridge  to  Bykallah.  There  is  a  double 
line  from  the  comer  of  Cruikshank 
Boad  to  the  Markets,  and  a  single 
through' Abdu'r  Bal^imdn  Street  toPAyd- 
honl,  where  it  joins  the  Parell  line. 
The  latest  addition  is  from  the  corner 
of  Cruikshank  Boad  by  Bampart  Bow 
East  to  Elphinstone  Circle,  and  by 
Marina  Street  to  Wellington  Foun- 
tain. Pdlkis  now  are  little  used, 
and  the  buggies,  which  are  the  cabs 
of  Bombay,  are  most  unsatisfactory 
vehicles. 

Puhli/j  OJicet.-^The  public  Build- 
ings succeed  one  another  in  the  fol- 
lowing order,  from  N.  to  S.,  in  a  line 
close  to  Wat69n's  Hotel  on  the  Espla- 
nade :— Telegraph  Offices,  Post  Office, 
Public  Works  Ctece,  Law  Courts,  Uni- 
versity library  and  Dock  Jower,  Uni- 
versity Hall,  Secretariate,  Sailors* 
Hotne.    There  is  a  building   to  the 


N.E.  of  the  Telegraph  Offices  which 
is  used  for  the  accommodation  of  the 
employes  of  the  telegraph  department. 

It  must  be  confessed  that  on  enter- 
ing the  harbour  the  back  view  of  these 
buildings  is  not  impoBing.  Their  grey 
colour,  though  far  less  beautiful  to  the 
eye  than  the  dazzling  white  of  stone 
or  marble  buildings,  is  at  aU  events 
free  from  glare,  and  the  traveller  on 
reaching  the  Esplanade  and  approach- 
ing them  closely  will  be  astonished 
to  see  what  fine  edifices  they  are, 
and  how  admirably  the  details  are 
finished. 

Ike  Telegraph  Qffieei,'-'Th\&  build- 
ing  is  in  the  Modem  Gothic  style,  and 
182  ft.  long  by  55  ft.  broad.  The  facing 
is  of  coursed  rubble  stone  from  Kurla 
in  Salsette,  and  the  columns  are  of 
bla6  basalt.  The  ground  floor  is 
paved  with  Minton  tiles.  A  tablet  is 
placed  here  with  the  following  in- 
,  scription  :— 

This  buildinc  for  the  Bombay  Dlviaion  of 
Telegraphs  and  British  Indian  Bub-Marine 
Telegraph,  was  erected  from  designs  by  W. 
Paris,  A. R.I. B.  A.,  Architect  to  Government, 
and  sanctioned  by  the  Government  of  India  ou 
the  22nd  of  September,  1871. 

The  work  was  commenced  on  the  2nd  of 
November,  1871,  H.E.  the  Right  Honorable 
Sir  Seymour  Vesey  Fitzgerald,  G.C.S.I.,  Go- 
vernor and  President  in  Council,  and  was 
completed  on  the  20th  April,  1874 ;  H.E.  the 
Honorable  Sir  Philip  Edmond  Wodehouse, 
K.C.B.,  Governor  and  President  in  Council. 

The  work  was  carried  out  under  the  imme- 
diate orders  of  J.  H.  E.  Hart,  M.InstC.E., 
from  November  1871  to  November  1872; 
Colonel  J.  A.  Fuller,  R.E.,  from  November 
1872  to  April  1874.  Manchaiji  K4\:i^i 
(Cowasjee)  Marzbdn  being  Assistant-Engineer 
in  chai*ge. 

Estimate  as  sanctioned,  Rs.  2,45,840 ;  actual 
cost,  Rs.  2.44,697. 

Colonel  M.  K.  Kennedy,  R.E., 

Secretary  to  Government  F.  "W.  D. 

The  Post  Office  has  3  floors,  and  is 
242  ft.  long  and  71  ft.  broad,  with 
wings  on  the  N.  side  41  ft.  broad.  It 
is  in  the  Mediaeval  style,  and  was  de- 
signed by  Mr.  Triibshawe.  The  stone 
used  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  Tele- 
graph Oflices ;  the  arrangement  is  ex- 
cellent in  point  of  convenience,  and 
large  brass  plates  give  the  most  de- 
tai&d  information  as  to  the  bnsineBs 
carried  on  in  each  portion  of  the 
building.    A  tablet  with  the  following 


Sect.  11. 


The  Public  Woi'ks  Offii^e — Law  Couiis, 


115 


inscripfiolt  near  the  main  entrance 
gives  the  particulars  of  the  erection  of 
the  building : — 

The  General  Post  Office,  erected  from  deaigiis 
by  J.  Triibshawe,  Architect  to  Government, 
and  W.  Paris,  A.R.I.B.A.,  Architect  to  Go- 
vernment, and  sanctioned  by  the  Government 
of  India  on  the  2l8t  of  February,  1870.  This 
work  was  commenced  on  11th  April,  1869, 
H.B.  the  Bight  Honorable  Sir  Seymour  Vesey 
Fitzgerald,  G.C.S.I.,  Governor  and  President 
in  Council,  and  was  completed  on  the  1st  of 
December,  1872;  H.E.  the  Honorable  Sir 
Philip  Edmond  Wodehouse,  K.C.B.,  Governor 
and  President  in  Council. 

The  work  was  curried  out  under  the  im- 
mediate orders  of  Lieut. -Col.  J.  A.  Fuller,  B.  E. , 
fh>m  April  1869  to  Hay  1871 ;  J.  H.  E.  Hart, 
H.In8l.C.E.',  firom  May  1871  to  November 
1872 ;  C6L  J.  A.  Fuller,  B.B.,  f!rom  Jfovember 
1872  to  December  1872 ;  Manchaijl  Kdili^i 
(Cowasjee)  Marzbto  being  Assistant  -  Engi- 
neer in  charge.  Estimate  as  sanctioned,  Bs. 
5,09,992 ;  actual  cost,  Bs.  5,94,200. 

There  are  in  Bombay  daily  6  deli- 
veries of  letters,  at  8,  10,  and  11.30 
AJf . ;  12.30,  2,  and  5  P.M.  The  post 
for  all  places  on  the  N.E.  of  the 
G.  I.  P.  Railway  leaves  at  4.50  p.m.  ;  for 
Fund,  Madras,  and  AVmadnagar,  at 
1.20  P.M.;  for  Sindh  and  Kachh  at 
7.30  P.M.  The  mail  for  England  closes 
every  Monday  for  letters  at  6.30  p.m., 
and  for  papers  and  books  at  3  p.m. 
Late  packets  are  received  at  Apollo 
Bandar  till  6.30  P.M.  on  extra  payment. 

The  Public  Works  Office  comes  next, 
and  is  separated  from  the  Post  Office 
by  a  broad  road  which  leads  E.  to  the 
Fort  by  Church  Gate  Road  and  W.  to 
a  railway  station.  The  P.  W.  Office  is 
288 J  ft.  long  and  60i  ft.  broad  and  1 IG 
ft.  high,  inie  central  buUding  has  G 
stories,  and  the  other  part  3  stories. 
Near  the  main  entrance  is  a  tablet  with 
the  following  inscription : — 

This  building  for  the  Offices  of  the  Public 
Works  Department  was  erected  firom  designs 
by  Colonel  (then  Captain)  H.  St.  Clair  Wil- 
kms,  B.E.,  A.D.O.  to  the  Queen,  and  sanc- 
tioned by  the  Oovenm^ent  of  Bombay  on  the 
4th  of  May.  1869. 

The  work  was  commenced  on  the  1st  of 
May,  1869 ;  H.E.  the  Right  Honorable  Sir 
Seymour  Vesey  Fitzgenud,  O.C.S.I.,  Go- 
vernor and  President  in  Council,  and  was 
completed  on  the  1st  of  April,  1872;  H.E. 
the  Honorable  Sir  Philip  Edmoud  Wode- 
house, K.C.B.,  Governor  and  President  in 
Council. 

The  work  was  carried  out  under  the  imQie^ 
diate  orders 'of  Lieut. -Col.  J.  A.  Fuller,  K.E., 
flfom  May  1;jOI>  to  May  1871 ;   J.  H.  E.  Hatt, 


M.InstC.E.,  from  May  1871  to  April  1872, 
Wasudew  B4puji  Kanitker  being  Assistant 
Engineer  in  charge. 

Estimate  an  Kauctioned,  Bs.  4,38,937;  actual 
cost,  Rs.  4,14,481. 

Colonel  M.  K.  Kenncly,  R.E., 

Secretaiy  to  Government  P.  W.  D. 

The  Railway  Department  is  in  this 
office. 

Law  Courts, — This  immense  build- 
ing is  662  ft.  long  and  187  ft.  broad. 
The  height  to  the  eaves  is  90  f  t. ,  and 
to  the  top  of  the  Tower  176  ft.  The 
Judges  first  took  their  seats  here  on  the 
27th  of  January,  1S79.  The  structure 
runs  almost  N.  and  S.  The  style  is 
Early  English  Gothic.  The  pnncipal 
entrance  is  under  a  large  arched  porch 
in  the  W.  facade,  oa  either  side  of 
which  is  an  octagon  tower  120  ft.  high, 
crowned  with  spirelets  of  white  Por- 
bandar  stone,  and  surmounted  with 
statues  of  Justice  and  Mercy. 
Through  these  towers  are  2  private 
staircases  for  the  Judges ;  that  on  the 
left  or  S.  side  l)eing  for  the  Appellate 
Judges,  and  that  on  the  N.  for  the 
Judges  of  the  Original  side.  The  main 
staircase  is  on  the  E.  side,  and  is  ap- 
proached by  a  noble  groined  corridor, 
10  ft.  wide,  in  Porbandar  stone,  which 
runs  through  the  building  from  the 
porch,  the  floor  being  paved  vdth 
Minton  tiles.  On  either  side  of  the 
corridor  are  2  rooms  49  ft.  by  22 J  ft., 
one  for  prisoners  and  the  other  for 
printing-presses.  On  the  E.  side  2 
elliptical  staircases  give  access  from 
the  1st  floor  upwards.  There  are  on 
the  ground-floor  4  rooms  44  ft.  by  34 
ft.,  and  4  others  2.3  ft.  by  214  ^^-j  ^^ 
three  44  ft.  by  34  ft.,  besides  a  library 
of  the  same  size,  and  retiring  rooms. 
The  offices  of  the  High  Court  are  on 
the  Ist  and  3rd  upper  floors.  The 
Appellate  and  Original  Courts  are  on 
the  2nd  floor.  There  are  9  spiral  stone 
staircases  from  the  ground-floor,  and 
13  from  the  1st  floor.  On  the  N.  side 
are  2  Original  Courts,  and  on  the  8. 
side  1  Original  Court  and  2  Appellate 
Courts.  The  Judges'  Chambers  at  the 
respective  courts  arc  handsome,  and 
over  each  entrance  there  is  a  brass 
plate  with  the  name  of  the  Judge.  The 
Criminal  Court  is  in  the  centre  oi  the 
building  above  the  main  colrridor,  and 

I  2 


116 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


is  44  ft.  high.  It  is  50  x  CO  ft.,  with 
angles  cut  off,  and  has  a  carved  teak 
gaUery  running  round  3  sides,  where 
the  public  are  allowed  to  sit.  The 
ceiling  is  of  dark  polished  teak  in 
panels,  with  a  carved  centre-piece. 
The  floor  is  Italian  mosaic,  the  wall 
being  coloured  light  blue  picked  out 
with  white.  Under  the  Judge  sit  the 
Clerk  of  the  Crown  and  other  officers, 
and  opposite  are  the  counsel.  Behind 
are  railed  places  for  the  prisoners  and 
police,  and  on  either  side  of  the  bar- 
risters' table  the  jury-boxes.  The 
witness-box  is  at  the  right-hand  comer 
of  the  table.  All  these  are  on  a  raised 
platform  of  wood  in  the  centre  of  the 
room,  leaving  the  2  sides  of  the  Court 
clear.  On  the  elliptical  staircase  roofs 
are  large  reservoirs  for  water  with 
pipes  to  the  ground-floor,  with  4-inch 
hose  taps  fixed  in  each  floor,  and  the 
hose  coiled  beside  them.  In  case  of 
fire  the  hose  can  be  coupled  to  the  tap, 
and  a  powerful  volume  of  water  di- 
rected against  any  spot  near.  The 
walls  are  of  rubble  and  chunam,  faced 
with  blue  basalt  roughly  dressed.  The 
bases  are  of  Sewrl  blue  basalt,  the 
columns  of  Kurla  basalt,  with  capitals 
of  Porbandar  stone.  The  arches  of 
the  ground  floor  are  of  Kurla  stone, 
and  those  of  the  upper  floors  of  Por- 
bandar stone.  The  corridors  and  para- 
pets are  of  Kurla  basalt  with  columns 
of  red  basalt  and  capitals  of  Porbandar 
stone,  with  a  coping  of  blue  Sewri 
stone.  The  roof  parapets  are  per- 
forated with  quatrefoils  and  trefoils. 
ITie  spirelets  of  the  octagon  towers  are 
of  Porbandar  stone.  The  roofs  are 
covered  in  vrith  Taylor's  tiles  over 
6-inch  planks  of  teak,  tongued  and 
grooved  with  Gothic  teak  trusses. 
From  the  windows  of  the  tower  fine 
views  are  obtained.  On  the  E.  are  the 
harbour  fringed  with  islands,  Modi 
Bay,  and  the  Fort ;  and  to  the  W. 
are  Malabar  Hill,  Back  Bay,  and 
Koldba  Point.  The  whole  building 
does  much  credit  to  General  J.  A. 
Fuller,  R.E.,  who  designed  it.  This 
vast  building  is  said  to  have  cost 
£100,000. 

University  Xfi^^o^ry  and  ClocTc  Tower, 
— The  Library  is  a  long   low  room 


adorned  with  handsome  carving,  llie 
flying  or  open  staircases  attached  to 
the  outside  of  the  building  are  very 
elegant.  The  Great  University  or 
RAjd  Bdl  Tower  is  annexed  to  the 
Library  on  the  W.  side,  and  is  from 
its  vast  height  the  most  remarkable  of 
the  many  remarkable  buildings  in 
Bombay.  It  is  260  ft.  high,  and  there- 
fore 8  ft.  higher  than  the  Kujb  Mindr 
at  Dilli,  and  was  founded  at  the  ex- 
pense of  Mr.  Premchand  Baichand, 
who  assigned  for  its  erection  300,000 
rs.,  being  a  gift  in  memory  of  his 
mother,  RAja  Bdl.  He  also  gave 
100,000  rs.  for  the  Library,  and  these 
sums  with  accumulations  more  than 
sufficed  to  complete  the  2  buildings. 
The  Tower  is  divided  into  8  parts,  the 
porch,  the  1st,  2nd,  3rd,  4th,  5th,  and 
6th  floors,  and  the  portion  above  them. 
The  ceilings  of  the  porch  and  of  the 
1st  floor  are  of  Porbandar  stone  gi'oined 
and  supported  on  ribs.  Access  to  the 
Tower  is  gained  by  a  solid  stone  spiral 
staircase,  which  is  only  21  inches  wide. 
The  1st  floor  is  25  ft.  from  the  ground, 
and  forms  part  of  the  upper  room  of 
the  Library.  From  the  1st  to  the  2nd 
floor  is  42  ft.,  with  62  steps.  The  2nd 
floor  contains  a  study  for  the  Registrar, 
23  ft.  sq.  There  is  an  opening  several 
feet  square  in  the  centre  of  the  floor, 
and  over  it  are  other  openings  in  the 
ceilings  above,  so  that  one  can  look  up 
115  ft.  to  the  ceiling  of  the  Dial  Room. 
The  3rd  floor  is  26  ft.  above  the  2nd, 
and  has  a  room  23  ft.  sq.  and  20  ft.  high. 
Tlie  4th  floor  is  for  the  great  clock, 
and  has  in  each  of  its  4  sides  a  dial 
opening  12  ft.  6  in.  in  diameter.  Under 
the  dials  outside  are  4  small  galleries, 
each  approached  by  a  small  door  and 
protected  by  ornamental  stone  balus- 
trades. Above  the  dials  the  chamber 
changes  from  a  square  to  an  octagon, 
the  projection  being  supported  on  large 
cut  stone  corbels.  Above  the  dial 
chamber  the  staircase  ascends  only 
one  more  flight,  and  stops  at  a  height 
of  184  ft.  from  the  ground.  At  a  height 
of  15  ft.  above  the  gallery,  in  niches  cut 
in  the  pillars  which  form  the  comers  of 
the  octagon,  are  figures  8  ft.  high,  repre- 
senting the  Castes  of  W.  India ;  and 
I  above  them,  where  the  octagon  ceases 


Sect.  II. 


University  Hall — The  SecretaricUe. 


117 


and  the  cupola  commences,  is  another 
set  of  figures,  all  modelled  by  RAo 
BahMur  Makund  R^mchandra.  There 
are  also  8  more  statues  in  niches  about 
80  ft.  above  the  ground  level,  making 
in  all  24  statues  representing  the  Castes 
of  W.  India.  From  the  cupola  a  copper 
tube  of  2^  in.  diameter,  forming  the 
lightning  conductor,  descends  to  the 
ground,  and  is  carried  to  a  distance  of 
60  ft.,  and  imbedded  12  ft.  below  the 
surface.  A  tablet  with  the  following 
inscription  will  be  seen  in  the  Uni- 
versity Library : — 

The  University  Library  and  R^d  Bdi  Clock 
Tower  was  erected  from  designs  by  Sir  Gilbert 
Scott,  B.A.,  F.S.A.,  F.R.I. A.,  and  sanctioned 
by  the  Government  of  Bombay  on  the  16th 
January,  1869. 

The  work  was  commenced  on  the  Ist  of 
March,  1869.  His  Excellency  the  Right 
Honorable  Sir  Seymour  Vesey  Pltzgerald, 
G.C.S.I.,  Cliancellor;  Rev.  John  Wilson, 
F.  R.  S. ,  Vice-chancellor. 

The  work  was  completed  in  November,  1878. 
His  Excellency  the  Honorable  Sir  Richard 
Temple,  Bart.,  G.C.S.I.,  Chancellor;  the 
Honorable  James  Gibbs,  C.S.,  F.R.O.S,,  Vice- 
Chan  cellor. 

Tliis  work  was  carried  out  under  the  imme- 
diate orders  of  Lieut. -Col.  J.  A.  Fuller,  R.E., 
from  March  1869  to  May  1871 ;  J.  H.  E.  Hart, 
M.Inst. C.E.,  from  May  1871  to  November 
1872;  Lieut -Col.  J.  A.  Fuller,  R.E,,  ftam 
December  1872  to  November  1878 ;  Rio  Ba- 
hadur Makund  Ramchandra  being  Assistant- 
Engineer  in  charge. 

The  entire  cost  of  the  building,  together 
with  the  Clock  and  Chimes,  was  contributed 
by  Premchand  Raichand,  Esq.,  J. P. 

Lieut. -General  Sir  Michael  Kennedy,  Kt, 
C.S.I.,  R.E.,  Secretary  to  Government  Public 
Works  Department. 

Uhirersitj/  UaU. — This  fine  building 
is  in  the  decorated  early  French  style 
of  the  loth  century.  The  hall  is  104  ft. 
long,  44  ft.  broad,  and  68  ft.  high  to  the 
apex  of  the  groined  ceiling,  wil^  a  semi- 
circular apse  of  38  ft.  diameter,  sepa- 
rated from  the  Hall  by  a  grand  arch. 
The  front  corridor  is  11  ft.  broad,  the 
side  corridors  are  8  ft.  A  gallery,  8  ft. 
1)i*oad,  on  handsome  cast-iron  brackets, 
passes  round  three  sides  of  the  Hall. 
There  are  painted  glass  windows, 
which  have  an  excellent '  effect,  and 
are  also  most  useful  in  tempering 
the  fierceness  of  the  Indian  sun.  At 
first  the  hall  was  found  to  be  defec- 
tive ^in  point  of  acoustics,  but  im- 
provements liave  since  been  made,    A 


tablet  with  the  following  inscription 
is  placed  behind  the  Chancellor's 
Throne  : — 

The  Sir  K&u^ji  (Cowasjee)  Jaluingir  Hall  of 
the  Universitv  of  Bombay,  was  erected  trom 
designs  by  Sir  Gilbert  Scott,  R.A.,  F.S.A., 
F.R.I.B.A.,  and  sanctioned  by  the  Govern- 
ment of  Bomlmy  on  the  10th  January,  1869. 

The  work  was  commenced  on  ^e  Ist  of 
March.  1869.  H.E.  the  Right  Honorable  Sir 
Seymour  Vesey  Fitzgerald,  G.C.8.I.,  Chan- 
cellor; the  Rev.  John  Wilson,  D.D.,  F.R.8., 
Vice-Chancellor,  and  was  completed  on  the 
:Ust  of  December,  1874  ;  H.E.  the  Honorable 
Sir  Philip  Edmond  Wodehouse,  K.G.B.,  Chan- 
cellor; the  Honorable  James  Gibbs,  C.S.,  Vice- 
Chancellor. 

The  work  was  carried  out  under  the  imme- 
diate orders  of  Lieut.-Col.  J.  A.  Fuller,  R.E., 
ftom  March  1869  to  May  1871 ;  J.  H.  E.  Hart, 
M.Inst.C.E.,  Irom  May  1871  to  November 
1872 ;  Col.  J.  A.  Fuller,  R.E.,  from  Novem- 
ber 1872  to  December  1874;  Rio  Sd^ib 
Makund  Ramchandra  being  Assistant-En^- 
ncer  in  charge.  Sir  K&u^i  (Cowai^ee)  Jahdngir, 
K.C.S.I.,  contributed  Rs.  100,000.  Estimate 
as  sanctioned,  Rs.  4,15,S04;  actual  cost, 
Rs.  3,791,389. 

Colonel  M.  K.  Kennedy,  R.E., 

Secretary  to  Government  P.W.D. 

The  Secretariate  is  443J  ft.  long, 
with  two  wings  81  ft.  long,  the  ends 
of  which  form  three  sides  of  an  oc- 
tagon. The  basement  contains  the 
printing-rooms,  and  is  16  ft.  high. 
The  first  fioor  is  20  ft.  high,  and  here 
are  the<  Council  Hall,  Committee 
Rooms,  Private  Rooms  for  the  Go- 
vernor and  Members  of  Council,  and 
the  Offices  of  the  Revenue  Depart- 
ment. The  2nd  floor  is  15  ft.  high, 
and  contains  the  Offices  of  the 
Judicial  and  Military  Departments. 
On  the  third  floor,  which  is  14  ft. 
high,  are  the  Offices  of  the  Public 
Works  and  Railway  Departments. 
The  style  is  Venetian  Gothic,  and 
the  designer  was  Col.  Wilkins,  R.E. 
The  pillars  are  moulded  Kurla  cut 
stone.  The  small  corridor  shafts,  the 
capitals,  and  cornices  are  of  Hem- 
nagar  stone,  a  superior  silicious  white 
sandstone.  The  corridor  arches  on 
the  ground  floor  are  alternately  of 
blue  basalt  and  Porbandar  stone. 
Those  on  the  flrst  floor  are  of  red 
basalt  and  Porbandar  stone  alter- 
nately. The  carving  is  by  native 
ariists,  and  is  excellent.  The  en- 
trance-hall and  principal  staircase  are 
very  fine.    The  staircase  is  lighted  by 


118 


Bomhfiy  City. 


Sect.  II. 


the  great  window  in  a  single  arcb, 
90  ft.  high,  over  which  is  the  tower, 
which  rises  to  170  ft.  At  the  entrance 
are  the  arms  of  Sir  B.  Frere  and  Sir 
S.  Fitzgerald.  There  is  also  a  very 
handsome  armoire  made  of  teak,  in- 
laid with  black  wood,  aU  done  by 
natives.  The  Council  Chamber  is 
50  ft.  long  by  40  ft.  broad,  and  the 
table  is  very  handsome.  There  are 
chairs  for  the  fourteen  members  of 
the  Legislative  Council.  The  Go- 
vernor's chair  is  distinguished  by  a 
high  back.  The  Library  is  a  fine 
room,  and  the  retiring  rooms  are  re- 
plete with  every  comfort.  In  the  hall 
is  a  tablet  with  the  following  inscrip- 
tion :— 

This  building  for  the  Offices  of  the  Oovem- 
ment  of  Bombay  was  erected  from  the  designs 
submitted  on  the  29th  of  September,  1865,  by 
Colonel  (then  C5aptain)  H.  S.  Clair  Wilkius, 
R.E.,  A.D.C.  to  the  Queen;  H.E.  the  Honor- 
able Sir  Bartle  Frere,  G.C.S.I.,  K.C.B., 
Governor  and  President  in  Council,  and 
sanctioned  by  the  Right  Honorable  Sir 
Charles  Wood,  Bart.,  G.C.B.,  Her  Ma^jesty's 
Secretary  of  State  in  Council,  on  the  10th  of 
June,  1866. 

The  work  was  commenced  on  the  16th  of 
April,  1867.  H.E.  the  Right  Honorable  Sir 
William  Robert  Seymour  Vesey  Fitzgerald, 
G.C.B.L,  Governor  and  President  in  Council; 
and  was  completed  on  the  20th  of  March,  1874. 
H.E.  the  Honorable  Sir  Philip  Edmond  Wode- 
house,  E.C.B.,  Governor  and  President  in 
Council. 

Tlie  work  was  carried  out  under  the  imme- 
diate orders  of  Capt.  C.  W.  Pinch,  R.E.,  from 
April  1867  to  November  1867;  Lieut. -Col.  J. 
A.  Fuller,  R.E.,  from  November  1867  to  May 
1871;  J.  H.  E.  Hart,  M.Iust.C.E.,  from  May 
1871  to  November  1872;  CoL  J.  A.  Fuller, 
R.E.,  from  November  1872  to  March  1874; 
Mr.  Wasudew  Bdpujl  Kanitker,  Assistant- 
Engineer,  being  in  charge. 

Estimate  as  sanctioned,  Rs.  12,80,731;  actual 
cost,  Rs.  12,60,844. 

Colonel  M.  K.  Kennedy,  R.E., 
Secretary  to  Government  in  the  P.W.D.  ' 

Leaving  the  Secretariate,  and  turn- ; 
ing  to  the  left  for  about  250  yds.,  the 
traveller  will  arrive  at  the  Sailorx' 
Ilomej  which  is  270  ft.  long,  and  55  ft. 
broad.  It  has  two  wings,  that  on  the 
N.  side  being  114  ft.  long  and  58  ft. 
broad,  and  that  on  the  S.  side  58  ft. 
square.  There  is  accommodation  for 
20  officers,  58  seamen,  a  superinten- 
dent and  assistant  superintendent, 
and  20  servants.  It  is  stated  tliat  in 
case  of  emergency  the  building  could 


contain  100  inmates.  Officers  have 
separate  and  superior  quarters.  Each 
man  pays  14  dn4s  a  day,  for  which  he 
gets  brejEiikfast  at  8*30  A.M.,  dinner  at 
1*30  P.M.,  tea,  with  hot  meat,  at  6  p.m., 
and  supper.  If  men  fall  sick  they  are 
sent  to  the  Hospital,  as  there  is  no 
sick  room.  There  is  a  reading  room, 
35  ft.  by  30  ft.  ;  the  books  are  chiefly 
religious.  The  subscriptions  amount 
to  about  Ks.  3,600.  The  superinten- 
dent gets  Bs.  170  and  free  quarters, 
with  an  allowance  for  his  food.  There 
is  a  bar,  where  the  men  can  purchase 
liquor,  beer  or  wine.  The  walls  are 
thick  enough  to  bear  another  story. 
The  entrance-hall  and  principal  stair- 
case are  in  the  centre  of  the  building. 
The  hall  has  a  paneled  teak  ceiling. 
The  staircase  is  of  blue  stone,  with  an 
iron  railing  on  groined  arches.  The 
building  is  faced  with  blue  basalt,  and 
the  carved  cornices,  bands,  mouldings, 
&c.,  are  of  Porbandar  stone.  The 
caps  and  finely  carved  work  are  of 
Hemnagar  stone.  The  arching  is  of 
Kurla  stone,  blue  basalt,  and  Hemna- 
gar stone,  and  the  flooring  is  of  as- 
phalte.  The  roof  is  of  Taylor's  tiles 
over  teak  planking.  The  sculpture  in 
the  front  gable  representing  Neptune 
with  nymphs  and  sea-horses,  was  exe- 
cuted in  Bath  stone  by  Mr.  Bolton,  of 
Cheltenham.  His  late  Highness 
Khaiid6  Rdo  GAekwdd  gave  Rs.  200,000 
towards  the  cost  of  the  building,  to 
commemorate  the  Duke  of  Edin- 
burgh's visit,  and  the  foundation 
stone  was  laid  on  the  17th  of  March, 
1870,  by  the  Duke.  There  are  tablets 
in  the  Hall  vrith  the  following  inscrip- 
tions : — 

The  Sailors'  Home  was  erected  from  designs 
by  F.  W.  Stevens,  Assoc.  Inst.  C.E.,  and 
sanctioned  by  the  Government  of  23ombfty  on 
the  5tii  December,  1871. 

The  work  was  commenced  on  the  28th  of 
February,  1872,  and  was  completed  on  the  29th 
February  1876;  H.  R  the  Honorable  Sir  Ed- 
mond Philip  Wodehouse,  K.C.B.,  Governor 
and  President  in  Council. 

The  work  lyas  carried  out  under  tlie  imme- 
diate orders  of  J.  H.  E.  Hart,  M.I.C.E.,  from 
February  1872  to  November  1872;  Col.  J.  A. 
Fuller,  R.E.,  firom  November  1872  to  Feb- 
ruarj'  1876;  P.  W.  Stevens,  A.I.C.E.,  Execu- 
tive-Engineer in  charge.  Sftiram  Kharide" 
R4o,  overseer. 

H,H,  liliah^e  lUo  Gaekwd^,  G.C.SJ,,  con- 


Sect.  II. 


Tlie  Sailors^  Homey  etc. 


119 


tributed  Rs.  200,000.   Estimate  as  sanctioned, 
Kh.  3,68,565 ;  actual  cost,  Rs.  366,629. 
M^Jor-General  Kennedy,  R.E., 

Secretaiy  to  Oovemmeut  P.W.D. 

The  First  Stone 

of  this   building, 

erected  as  a  Home  for  the  Seamen  of  this 

Fort,  and  dedicated  by 

'His  Highness  Khaiid^  Rao  Oiekw&a 

as  a  perpetual  token  of  his  loyal  attachment 

To  H.   M.   QUEKN  ViCTOBIA, 

and  in  commemoration  of  the  auspicious 

arrival  in  Bombay  of 

H.R.H.  the  Duke  or  Edinburgh,  K.G., 

K.T.,G.C.M.G.,  G.C.S.I.,  P.N., 

Master  of  the  Corporation  of  Trinity  House, 

was  laid  by  His  Royal  Highness 

this  17th  day  of  March,  1870, 

The  Right  Honorable  W.  R.  Seymour 

V.  Fitzgerald 

being  Governor  of  Bombay. 

The  Sailors'  Home  adjoins  the 
Apollo  Bandar,  where  on  certain  days 
the  band  plays,  'and  where  the  UiU 
of  Bombay  resort  on  such  occasions. 
Should  it  be  evening  when  the  tra- 
veller has  finished  his  tour  of  the 
Public  Offices,  he  may  drive  to  the  end 
of  the  Bandar  and  enjoy  the  music 
and  the  breeze.  On  the  right-hand 
side,  near  the  end  of  the  Pier,  is  an 
excellent  Kestaurant.  Should  the 
band  be  playing  on  the  Esplanade,  a 
drive  of  a  few  hundred  yards  will 
take  him  to  the  Stand,  which  can  be 
seen  at  a  distance,  and  where  many 
carriages,  riders,  and  pedestrians  con- 
gregate. Where  the  Stand  has  been 
erected  there  was  in  the  old  time  the 


high,  led  np  to  by  steps.    The  Queen's 
dress  is  admirably  carved.  The  canopy 
above  makes  the  total   height  that 
given  above.    The  Eoyal  Arms  are  in 
&ont  of    the   pedestal,    and  in  the 
centre  of  the  canopy  is  the  Star  of 
India,  and  above  the  Rose  of  England 
and  Lotus  of  India,  with  the  mottoes, 
"  God  and  my  Right "  and  "  Heaven's 
Light  our  Guide."     The  capitals  of 
the  columns  and  the  plinths  are  orna- 
mented with  oak  and  ivy  leaves.    The 
panels  are  inscribed  in  4  languages. 
There  is  also  an  equestrian  statue  of 
the  Prince  of  Wales  in  bronze,  on  a 
gray  granite  pedestal,  just  at  the  back 
of  the  Secretariate.    It  was  cast  by 
Mr.  Behm,  and  cost  £11,000,  which 
was  paid  by  Sir  A.  Sassoon,  who  pre- 
sented  the    statue   to  the    city   of 
Bombay.     In  reaching   it  from  the 
Queen's   statue    the  Frere   Fountain 
will  be  passed.    For  this  fine  work 
the  Agri  -  horticultural   Society  sub- 
scribed   £2,700,  which    was  supple- 
mented  &om  the    Esplanade   Frere 
Fund,  so  as  to  defray  the  total  cost, 
of  £9000.    In  the  double  line  of  fine 
houses  which  extends  from  this  foun- 
tain to  the  S.  are   several  buildings 
of  interest  to  the  traveller.     On  the 
right  are  the  Sassoon  Mechanics'  In- 
stitute, the  Bombay  Club,   the   Na- 
tional Bank,  the  Comptoir  d  Escompte 
de  Paris,  Treacher's  Buildings.    The 


first  European  cemetery  established  in   Mechanics'  Institute  was  founded  by 


Bombay,  and  called  Mendham's  Point, 
from  the  first  individual  who  was 
buried  there.  A  drive  along  the  road 
to  where  the  road  to  the  Fort  and  that 
to  the  Public  Offices  bifurcate  will 
take  the  stranger  to  the  statue  of 
Queen  Victoria,  which  is  always  an 
object  of  great  interest  to  the  Indians. 
It  is  of  white  marble,  by  Noble,  and 
cost  Bs.  182,443,  including  part  cost  of 
erection  and  railing,  paid  by  Govern- 
ment, of  which  large  sum  Bs.  165,000 
was  given  by  H.  H.  the  late  Khaud^ 
Kdo  G&ekw&d.  The  statue  was  first 
uncovered  by  Lord  Northbrook  in  1872. 
This  fine  piece  of  sculpture  is  42  ft. 
high,  and  Her  Majesty  is  represented 
seated,  and  her  statue  in  that  position 
is  8  ft.  high.  Her  State  chair  is  placed  on 
an  octagonal  marble  platform  7  ft.  10  in« 


David  Sassoon  and  his  son  Sir  Albert, 
in  1870,  and  cost  £15,000.  Lec- 
tures are  delivered  and  prize  medals 
awarded.  Life  members  pay  Bs.  150, 
and  members  Bs.  6  per  quarter.  In 
the  entrance-ball  is  a  statue  of  David 
Sassoon,  a  remarkably  handsome  man, 
by  Woolner.  There  is  also  a  good 
Library.  Treacher's  Store  is  replete 
with  articles  of  all  kinds,  and  the 
wine  can  be  recommended.  The 
Bombay  Club  is  also  here.  The  en- 
trance subscription  is  Bs.  100,  and  the 
monthly  subscription  Bs.  6.  Sleeping 
rooms  may  be  had  for  Bs.  30  a  month. 
The  food  is  excellent,  and  equal  to  that 
supplied  by  the  Bykallah  Club.  On 
the  left  hand,  at  No.  3,  Bampart  Bow, 
is  the  office  of  the  P.  and  O.  Steam 
Navigation  Company.    On  the  same 


120 


Bombay  GUy, 


Sect.  II. 


side  are  also  Watson's  Store,  the  shop 
of  Favrc  Leubas,  the  best  watchmaker 
in  Bombay,  Bourne  and  Shepherd's 
excellent  Photographic  Office,  the 
Oriental  Bank  ;  and  farther  on,  the 
office  of  Messrs.  Sir  C.  Forbes  and 
Ca,  which  represents  the  oldest  and 
best  established  agency  in  Bombay. 

When  the  traveller  has  finished  this 
round,  he  will  probably  think  he  has 
done  enough  for  one  day.  On  the 
visit  of  the  Prince  of  Wales,  the 
buildings  which  have  been  described 
above  were  brilliantly  illuminated,  and 
it  was  universally  acknowledged  that 
even  at  the  most  superb  f^tes  on  the 
Continent  of  Europe  nothing  so  mag- 
nificent  had  been  witnessed. 

Second  Day. — The  next  day  will  be 
well  spent  in  visiting  the  Cathedral, 
Arthur  Crawford  Markets,  Elphinstone 
Circle,  the  Town  Hall  and  Mint,  the 
Custom  House  and  Dockyards,  the 
Cotton  Screws,  the  Sassoon  Dock,  the 
Memorial  Church  at  Koldba,  and  the 
Lighthouse. 

Tke  Markets, — The  best  time  for 
visiting  the  Markets  is  before  break- 
fast, when  the  meat  and  fish  markets 
are  thronged.  The  buildings  stand  in 
Market  Boad,  which  is  approached 
from  Hornby  Row.  The  first  thing 
to  be  done  is  to  ascend  the  Clock 
Tower,,  128  ft.  high,  whence  there  is  a 
magnificent  view.  These  Markets,  the 
finest  in  the  world,  were  founded  by 
Mr.  Arthur  Crawford,  C.S.,  who  was 
Municipal  Codimissioner  from  July, 
1865,  to  Nov.  1871.  This  able  officer 
got  the  Slaughter  Housesj  which  at 
the  commencement  of  his  term  of 
office  were  near  the  market,  removed 
to  Bandora  in  Salsette,  where  are  large 
sheds  well  supplied  with  water,  the 
sheep  sheds  being  separated  from  those 
for  cattle.  The  meat  is  sent  oft  by 
special  trains,  which  reach  Bori  Ban- 
dar station  at  4  a.m.  The  markets 
cover  a  site  of  72,000  yards,  which 
was  given  by  Groyemment.  Mr.  W. 
Emerson,  who  designed  Treacher's 
Buildings,  planned  the  fVuit  and  Vege- 
table Markets.  There  is  a  Central 
Hall,  surmounted  by  the  Clock  Tower, 
with  3  principal  arched  gateways.  A 
cplumn    of   polished    granite,   o|i    a 


pediment  of  blue  basalt,  divides  each 
gateway.  In  the  Central  Hall  is  a 
drinking-fountain,  given  by  Sir  K&iisji 
Jahdngir  Readymoney.  To  the  right 
is  a  wing,  150  ft.  by  100  ft,,  in  which 
are  fruit  and  flowers,  and  on  the  left 
is  another  wing,  350  ft.  by  100  ft.,  for 
spices  and  vegetables.  The  central 
part,  with  the  gateway,  covers  16,000 
sq.  ft.  The  whole  area  occupied  is 
56,000  sq.  ft.,  with  a  double  iron  roof 
of  50  ft.  span,  resting  on  iron  pillai*6. 
The  height  is  51^  ft.,  and  the  ground 
is  paved  with  fiag-stones  from  Caith- 
ness. The  stalls  in  which  the  leaves 
of  the  Piper  betel  are  sold  should  be 
looked  at.  These  leaves  are  called 
pdn^  and  the  betel-nut  is  called 
*updri.  The  leaves  are  spread  with 
lime,  and  the  fruit  of  the  Areca  palm 
is  wrapped  in  them.  These  leaves  are 
chewed  by  the  natives,  and  make  the 
lips  and  the  saliva  red  and  the  teeth 
black.  The  chief  plantations  of  betel 
are  at  Jabalptir.  There  are  many 
kinds  oi  plantains,  but  the  best  arc 
short,  thick,  and  yellow.  The  best 
oranges  are  those  from  Nagpi!ir,  and 
the  best  grapes  are  from  Auran- 
g&b4d.  The  black  grape,  called 
Habshi,  is  the  most  delicious,  and  the 
best  white  grape  is  the  SdhibL  The 
mangoes  come  in  in  May,  and  arc 
amongst  the  finest  fruit  in  the  world. 
The  l^  are  from  Mazag&on,  and  2  or 
3  iced  form  a  delicious  adjunct  for 
breakfast.  The  Pompelmooie,  as  the 
English  call  it,  but  properly  Papar- 
mdtf  or,  in  Mard^hi,  PapoMos^  the 
Citrtts  deeu7nana,ia  particularly  fine  iu 
Bombay,  very  cooling  and  wholesome, 
but  somewhat  astringent.  The  Bom- 
bay onions  are  famous.  The  Beef 
Market  is  of  iron.  The  paving-stones 
were  brought  from  Yorkshire.  The 
Fish  Market  ought  to  be  separate,  but 
is  at  present  at  the  end  of  the  Mutton 
Market.  The  turtles  come  from  Ka- 
r^hl  in  Sindh.  The  oysters  ai*e  of 
moderate  size  and  well  flavoured. 
The  Palla  fish,  generally  about  2  ft. 
long,  the  salmon  of  India,  though  its 
flesh  is  light  coloured,  is  excellent, 
but  has  many  troublesome  bones, 
and  sometimes  does  not  agree  with 
strangers.    The  best  f|sh  of  all  |s  the 


Sect.  11. 


The  Town  Hall. 


121 


Pomflet,  or  Pomfret,  called  Sargutali^ 
the  black  kind  being  called  Haltvd. 
This  is  a  flat  fish,  about  the  size 
of  a  large  flounder,  but  better  than 
the  turbot.  The  best  pomflet  are 
caught  at  VirAwal,  and  are  very  cheap 
and  wholesome.  The  flounders,  Surma  ^ 
with  projecting  knobs,  are  not  equal 
to  the  English  fish  of  the  same  name. 
The  Bhui  Machchhiy  or  mullet,  are 
fairly  good.  The  Guard-fish,  Ddtah^ 
long  and  very  thin,  are  excellent,  but 
the  flesh  has  a  greenish  colour.  The 
B&mHl,  called  by  the  English  JBovi- 
melo,  is  a  glutinous  fish,  very  nice 
when  fresh,  and  much  used  by  the 
natives  when  salted.  Besides  these, 
there  are  the  Singdrdj  or  cat-fish,  the 
Tarwdi'f  or  sword-fish,  the  Gol^  a  large 
coarse  fish,  and  many  others  ;  but,  ex- 
cept those  mentioned  above,  there  are 
none  desemng  commendation.  Near 
the  fountain  with  its  beautiful  shrubs, 
are  seats  for  loungers,  which  are  gene- 
rally filled.  There  is  also  a  Coffee 
House,  where  servants  congregate,  and 
which  clears  Es.  1,200  a  year.  On 
the  S.  side  is  the  Poultry  Market, 
where  fowls,  ducks,  turkeys,  snipes, 
curlew,  teal,  and  fiorican  may  be 
purchased  ;  the  last  excellent.  This 
market  cost  over  eleven  hundred  thou- 
sand rupees.  The  crowd  in  the  Meat 
and  Fish  Markets  is  dense,  and  the 
hubbub  deafening.  There  is  another 
market,  called  the  Nul  Bdz&r,  between 
Parell  and  Duncan  Hoad,  which  cost 
Ks.  137,000.  There  are  also  the  Pedder 
Markets  at  Mazagdon,  in  the  middle 
of  a  garden. 

The  ToTvn  Halt — Turning  back 
from  the  Markets,  the  traveller  will 
go  next  to  the  Town  Hall.  Just  to 
the  N.  of  it  is  the  Mint,  and  to  the  "W. 
is  the  Cathedral.  The  Town  Hall  is 
a  handsome  building,  with  a  fine 
colonnade  in  front,  and  does  credit 
to  the  taste  of  its  designer.  Colonel 
Thomas  Cowper,  of  the  Bombay  En- 
gineers, afterwards  Chief  Engineer. 
It  was  commenced  in  1820,  took  15 
years  in  building,  and  cost  about 
£60,000,  an  expense  of  which  by  far 
the  larger  portion  was  defrayed  by 
the  E.  L  Company,  and  the  remamder 
/cleared  off  by  subscription,  and  a  for- 


tunate lottery  ticket,  taken  by  the  com- 
mittee for  the  erection  of  the  building, 
which  came  up  a  prize  of  £10,000.  The 
building  is  260  ft.  long  by  100  ft.  deep. 
The  pillars  in  front,  and  the  external 
character  of  the  edifice,  are  Doric ; 
the  character  of  the  interior  is  Corin- 
thian. It  is  a  curious  circumstance 
respecting  the  pillars,  that  it  was 
Colonel  Cowper's  intention  to  have 
them  in  pairs,  a  design  which  was 
opposed  on  the  ground  that  the 
crowded  appearance  would  mar  the 
effect.  The  pillars  were  prepared  in 
England,  at  the  expense  of  the  Com- 
pany, and  were  further  delivered  free 
of  charge  for  freight.  On  being 
landed  they  turned  out  so  much  more 
massive  than  Colonel  Cowper  in- 
tended, that  the  plan  of  having  them 
in  pairs  was,  by  what  all  must  now 
admit  to  have  been  a  fortunate  con- 
tretemps, necessarily  abandoned.  The 
supernumerary  columns  were,  by  com- 
mand of  the  then  Governor,  Lord 
Clare,  made  over  to  Bykallah  Church, 
then  in  course  of  erection. 

The  building  consists  of  a  ground 
floor,  in  which  the  rooms  are  rather 
low,  and  a  story  above  with  lofty 
apartments.  On  the  ground  floor  are 
various  public  offices  :  the  Medical 
Board,  in  which  are  four  very  hand- 
some Ionic  pillars,  copied  from  those 
of  an  admired  temple  on  the  banks 
of  the  Hyssus,  and  set  up  by  Col. 
Waddington,  formerly  chief  engineer  ; 
the  office  of  the  Military  Auditor 
General ;  the  meeting  room  of  H.  M. 
Justices  of  the  Peace  for  Bombay,  at 
the  S.  end  ;  the  Geographical  Society's 
Boom  ;  and  some  of  the  weightier 
curiosities  of  the  Asiatic  Society.  In 
the  upper  story  is  the  grand  As- 
sembly Room,  100  ft.  square,  in  which 
public  meetings  and  balls  are  held. 
The  organ  here  is  inscribed  : — 

Tliis  Organ, 

Built  by  Messrs.  Christopher  and  Stone, 

London, 

Was  the  gift  of 

The  Hon.  Sir  Albert  David  Sassoon,  Kt, 

C.S.I.,  Member  of  the  Legislative 

Council  of  Bombay, 

To  the  Town  Hall,  Bombay, 

As  a  Memorial  of  the  Visit  of 

H.R.H.  THE  Duke  of  Edinbubgif, 

March,  1870.    Erected  1S72. 


122 


Bombay  City* 


Sect  II. 


Leading  from  this  on  the  N.  are  the 
Library  and  Assembly  Boom  of  the 
Bombay  Asiatic  Society  ;  the  subscrip- 
tion to  which  is  Bs.  75  a  year.    The 
Library,  which  was   founded  by  Sir 
James  Mackintosh,   is  well  selected, 
and  contains  about  100.000  volumes. 
A  stranger  can  have  gratuitous  access 
to  the  rooms  for  a  month,  by  an  order 
from  one  of  the  members  of  the  So- 
ciety.    On  this   side,  also,  is  a  room 
used  by  the  authorities  of  the  Edu- 
cational   Department.      On    the   S., 
from  the  Grand  Assembly  Boom,  are 
the  Levee  Booms  of  the  Governor  and. 
the  Commander-in-Chief  ;  the  Council 
Boom,  and   private    rooms  for  each 
Member  of  Council,  all  now  disused. 
In  the  S.  vestibule,  near  the  Council 
Boom,  is  the  statue  of  Mr.  Norris,  for 
many  years  a  distinguished  Secretary 
and  Member  of  Council,  whose  labours 
in  the  Judicial  Department  were  most 
useful  to  Government.     There  are  five 
other  statues  in  the  edifice,  of  men 
whose  memory  is  held  in  high  esteem 
by  the  inhabitants  of  Bombay.       Of 
these,  the  statue  of  Mountstuart  El- 
phiustone  occupies ^a;'  excellence  the 
place  of  honour  in  the  Grand  Assembly 
Boom.     The  statue  of  Sir  J.  Malcolm 
is  on  a  pedestal  at  the  head  of  the 
staircase  in  the  grand  vestibule,  and 
that  of  Sir  C.  Forbes  in  a  comer  near 
it^     At  the  bottom  of   the  staircase, 
which  is  of  stone  and  8  ft.  broad,  is 


the  fine  statue  of  Jagann&th  Shankar- 
seth — ^that  of  Sir  Jamshidji  Jijibh4i 
is  placed  on  the  opposite  side.  The 
«tatues  of  Elphingtone,  Malcolm,  and 
Sir  C.  Forbes,  are  all  by  Chantrey, 
and  in  his  best  style,  lliat  of  Lord 
Comwallis*  is  in  the  garden  of  the 
Elphinstone  Circle,  as  is  that  of  Mar- 
quess Wellesley,  by  Bacon,  which  cost 
5000  gs.,  under  a  cupola  ;  but  the 
Town  Hall  Committee  have  recom- 
mended its  removal  to  the  Town  Hall. 
It  deserves  especial  notice  that,  owing 
to  the  cupola,  which  protected  it  from 
the  weather,  the  statue  of  Lord  Com- 
wallis is  quite  uninjured,  and  almost 
as  fresh  as  when  it  left  tiie  sculptor's 
hands,  while  the  far  finer  statue  of  Lord 
Wellesley,  which  has  no  defence  against 
rain  and  storm,  is  greatly  disfigiued — 
the  features  being  almost  obliterated. 
This  ought  to  be  a  warning  against 
placing  marble  statues  in  future  at  the 
mercy  of  the  weather  in  India. 

The  Council  Boom  contains  pictures 
of  B^ji  B4o  Peshw^,  whose  adopted 
son,  Njin4  Dhundu  Pant,  will  be  ever 
infamous  as  the  author  of  the  massacre 
at  Kinhpiir  (Cawnpore) ;  of  BAji  BAo's 
celebrated  minister,  Nan4  Farnavls  ; 
and  of  Mahdddjl  Sindhia.  All  three 
paintings  are  by  Mr.  Wales,  whose 
daughter  married  Sir  C.  Malet,  some 
time  Besident  at  Pun4.  In  the 
Asiatic  Society's  Library  are  busts  of 
Sir  James  Carnac  and  Sir  J.  Mackin- 


"'  Tlie  following  Is  the  inscriiition  on  the 
pedestal  of  this  statue : — 

This  Memorial  is  consecrated 

By  the  British  inhabitants  of  the  Fi*esideucy  of 

Bombay, 

To  the  Name  and  Character  of 

CHARLES  MARQUIS  CORNWALLIS,  K.G., 

Governor-General  of  India; 
Wlio  resigned  iu  Qh^zipilr,  in  the  Province  of 

Banaras, 

On  the  5th  October,  1805, 

A  life  dedicated  to  the  service  of  his  King  and 

Country; 

But  more  especially  devoted. 

In  its  regretted  close. 

To  the  restoration  of  peace  in  India, 

And  to  the  promotion  of  the  best  interests 

Of  the  East  India  Company. 

Inflexible  and  steady  courage, 
A  sacred  fidelity  in  Political  trust, 

Purity  and  singleness  of  heart, 
A  temper  tiie  mirror  of  that  purity. 


A  reflective  and  well  disciplined  Judgment 

In  the  most  arduous  couflicts, 

A  dignified  simplicity  ot  manners. 

And  the  most  elevated  sense  of  honor. 

Every  public  Virtue  and  Spirit, 

Every  gentle  and  graceful  aifection. 

Made  him  universally 

Admired, 

Revered, 

And  beloved ; 

The  omameut  of  his  country  and  of  the  age, 

A  model  to  posterity. 

John  Bacon,  Junior,  F.A.S.,  Scalptor,LoiLdon. 

MDCCCXI. 

This  Inscription  was  probably  written  by 
Sir  J.  Mackintosh,  who  took  an  active  x>art  in 
the  arrangements  for  the  erection  of  the  statue. 
A  letter  from  him  to  Flaxman  on  the  subject 
will  be  found  in  his  Life,  voL  i.  p.  265.  Sir 
James  wrote  the  sermon  which  was  preached 
by  the  Senior  Chaplain  on  the  occasion  of  Lord 
Comwallis'  death. 


Sect.  II. 


Tlie  Mint— -The  Cathedral. 


123 


toRh,  that  of  Sir  James  Camac  by 
Chantrey.  The  Geographical  So- 
ciety's Room  contains  pictures  of  Sir 
A.  Bumes,  and  Sir  C.  Malcolm  and 
rjiptain  Boss,  the  two  first  Presidents 
of  the  Society;  as  also  a  very  fine 
collection  of  maps.  Asnong  details, 
that  part  of  the  Town  Hall  which 
deserves  the  greatest  praise  is  the 
elliptical  staircase  on  the  K.  side, 
with  the  tesselated  floor  in  the  yesti- 
bule  adjoining.  The  execution  of 
these  is  admirable,  and  reflects  great 
credit  on  Major-General  Wadding- 
ton,  the  officer  of  engineers  under 
whose  directions  they  were  executed. 
There  is  another  name  which  must 
not  be  passed  over  in  noticing  the 
Town  Hall.  Augustino,  of  Portuguese 
descent,  showed  extraordinary  talent 
in  the  plans  he  submitted ;  and 
played  an  important  though  a  subordi- 
nate rdle  in  the  erection  of  the  edifice. 
Tlw  Mint  is  contiguous  to  the 
Town  Hall,  but  stands  further  back, 
having  a  tank  in  front  of  it.  On  the 
stairs  is  a  stone  with  this  inscription  :— 

The  Hint  was  designed  and  constructed 
by  Major  John  Hawkins,  Bombay  Engineers. 
It  was  commenced  in  1824  and  completed 
1829. 

The  foundation  stone  was  laid  on  the 
Ist  of  January,  1824,  and  it  was  in 
working  order  in  December,  1827.  It 
is  a  plain  building,  with  an  Ionic  por- 
tico. It  has  been  erected,  however, 
on  a  spot  which  was  for  many  years 
the  place  where  all  the  refuse  of  the 
Fort  was  cast.  It  was  then  called 
Modi  Bay,  and  the  object  in  casting 
the  rubbish  there  was  to  recover  the 
ground  from  the  sea.  But  when  it 
was  decided  that  the  Mint  should  be 
built  upon  it,  it  became  necessary  to 
clear  away  masses  which  had  been  for 
years  accumulating,  in  order  to  lay 
the  foundations.  The  sum  expended 
in  this  work  was  large,  and  the  cost 
of  the  Mint  fell  but  little  short  of  the 
more  splendid  building  adjoining,  the 
Town  Hall.  The  architect.  Major 
Hawkins,  a  Bombay  officer,  with 
Colonel  Forbes,  of  the  Bengal  Engi- 
neers, was  sent  to  England  by  Go- 
vernment to  study  in  the  office  of  Boul- 
ton  and  Watt.    At  this  Mint,  150,000 


rupees  can  be  coined  in  one  day.  Eight 
hrori  of  rupees  were  coined  in  1879,  and 
about  35  Idkhs  a  month  have  been  coined 
in  1880.  We  read  that  authority  was 
granted  to  the  Company  by  the  Crown 
to  establish  a  mint  so  early  as  1676  ; 
but  it  does  not  appear  when  first,  or 
to  what  extent,  the  Company  availed 
themselves  of  this  privilege.  In  the 
Bullion  Boom  there  are  sometimes 
from  £100,000  to  £200,000  silver  in 
London  bars,  weighing  80  lbs.  each,  and 
S.  Francisco  bars,  weighing  100  lbs. 
Gold  is  not  coined,  the  metal  not 
being  obtainable.  But  there  are  Mints 
at  Calcutta,  Baroda,  Haidardb&d  in  the 
Dakhan,  Travankor,  Srinagar,  Kachh» 
and  Indik.  In  June,  1875,  a  Kachh 
coin  was  struck  worth  about  13  Bs. 
Observe  a  fine  balance  here,  which 
can  weigh  700  lbs.  at  a  time  and  indi- 
cate a  \  grain  weight.  It  was  made 
by  Graves,  and  cost  £176.  Copper 
and  silver  are  coined  in  alternate 
months.  The  copper-plates,  after  tho 
pice  have  been  punched  out  of  them, 
are  called  Seissile,  and  are  full  of 
round  holes.  They  are  kept  for  alloy- 
ing silver.  Gold  and  silver  melt  at 
1800'  Fahrenheit,  lead  at  600^  The 
sweepings  are  crushed  by  stone  rollers 
weighing  4  tons,  and  the  silver  is  got 
by  litharge.  A  tile  of  copper  weighs 
60  lbs.  There  are  2  steam  engines  of 
40-horse  power,  with  wheels  of  24  ft. 
diameter.  Forty  specimens  of  false 
coins,  are  exhibited,  one  of  which  has 
been  a  good  coin,  but  all  the  silver 
has  been  scooped  out  and  lead  sub- 
stituted. These  coins  have  been  col- 
lected since  Sept.,  1872. 

TJve  Cathedral  church  of  St.  Thomas^ 
stands  in  the  Ifort,  close  to  the  Green. 
It  was  built  as  a  garrison  church  in 
1718,  and  made  a  cathedral  on  the 
establishment  of  the  See  of  Bombay, 
in  1833,  on  which  occasion  the  only 
change  in  the  structure  was  the  con- 
version of  the  low  belfry  into  a  high 
tower,  which  was  done  at  the  expense 
of  the  E.I.C.  The  plan  is  simple  ;  the 
columns  approach  the  Tusca,n,  the  roof 
is  vaulted,  and  the  whole  building  is 
of  stone.  The  body  of  the  church  is 
roomy,  but  there  is  no  gallery.  There 
are  some  monuments  here  which  deserve 


124 


Bombay  City, 


Sect  11. 


attention.  Of  these  the  one  of  greatest 
interest  is  by  Bacon  to  Goyemor  Jona- 
than Duncan,*  who  held  his  office  for 
the  unprecedented  period  of  16  years. 
The  monument  was  raised  by  public 
subscription,  and  represents  Mr.  Dun- 
can receiving  the  blessings  of  young 
Hindiis.  This  has  reference  to  his  glori- 
ous and  successful  efforts  in  suppress- 
ing infanticide  in  certain  districts  near 
Bandras,  and  afterwards  in  K^thiawdd, 
through  the  zealous  and  able  agency  of 
Colonel  Walker.  Mr.  Duncan  was  a 
warm  friend  of  the  natives  of  India, 
and  a  true  philanthropist ;  but  his  ser- 
vices were  butinadequately  appreciated 
by  Government. 

There  is  another  inscription  to  Mr. 
Duncan  under  the  Cathedral  pavement, 
as  follows  : — 

Underneath  are  deposited  the  Remains 
of  the 

HONORABLE    JONATHAN    DUNCAN, 

a  native  of  Montrose,  in  Scotland,  and 

Member  of  the  Civil  Establishment  of  Bengal, 

Who,  after  having  filled  with  distinguished 

merit  many  important  situations  under  that 

Presidency,  was  selected,  in  the  year  1795, 

for  the  ofilce  of  Governor  of  Bombay, 

which  he  held  until  the  11th  of  Au^st,  1811, 

when  Death  terminated  a  life  which  had 

been  devoted  to  the  P^motion  of  the  Public 

Good  and  the  Happiness  of  the  People 

placed  under  his  authority. 

Ob.  Ktat  57. 

His  body  is  buried  in  i)eace,  and  his  name 

liveth  for  evermore. 

There  is  also  a  slab  to  Elizabeth 
Bourchier,  wife  of  Bichard  Bourchier, 
Governor  of  Bombay.  She  died  22nd 
of  August,  1756.  Other  inscriptions  are 


to  Sir  James  Dewar,  Chief  Justice,  who 
died  A.D.  1830 ;  and  to  James  Joseph 
Sparrow,  Esq.,  Member  of  Council, 
died  October  2nd,  1829  ;  to  the  Hon. 
Sir  Charles  Harcourt  Chambers,  Senior 
Puisne  Judge,  died  October  13th,  1828. 
There  is  a  tablet  to  George  Dick, 
Governor  of  Bombay,  who  died  1828, 
aged  78.  There  is  (dso  a  tablet  to  the 
E.I.C.'s  frigate  Cleopatra,  supposed 
to  have  foundered  off  the  coast  of  Ma- 
labar on  the  15th  of  April,  1847,  when 
nine  officers  and  1 42  men  perished :  and 
one  to  Sir  David  Pollock,  Chief  Justice 
of  Bombay,  who  died  May  22nd,  1847  ; 
and  another  to  Bear-Admiral  Ingle- 
field,  C.B.,  Naval  C.C,  who  died  Feb- 
ruary 23rd,  1848  ;  and  one  to  John 
Hutchings  Bellasis,  Esq.,  C.S.,  Collec- 
tor of  Bhanich,  and  son  of  Major 
General  John  Bellasis,  Commander  of 
the  Forces  at  Bombay,  who  died  May, 
1828.  At  the  8.B.  comer  of  the  Cathe- 
dral is  a  very  fine  white  marble  monu- 
ment to  the  Bight  Beverend  ITiomas 
Carr,  D.D.,  firat  bishop  of  Bombay. 
The  figure  of  the  bishop  lies  at  full 
length  with  his  face  upward.  He  died 
on  the  6th  of  September,  1859.  The 
monument  is  by  Noble.  Next  to  this 
is  a  slab  to  the  memory  of  Sir  William 
Syer,  Ist  Recorder  of  Bombay,  who 
died  October  7th,  1802  ;  and  near  the 
pulpit  is  a  slab  to  the  wife  of  Bear 
Admiral  Sir  Bichard  King,  Bart.  K.C.B., 
who  died  March  24th,  1819.  There  are 
also  monuments  to  Catharine  Kirk- 
patrick,  who  died  January  27th,  1766 ; 


*  The  following  is  the  inscription  on  the 
handsome  and  tastaful  monument  to  Mr.  Dun- 
can in  the  Bombay  Cathedral  :— 

In  memory  of 

THE  HON'BLB  JONATHAN  DUNCAN, 

Oovemor  of  Bombay,  from  1795  to  1811. 

Recommended  to  that  high  office  by  his  talents 

and  integrity, 
In  the  discharge  of  various  important  duties 

in  Bengal  and  Baniras, 
His  purity  and  zeal  for  the  pubhc  good  were 

equally  conspicuous 
During  his  long  and  upright  administration  at 

this  Presidency. 
With  a  generous  disregard  of  personal  interest. 

His  private  life  was  adorned 

By  the  most  munificent  acts  of  charity  and 

friendship 

To  all  classes  of  the  community. 

To  the  natives  in  particular  he  was  a  friend  and 

protector. 


To  whom  they  looked  with  unbounded 

Confidence  and  never  appealed  in  vain. 

He  was  bom  at  Wardhouse,  in  the  county  of 

Foriar  in  Scotland, 

On  the  Ist  of  May,  1766, 

Came  to  India  at  tlie  age  of  l<i :  and,  after  39 

years  of  uninterrupted  service. 

Died  at  this  place  on  11th  August,  ISll. 

Infanticide 

abolished 

in 

Baniiras  and  K&thiawd^. 

Several  of  tlie  British  inhabitants  of  Bombay, 

Justly  appreciating  his  distinguished  merits 

In  public  and  private  life. 

Have  raised  this  monument 

As  a  tribute  of  respect  and  esteem, 

MPccrxviT, 


Sect.  II. 


TJie  Cathedral, 


125 


and  to  Daniel  Seton,  Ideut.-Govemor 
of  Surat  Castle,  who  died  there  April 
17th,  1803  ;  and  to  Lieut.-Col.  Richard 
Cay,  wounded  by  a  rocket,  4th  of 
January,  1779,  in  the  expedition 
against  Fund.  Near  the  end  door  is  a 
slab  inscribed  to  Captain.  Sir  Bobert 
Oliver,  R.N.,  C.C.  of  the  Indian  Navy, 
who  died  August  5th,  1848.  Also  may 
be  mentioned  the  monument  to  Major 
General  John  Bellasis,  Colonel  of  the 
regiment  of  Artillery  and  Command- 
ing Officer  of  the  Forces,  who  died 
February  10th,  1808.  OvertheN.dooris 
a  Latin  inscription  to  Sir  Charles  Har- 
conrt  Chambers,  which  cannot  be  read 
without  an  opera  glass.  The  English 
inscription  to  the  same  Judge  has  been 
mentioned  above.  Admii*al  Sir  F. 
Maitland,  K.C.B.,  who  conveyed  Na- 
poleon I.  to  St.  Helena,  is  also  buried 
here.  His  monument  was  erected  by 
the  officers  of  the  Indian  Navy,  of 
which  he  was  C.C.  He  died  November 
r»Oth,  1839.  Under  the  figure  of  an 
angel  weeping  over  a  broken  wall  with 
a  cannon  projecting  from  the  left-hand 
corner,  is  the  following  inscription  : — 

POTTINQER. 
This  Monument,  erected  by  Public  Subscrip- 
tion, to  the  Memory  of 

MAJOR   ELDBED   POTTINGER,  C.B., 

of  the  Bombay  Regt  of  Artillery',  is  placed  in 
the  Cathedral  Church  of  Bombay  in  token  of 
the  Admiration  and  Re8])ect  in  which  his 
character  as  a  Soldier  and  conduct  as  a  Man 
are  held  by  his  Friends  in  this  Presidency. 

Mi^or  Pottinger's  successful  defence  of  Hirtf t, 
his  gallant  bearing  and  judicious  counsel 
throughout  the  eventful  period  of  the  British 
reverses  in  Afghanistan,  are  recorded  in  the 
Annals  of  his  Country,  and  need  no  eulogium 
here,  but  the  recollection  of  those  Services 
must  add  to  the  r^:ret  universally  felt,  that 
one  whose  early  course  gave  such  promise  of 
ftiture  eminence  and  distinction,  should  have 
found  a  premature  grave.  Compelled  by  long 
continued  exertion,  anxiety,  and  fatigue  in 
the  discharge  of  his  Public  Duty,  to  seek  a 
change  of  climate  for  the  recovery  of  his 
health,  Mt^or  Pottinger  was  returning  to 
England,  vift  China,  when  he  was  attacked  by 
a  malignant  Fever  at  Hong-Kong,  where  he 
died  on  the  IStli  of  Novemlier,  1843,  aged  32 
years. 

Another  very  interesting  monument 
is  the  one,  also  by  Bacon,  of  Captain 
Hardinge,  R.N.,  younger  brother  of 
Lord  Hardinge,  who  fell  in  capturing 
the  Piedm4)ittetej  a  ship  of  far  superior 
size.      The    Picdmontesc    had    been 


eminently  successful  in  taking  Eng- 
lish  merchant  ships,  and  on  one  occa- 
sion, when  she  made  a  prize  of  the 
Warren  Haatingt^  commanded  by 
Captain  Larkins,  the  French  first 
lieutenant,  M.  Moreau,  rendered  him- 
self infamously  notorious  by  stabbing 
the  captain  and  several  of  the  officers 
of  the  English  ship.  This  man,  when 
the  Piedinontese  struck  her  colours, 
blew  out  his  brains,  anticipating,  pro- 
bably, no  very  gentle  usage  from  the 
captors.  Captain  Hardinge's  ship, 
the  St,  Fiorenzo,  a  frigate  of  38  guns, 
miserably  undermanned,  sailed  from 
Point  de  Galle  on  Friday,  the  4th  of 
March,  1805,  and  sighted  on  that  day 
the  Piedmontcjtef  Captain  Epher,  of 
50  guns,  and  566  men,  of  whom,  how- 
ever, 200  were  Lascars.  He  gave 
chase,  and  exchanged  the  first  broad- 
side about  half -past  eleven  at  night. 
The  French  ship  then  got  away,  but 
next  day  the  action  was  renewed,  and 
the  English  frigate  being  terribly 
crippled  in  her  rigging,  the  French- 
man, though  a  worse  sailer,  got  away 
again.  Next  day,  the  Fioi'cnzo  camo 
up  with  her,  when,  after  a  contest  of 
one  hour  and  40  minutes,  the  Pied- 
montese  struck  her  colours.  The  French 
had  48  killed  and  112  wounded  ;  and 
the  English  but  13  killed  and  25 
wounded.  The  merchants  and  prin- 
cipal inhabitants  of  Bombay  presented 
a  vase,  worth  300  guineas,  to  the  father 
of  Captain  Hardinge,  a  sword  worth 
100  guineas  to  the  1st  Lieutenant, 
Dawson,  £500  to  the  crew  of  the 
Piorenzoj  and  erected  this  monument 
in  the  Cathedral,  at  a  cost  of  £2000. 

Opposite  Governor  Duncan's  monu- 
ment is  one  to  Stephen  Babington,  of 
the  Bombay  C.S.,  who  was  chosen  by 
Mr.  Elphinstone  to  revise  the  Judicial 
Code,  having  as  colleagues  Mr.  Ers- 
kine,  the  translator  of  ^'  Baber's  Me- 
moirs," and  Mr.  Norris.  The  figure 
is  by  Chahtrcy,  in  his  best  style.  Mr. 
Babington  is  represented  in  a  sitting 
posture,  holding  in  his  hands  a  book, 
the  "  Judicial  Code,"  which  he  revised. 
The  inscription  on  this  monument  is 
by  Sir  J.  Mackintosh,  and  is  justly 
reckoned  one  of  the  most  classical 
pieces  of  English  composition.    On  the 


126 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


left,  going  up  to  the  chancel,  are  two 
monuments  erected  by  the  E.  I.  Com- 
pany,— one  to  Colonel  Dow,  killed  by 
a  rocket  at  the  capture  of  Thdna, 
and  the  other  to  Colonel  Campbell, 
who,  in  1783,  with  less  than  700 
Europeans,  and  with  only  2300 
native  soldiers,  defended  Mangalilir  for 
many  months  against  Tlpii,  who  had 
with  him  an  army  of  30,000  regular 
infantry,  an  immense  body  of  horse, 
said  to  have  been  60,000,  100  guns, 
and  upwards  of  1000  French.  Man- 
galik  was  in  the  end  surrendered,  but 
not  till  the  garrison  had  fed  on  rats, 
jackals,  and  every  sort  of  loathsome 
and  unwholesome  food,  and  till  Tipii 
had  sacrificed  half  his  army  (Mill, 
vol.  iv.,  p.  246).  In  the  chancel,  on 
the  left-hand  side,  is  the  tomb  of 
General  Camac,  who  was  Clive's 
second  in  command  at  the  battle  of 
Plassy,  and  who  won  independent 
laurels  in  many  other  fields.  He  died 
.at  a  very  advanced  age,  at  Mangaliir, 
having  retired  from  the  service,  and 
this  monument  was  erected  to  his 
memory  by  his  nephew,  Mr.  Rivett, 
Member  of  Council,  to  whom  he  be- 
queathed his  fortune,  and  who  was 
the  father  of  the  late  Sir  James  Rivett 
Camac,  Governor  of  Bombay.  There 
are  also  monuments  to  General  Bel- 
lasis.  Captain  Warden,  Mr.  Seton, 
Chief  of  Surat,  and  others.  To  General 
Bellasis,  Bombay  is  indebted  for  the 
Apollo  Bandar  and  the  road  through 
the  Flats,  called  after  his  name,  which 
useful  works  were  executed  under  his 
orders  by  a  multitude  of  the  people 
of  Surat,  driven  from  that  city  during 
a  famine.  The  fountain  in  front  of  the 
Cathedral  was  erected  by  Sir  Kdiisji 
Jahdnglr  Readymoney,  at  a  cost  of 
Rs.  7000.  A  large  chalice  and  cover, 
presented  by  Governor  Gerald  Aun- 
gier,  are  still  preserved.  They  have 
the  following  inscription  : — 

Hanc  Calicem 

£ucliarists&  sacram  esse  voluit 

Honorabilis  Giraldns 

Aungierus,  insulee  BombaiiB 

Gubcmator  ac  pro  rebus  Honombilis 

Anglonun  bocietatis  Indiois 

Orientalibus  Mercatorum  a^ntium  prai-ses 

niuBtris. 

Mttt  ChriBttanaa 

Anno  1676. 


Hie  Custom  Umae  is  a  large,  ugly 
old  building,  a  little  to  the  S.  of  the 
Town  Hall  and  Cathedral.  It  was  a 
Portuguese  barrack  in  1665,  and  then 
a  quarter  for  civilians.  Forbes  in  his 
"  Oriental  Memoirs  "  says  that  in  1770 
he  was  there  and  could  get  no  supper 
or  candles,  so  he  sat  on  the  roof 
reading  Shakespeare  by  moonlight. 
It  became  a  Custom  House  in  1802. 
Over  the  portico  of  the  entrance  is  a 
coat  of  arms,  with  the  arms  of  the 
E.  I.  C,  and  the  inscription  :  "Hon.  W. 
Ainslabie,  1714."  The  entrance  is 
always  thronged  with  natives.  The 
landing-place  E.  of  the  entrance  is 
called  the  Town  Bandar.  The  Dock- 
yard extends  hence  to  the  ApoUo 
Gate,  with  a  sea-face  of  nearly  700  yds. 
Between  the  Custom  House  and  the 
Mint  are  the  remains  of  the  Castle, 
covering  300  sq.  ft.  Only  the  walls 
facing  the  harbom*  remain.  A  flag- 
staff also  is  here,  from  which  signals 
are  made  to  ships.  There  is  also  a 
clock-tower,  where  a  time  signal  ball, 
connected  by  an  electric  wii*e  with  the 
Observatory,  falls  at  1  p.m. 

Tlie  Bochjard.^So  early  as  1673, 
the  East  India  Company  had  been 
compelled  to  build  ships  of  war  to 
protect  their  merchantmen  from  the 
attacks  of  the  Mardtha  and  Malabar 
pirates.  Surat,  however,  was  the 
chief  station  for  building  vessels,  and 
up  to  1735  there  were  no  docks  in 
existence  at  Bombay.  In  that  year  a 
vessel  was  built  at  Surat  for  the  Com- 
pany, and  an  oflScer  being  despatched 
from  Bombay  to  mspect  it,  he  was 
much  pleased  with  the  skill  and  in- 
telligence of  the  Pdrsi  foreman,  Lowjl 
NaushlrwAnji ;  and,  knowing  that  the 
Government  was  desirous  of  esta- 
blishing a  building-yard  at  Bombay, 
endeavoured  to  persuade  him  to  leave 
Surat  and  take  charge  of  it.  The 
Pars!,  however,  had  too  much  honesty 
to  accept  this  advantageous  offer  with- 
out permission  from  his  master  to 
whom  he  was  engaged.  On  its  being 
granted,  he  proceeded  to  Bombay, 
with  a  few  artificers,  and  selected  a 
site  for  the  Docks.  Next  year,  Lowji 
was  sent  to  the  N.  to  procure  timber, 
and   on    his  return    he    brought  his 


Sect.  II* 


The  Dockyard, 


127 


family  "with  him.  Prom  that  day  to 
this,  the  superintendence  of  the  Docks 
has  been  wholly  in  I/owji's  family,  or, 
as  it  is  veil  expressed  by  a  well-known 
writer,  "  The  history  of  the  Dockyard 
is  that  of  the  rise  of  a  respectable, 
honest,  and  hard-working  P4rsl 
family."  Up  to  this  time  uit  king*s 
ships  had  been  hove  down  for  repairs 
at  Hog  Island  ;  but  now  they  were  so 
frequently  brought  for  that  purpose  to 
the  Docks  that  it  became  necessary  to 
enlarge  the  yard.  This  was  done 
ibout  1767.  In  the  year  1771,  two 
grandsons  of  Lowjl — Framji  Mdnikjl 
and  Jamshldji  Balunanji — entered  the 
Dockyard ;  but  were  compelled  by 
their  grandfather  to  learn  their  pro 


74,  of  1767  tons,  at  an  expense,  in- 
cluding lower  masts  and  bowsprit,  of 
£60,762 ;  and  in  1812,  the  WelU^ley, 
74,  of  1745  tons,  at  a  cost  of  £56,003. 
In  1818,  the  Malabar^  74,  and  the 
SeHngapatam,  a  frigate  of  38  guns, 
were  built,  and  subsequently  many 
other  ships  of  war,  among  which  the 
Ocmges,  84,  the  Calcutta^  86,  and  the 
Midni,  of  86  guns,  may  be  particularly 
noticed.    All  these  vessels  were  made 
of  teak,  and  have  sufficiently  proved 
the  lasting  quality  of  that  wood.    It 
has  been  pronounced  by  persons  in- 
timately acquainted  with  the  subject, 
that  a  teak  ship  will  last  from  four  to 
five  times  as  long  as  one  of  English  oak. 
The  worm  will  not  eat  it,  and  the  oil  it 


fession  practically,  working  as  common   contains  protects  the  iron  clamps  and 


carpenters  at  12  rupees  a  month.    In 
1774,  Lowjl  died,  leaving  only  a  house 
and  a  sum  of  money  under   £3000. 
He  bequeathed,  however,  to  his  family, 
a  more  precious  legacy, — ^the  remem- 
brance and  prestige  of  his  character 
for  spotless  integrity.    MAnikji  suc- 
ceeded him   as   master-builder,  and 
Bahmanji  was  appointed  his  assistant, 
and  the  two  managed  the  Docks  with 
increased  success.   They  built  two  fine 
ships  of  900  tons,  and  the  men  of  war 
crippled  in  the  severe  actions  between 
Sir   Edward    Hughes   and   Admiral 
Suffrein   were   docked   at    Bombay. 
Bahmanji  died  in  1790,  in  debt,  and 
MAnikji  two  years  afterwards,  leaving 
but  a  scanty  sum  to  his  family.    Their 
sons    of    the   same    names — Framji 
Mdnikjl   and  Jamshidji  Bahmanji — 
succeeded  them.     Jamshidji  in  1802 
built  the  Crrnwallis  frigate  for  the 
East  India  Company,  and  his  success 
determined  the  Home  Government  to 
order  the  construction  of  ships  for  the 
royal  navy  at   Bombay.     At  first  it 
was  proposed  to  send  out  a  European 
builder ;  but  Jamshldji's  talents  being 
properly   represented,   he    was  per- 
mitted to  have  the  sole  supervision  as 
master  builder.     In  1805  the  Dock- 
yard was  enlarged ;  and  the  thorough- 
fare, which  till  then  had  been  open 
through  it,  was  closed.    On  the  23rd 
o£  June,  1810,  the- Mviidmy  74,  built 
entirely  by  F&ibIs,  was    launched, 
and   not  long  after  the  CormvatUs, 


bolts  from  rusting.    Thus  we  are  told 
that,  while  ships  in  the  Britidi  navy 
are  replaced  every  12  years,  teak  ships 
last  50  years  and  upwards.     Indeed, 
the  old  LoTvjl  Castle^  a  merchantman 
of  about  1000  tons,  is  known  to  have 
made  voyages  for  nearly  three-quarters 
of  a  century.    The  Dockyard  has  been 
of  late  years  much   enlarged.     The 
enclosure    contains  about  200  acres. 
There  are  five   Graving  Docks,  3  of 
which  together  make  one  large  dock, 
the  Bombay  Dock,  648  ft.  long,  67  ft! 
broad  at  top,  and.  34  ft.  at  bottom, 
and  with  21  ft.  perpendicular  depth  ; 
the  other  2  Graving  Docks  make  a 
single  dock,  550  ft.  long,  68  ft.  broad 
at  top,  and  46  at  bottom,  and  with 
26  ft.   perpendicular  depth.      There 
are    also    four    building    slips    op- 
posite the  Apollo  Pier,  and  on  the 
S.E.  side  of  the  enclosure.    The  work 
is    greatly  facilitated    by    a   steam 
engine,  which  pumps  out  the  water  in 
a  few  hours.    At  Bombay  alone,  two 
ships  of  the  line,  or  one  ship  and  two 
frigates,  can  be  finished  for  the  Eng- 
lish navy  every  18  months.    Bombay 
is  also  the  only  principal  settlement  iii 
India  where  the  rise  of  the  tide  is  suffi- 
cient to  permit  docks  on  a  large  scale. 
At  Bombay,  the  highest  spring  tides 
reach  to  17  ft. ;  but  the  usual  height  is 
14  ft.  From  the  Dockyard  the  traveller 
may  proceed  to  the  Cotton  Screws  at 
Koliba,  and  the  Sas^oon  Dock,  which 
has  been  purchased  by  Government. 


128 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


TJts  Or-iginal  Cotton  Screws  were 
worked  by  West's  patent.  West  came 
to  India  in  1798,  to  set  up  the  hj- 
drostatic  presses  of  which  Mr.  Hen- 
Bhaw  was  promietor.  Through  the 
bigoted  opposition  of  the  merchants 
these  presses  failed,  and  were  broken 
up  and  sold  for  ballast,  though  thej 
cost  upwards  of  £20,000.  After  this, 
the  iron  screw  was  gradually  improved 
till  1806,  which  is  the  time  Hamilton 
speaks  of  when  he  says,  *'  At  Bombay, 
1500  lbs.  of  cotton  are  screwed  into 
50  ft.  or  one  ton ;  but  at  Calcutta,  7 
per  cent,  more  are  put.'*  He  adds, 
"The  cotton  screw  is  worked  by  a 
capstan,  to  each  bar  of  which  there 
are  30  men,  amounting,  in  the  whole, 
to  about  240  to  each  screw.  Hemp  is 
packed  in  the  same  manner ;  but  it 
requires  to  be  carefully  laid  in  the 
press,  for  the  fibres  are  liable  to  be 
broken  if  they  are  bent."  In  1819, 
Mr.  West  brought  his  geometrical 
press  into  work.  The  machine,  in  ap- 
pearance, resembles  in  some  measure 
a  pile  engine.  Like  it,  the  rammer 
slides  in  a  mortice  up  and  down  two 
strong  uprights,  which  are  laid  hold 
of  by  two  strong  iron  rods  attached  to 
the  capstan,  which  is  easily  worked 
by  a  man  to  each  bar.  The  process 
of  packing  is  completed  at  once,  and 
when  the  cotton  is  pressed  down  to 
the  proper  size,  the  machine,  by  an 
ingenious  contrivance,  stops,  the  doors 
fly  open,  and  the  lashing  of  the  bale 
commences.  The  bale  is  taken  out 
completely  finished,  and  the  press 
being  relieved  without  the  tedious 
process  attendant  on  a  screw,  the 
rammer  flies  up,  and  the  press  is 
ready  to  receive  cotton  for  another 
bale.  West's  press  effected  a  diminu- 
tion of  labour  and  expense,  in  com- 
parison with  the  old  screw,  in  the 
ratio  of  20  to  60.  For  a  history  of 
cotton  packing  in  Bombay,  see  the 
Asiatic  Jowmal  of  1819.  West's 
press  was,  till  lately,  close  to  the 
Apollo  Bandar  in  the  Fort,  and  is  now 
at  Eol4ba.  It  screws  bales  at  the  rate 
of  7^  minutes  per  bale,  from  the  time 
of  putting  in  cotton  until  the  men  stop 
turning,  and  half  a  minute  more  for. 
lashing  the  bale,  averaging  about  7  \ 


bales  ijer  hour.  There  axe  now  new 
screws  erected  by  a  company  at  Ko- 
Uba,  on  ground  recovered  from  the 
sea.  There  is  at  Eol4ba  also  a  new 
Wharfs  the  only  one  in  India  where 
a  ship  of  moderate  size  can  lie  along- 
side to  receive  cargo.  Between  the 
Apollo  Cotton  Screws  and  the  Post 
Office,  stands  the  office  of  the  Hydraulic 
Press  Cotton  Packing  Company.  It 
is  a  handsome  building  and  contains 
a  Brahma  Press,  with  eight  presses, 
each  worked  by  three  force  pumps, 
the  whole  moved  by  a  steam  engine  of 
60-horse  power. 

The  Sassoon  Dock, — ^This  is  a  wet 
dock  for  the  discharge  of  cargo,  which 
has  been  purchased  by  Grovemment. 
The  traveller  will  drive  straight  from 
the  Dockyard  to  Kol&ba,  where  the 
Sassoon  Dock  is.  This  is  the  first  wet 
dock  made  in  India,  and  has  the  ad- 
vantage that  the  goods  are  landed 
direct  on  the  quay  with  only  one  hand- 
ling, instead  of  being  put  into  barges 
and  so  carried  on  shore.  The  expense 
of  boats  and  claims  for  damage  are 
thus  avoided.  The  Bombay,  Baroda, 
and  C.  I.  Railway  runs  to  the  S.  of  the 
dock,  and  a  siding  is  carried  under  the 
very  warehouses,  so  that  in  the  mon- 
soon the  goods  are  not  wetted.  There 
is  also,  S.  of  the  dock,  a  warehouse  to 
keep  goods  from  the  rain,  350  ft.  long 
and  26  ft.  broad.  The  Bombay,  Baroda, 
and  C.  I.  Eailway  joins  the  G.  I.  P.  at 
Dadar,  so  that,  practically,  both  rail- 
ways join  the  docks.  The  Sassoon 
Dock  is  650  ft.  long  from  N.N.W.  to 
S.S.E.,  with  an  average  breadth  of  250 
ft.,  but  near  the  entrance  it  is  300  ft. 
broad.  The  depth  is  19  ft.  when  it  is 
high  water  at  neap  tides,  and  22  ft. 
when  it  is  high  water  at  spring  tides. 
The  Sill  is  the  place  where  the  gates 
shut,  and  a  channel  300  ft.  long  has 
been  dredged  out  up  to  it,  but  the 
water  falls  many  feet  at  low  tide.  To 
the  N.  of  the  dock  the  land  belongs  to 
the  Kol&ba  Press  and  Land  Company 
and  other  proprietors  ;  this  Sir  Albert 
Sassoon  intended  to  have  included  in 
his  dock,  which  would  have  given  it  8 
acres  instead  of  3i  ;  but  the  Eol4ba 
Company  would  not  join,  and  have  - 
built  2  cotton  mills  instead.   Grahame 


Sect.  II.     The  MemorUd  Church  of  St,  John  tlie  Evangelist.  129 


and  Co.  built  warehouses  of  brick  and 
iron,  without  any  wood,  on  the  ground 
belonging  to  the  dock,  and  paid  rent  for 
them.  These  buildings  can  hold  10,000 
bales  of  piece  goods.  To  the  S.  the 
land  belongs  to  the  Port  Trust,  and  is 
mere  fore-shore.  At  the  W.  end  of  the 
dock  are  5  warehouses,  of  which  the  3 
largest  measure  160  ft.  by  40,  and  the 
2  others  100  ft.  by  40  and  60  ft.  by  40 
respectively.  In  one  of  these  ware- 
houses are  6  cotton  presses,  which  are 
hydraulic,  and  exert  a  pressure  of  800 
tons  on  each  bale.  They  can  press 
from  125  to  150  bales  a  day.  A  bale 
contains  9}  cubic  ft.  and  weighs  441b8. 
per  cubic  ft.  A  bale  weighs  more  than 
deal,  but  less  than  teak,  of  the  same 
dimensions.  Government  made  Sir  A. 
Sassoon  pay  £10,000  for  the  land 
through  which  the  siding  passes,  and 
£8,000  for  land  taken  over  from  the 
Back  Bay  Beclamation  Company. 
The  rock  was  blasted  out  to  the  depth 
of  15  ft.,  and  1500  labourers  were  em- 
ployed each  day  for  3  years. 

It  may  be  mentioned  here  that  a 
bridge  is  crossed  between  the  main 
island  of  Bombay  and  KoUba,  and  has 
the  following  inscription  : — 

Bombay,  Baroda  and  Central  Railway. 

Wodehouse  Bridge. 

Erected  1875. 

His  Excellency  the  Honorable  Sir  Philip 

Edmond  Wodehouse,  K.C.B.,  G.C.S.I., 

Governor  of  Bombay. 

A  short  way  further  on,  on  the  right- 
hand  side  going  to  Koldba,  there  is  a 
convalescent  home  established  by  Mr. 
Marwangi  FrAmjl,  a  benevolent  PArsl 
gentleman,  whose  name  is  inscribed  on 
every  pillar  of  the  building. 

The  Memorial  Chv/rch  of  St.  John 
the  Uvangelist  at  Xoldba. — This  beau- 
tiful edifice  is  so  placed  as  to  attract 
the  eyes  of  all  who  approach  Bombay 
from  the  sea.  The  church  consists  of 
a  nave  and  aisles  138  ft.  long,  58  broad, 
and  65  high,  with  a  chancel  50  ft.  long 
and  27  wide,  and  a  tower  and  spire 
198  ft.  high.  As  in  the  great  church 
of  Antioch  in  early  ages,  and  in  St. 
Peter's  at  Bome,  the  altar  is  at  the  W. 
end.  The  effect  on  entering  is  good, 
owing  to  the  length  and  height  of  the 
building,  the  simplicity  of  the  archi- 

[^om&ay— 1880.J 


tecture,  and  the  *'  dim  religious  light" 
diffused  through  the  stained-glass  win- 
dows. The  roof  is  open,  of  varnished 
teak,  with  a  pitch  of  50  degrees.  The 
first  object  remarked  on  entering  is  the 
illuminated  metal  screen,  light,  and 
elegantly  designed,  and  surmounted  by 
a  gilt  cross.  It  stands  at  the  second 
bay  up  the  nave,  and  is  22  ft.  wide 
and  14  high.  Over  the  great  door  is  a 
triple  lancet  window  of  stained  glass, 
presented  by  a  lady  in  memory  of  her 
husband.  The  subject  of  the  centre 
window,  which  consists  of  medallions, 
is  the  earlier  incidents  in  the  life  of 
Our  Lord.  The  outer  windows  display 
the  Prophets  holding  scrolls  with  texts 
referring  to  the  Messiah.  Under  this 
window  and  on  either  side  of  the  door 
are  appropriate  texts.  S.  of  the  main  en- 
trance is  the  Baptistery,  with  a  triplet 
window  and  large  font.  This  beautiful 
window  was  erected  by  the  congrega- 
tion in  memory  of  their  Pastor,  the 
Rev.  Philip  Anderson.  Over  the  en- 
trance into  the  Baptistery  is  a  marblo 
slab,  inscribed : — 

la  Memory  of 

PHILIP    ANDERSON,    M.A., 

Chaplain  of  Colaba  for  Seven  Yeai's, 

Who  departed  this  life  on  the  13th  December, 

1857. 
In  the  42nd  year  of  his  age. 

In  life  his  people  loved  him, 
In  death  they  bless  his  memory,  and  pray 
That  they  together  with  him  may  attain 
The  Resurrection  unto  Eternal  Life. 

At  the  W.  end  of  the  N.  aisle  is  a 
triplet  window  of  stained  glass,  erected 
to  the  memory  of  General  David  Barr. 
In  the  W.  end  of  the  S.  aisle  is  the  fine 
organ  built  by  Holditch.  On  either 
side  are  21  lancet  windows,  the  upper 
part  of  which  is  filled  with  stained 
glass,  but  the  rest  with  Venetians.  All 
were  presented,  and  12  by  Mr.  Wailes, 
the  famed  stained  glass  manufacturer. 
In  either  aisle  are  the  following  de- 
signs, which  form  a  "  Via  Crucis  "  to 
the  altar : — 

South  aide. 

A  Lantern,  Sword,  Staves,  Hammer,  and 

Pincers. 

The  Cup. 

A  Bunch  of  Grapes. 

A  Sheaf  of  Wheat, 

Pelican  feeding  her  young. 


130 


Bombay  City, 


Sect.  11. 


North  aisle. 

I.  H.  S. 

The  Gannent,  Dice,  30  pieces  of  Silver. 

Scourges. 

Ladder  and  Cross. 

Sponge  and  Sp<Mr. 

The  Crown  of  Thorns. 

Agnus  Dei  I 

In  the  clerestory  are  30  lancet  win- 
dows, glazed  with  coloured  quarries. 
The  arch  of  the  chancel  is  65  ft.  high, 
and  at  its  base  a  stone  pulpit  and 
prayer  desk.  The  pulpit  given  by  a 
member  of  the  congregation,  the  desk 
a  memorial  with  the  following  inscrip- 
tion : — 

Erected  by  the  Officers  H.M.'s  28th  Regt., 
on  leaving  the  Country,  a.d.  1864. 
-f      In  Memory  of     -|- 
Lieut.  Higman.  Lieut.  Steward. 

Lieut.  McCormack.      Lieut.  Vaughan. 
Lieut.  Wade.  Assist. -Surg.  Brice. 

Lieut.  Irwin. 

Their  Brother  Officers,  who  have  died  since 
the  Regt.  landed  in  India,  a.d.  1857. 

The  handsome  brass  lectern  between 
the  pulpit  and  prayer  desk  was  also  a 
gift.  Other  gifts  were  a  crimson  velvet 
altar-cloth,  a  pair  of  handsome  brass 
altar  candlesticks,  made  in  the  School 
of  Art  at  Bombay,  and  a  library  of  Sa- 
cred Music  worth  £100.  Behind  the 
lectern  is  the  Litany  stool,  inscribed  in 
gold  letters,  "  A  Thank  Offering  from 
the  R.  W.  FusiUers,  A.D.  1869."  The 
choir  desks  are  supported  by  wrought- 
iron  stands,  illuminated,  and  made  in 
the  School  of  Art.  The  chancel  floor 
is  of  encaustic  tiles,  imported  from 
England.  On  either  side  the  chancel 
are  3  lancet  windows,  made  to  open 
and  close,  filled  with  glass  similar  to 
tiiat  in  the  clerestory  windows.  Be- 
neath them  are  placed  the  "  memorial 
marbles,"  of  alternate  colors  of  white, 
red,  yellow,  and  blue  ;  and  beneath 
them  there  runs  the  following  inscrip- 
tion, painted  in  mediseval  characters, 
on  a  blue  ground  : — 

This  Church  was  built  in  SCemory  of  the 
Officers  whose  names  are  written  above,  and 
of  the  Non-Commissioned  Officers  and  Private 
Soldiers,  too  many  to  be  recorded,  who  fell, 
mindful  of  their  duty,  by  sickness  or  by  the 
swoixl,  in  the  Campaigns  of  Sind  and  Afghan- 
istan, A.D.  1835-43. 

The  large  panels  between  the  mar- 
bles and  the  chancel  floor,  diapered 


and  gilt  with  gtars  and  fleurs-de-lis  on 
a  dark  chocolate  ground,  have  a  pleas- 
ing effect.  The  great  window  is  one 
of  Wailes'  best  works.  At  the  foot  of 
the  central  compartment  is  the  Offer- 
ing of  Isaac,  above  it  the  Crucifixion, 
and  above  that  again  Our  Lord  seated 
in  Majesty.  In  the  rest  of  the  window 
the  lowest  compartments  represent 
Joshua  passing  Jordan,  the  Fall  of 
Jericho,  Caleb  taking  possession  of 
Hebron,  and  David  returning  from 
the  defeat  of  Goliath.  Above  are  the 
writers  of  the  New  Testament.  The 
Rev.  George  Pigott,  when  chaplain 
of  KolAba,  first  proposed  to  build  a 
church  in  memory  of  those  that  fell  in 
the  first  Afghan  war.  On  the  25th  of 
March,  1843,  a  meeting  was  held  in 
the  Town  Hall,  with  the  Right  Rev. 
Daniel  Wilson,  Bishop  of  Calcutta,  in 
the  chair.  Mr.  Pigott's  proposal  was 
agreed  to,  and  it  was  resolved  that  a 
church  should  be  erected  at  KoUba,  in 
which  the  names  of  the  officers  and 
men  who  had  perished  in  the  Afghan 
campaign  should  be  recorded.  A  plan 
by  H.  Conybeare,  son  of  the  Dean  of 
Llandaff,  having  been  approved,  the 
first  stone  of  the  church  was  laid  on 
the  4th  of  December,  1847,  by  Sir  G. 
Clerk,  Governor.  In  February,  1850, 
Mr.  Pigott  died,  when  the  walls  had 
risen  only  16  ft.  He  was  chaplain  with 
the  Bombay  column  under  Lord  Keane 
in  the  advance  on  Edbul  in  1838.  He 
returned  in  1842,  and  was  made  chap- 
lain of  Koldba.  He  died  at  sea  on  his 
way  home  on  the  24th  of  February, 
1850.  On  the  chancel  pavement  in 
front  of  the  altar  is  an  illuminated 
metal  cross  let  into  a  polished  black 
marble  slab,  with  the  following  in- 
scription to  his  memory  : — 

In  Memoriam. 
REVDI.  GEORGII   PIGOTT,    M.A., 

Hi^jusce  Ecclesiaj  Conditoris ; 

Obdormivit  in  Jesu,  Febii.  a.d.  1860. 

Angliam  repetens  sub  undis  sepultus. 

^tatis  45. 

Mr.  Pigott's  successor  was  the  Rev. 
Philip  Aiiderson,  whose  "English  in 
Western  India"  is  well  known.  He 
exerted  himself  to  promote  the  build- 
ing of  the  Memorial  Church,  but,  like 
his  predecessor,  did  not  live  to  see  its 


Sect.  II. 


Koldba  Cemetery — Tlie  Ligkilumae. 


131 


completion.  He  died  on  the  13th  of 
December,  1857,  and  was  buried  in 
KoUba  cemetery.  The  Church  was 
consecrated  on  the  7th  of  January, 
1868,  by  the  Right  Rev.  John  Hard- 
ing, Bishop  of  Bombay.  H.M/s  28th 
regt.,  which  had  10  years  before  fur- 
nished the  Guard  of  Honour  at  the 
laying  of  the  foundation  stone,  again 
furnished  the  Guard  on  this  occasion. 
Up  to  1857,  Rs.  127,000  had  been  ex- 
pended on  the  building,  and  Rs.  66,000 
more  were  added  for  the  tower  and 
spire,  the  porch  and  the  memorial 
marble.  Besides  iJie  above  sums.  Sir 
KAiisji  Jahangir  Readymoney  sub- 
scribed Rs.  7500,  and  the  Government 
gave  Rs.  10,000  for  walling  in  the 
church  compound  and  adorning  it 
with  shrubs  and  trees.  In  the  com- 
pound is  a  Memorial  Cross,  erected  by 
the  officers  and  soldiers  of  H.M.'s  45th 
regt.,  in  memory  of  8  sergeants,  5  cor- 
porals, and  74  privates  belonging  to 
the  corps,  with  14  women  and  37  chil- 
dren, who  died  in  Kimach  and  Eo- 
l&ba  between  March,  1865,  and  Jan. 
1866.  The  style  of  the  church  is  Early 
English ;  the  walls  are  of  rabble,  faced 
with  coursed  KurU  stone,  which  is 
buif -coloured  basalt.  The  piers,  arches, 
coigns,  and  dressings  are  of  Porbandar 
stone,  very  like  the  Caen  stone  of  our 
English  churches.  The  names  on  the 
memorial  marbles  have  been  a  good 
deal  obliterated,  but  they  will  be  found 
correctly  given  in  a  work  that  is  to  be 
published  shortly,  called  *'  Churches 
and  Cemeteries  of  India."  The  chap- 
lain, the  Rev.  —  Maule,  has  printed  an 
interesting  pamphlet  at  the  Tirnet  of 
India  office,  Bombay,  respecting  this 
church,  from  which  this  account  has 
been  chiefly  extracted.  He  says : 
"  Such  then,  is  the  history  of  the  Co- 
lAba  church,— a  church  which  stands 
unrivalled  among  the  churches  of  the 
East — a  beacon  to  guide  men  haven- 
wards  and  heavenwards — a  church  es- 
sentially military  in  its  associations, 
a  national  monument  raised  to  the 
memory  of  thousands  of  brave  men 
who  have  died  in  their  country's 
cause." 

Koldba  Cemetery, — The  Cemetery  is 
beyond  the  church,  at  the  extreme 


point  of  EoMba,  It  is  tolerably  well 
kept,  but  rendered  dismal  by  having 
a  lunatic  asylum  adjoining  it  to  the 
W.,  and  in  walking  about  to  examine 
the  tombs,  the  cries  of  the  unhappy 
inmates  are  constantly  heard.  What 
the  effect  upon  the  lunatics  may  be  of 
their  close  propinquity  to  a  graveyard 
can  only  be  conjectured  I  In  this 
cemetery  a  very  great  number  of  offi- 
cers of  the  Royal  Navy  and  Merchant 
Service  are  buried.  The  Rev.  Philip 
Anderson  was  buried  here.  There  is 
also  a  large  squai*e  tomb  with  the 
names  of  2  officers,  which  marks  the 
centre  of  the  spot  where  the  bodies  of 
184  persons  drowned  in  the  wreck  of 
the  Cattlerea^h  were  buried.  The  road 
for  the  last  50  yards  down  to  the  door 
of  the  cemetery  is  extremely  steep  and 
difficult  for  a  heavy  carriage  to  ascend. 
The  following  notice  is  put  up  at  the 
gate  :  "  It  is  requested  that  all  per- 
sons who  visit  the  Cemetery  will  take 
care  not  to  tread  on  the  graves  of  the 
Christian  Dead."        ^ 

The  IA{ihthmise, — A  ridge,  or  cause- 
way, which  commences  a  little  S.  of 
the  cemetery,  and  is  3500  ft.  long, 
leads  to  the  Kew  or  Prong  Lighthouse 
from  the  Old  Lighthouse  extinguished 
1874.  This  ridge  is  dry  for  4  days 
before  and  4  days  after  full  moon.  A 
little  W.  of  the  old  lighthouse  is  a 
battery  of  9-in.  guns,  and  N.  of  it  are 
the  Lines  of  the  Artillery  and  a  Euro- 
pean regiment.  The  Prong  Light- 
house is  150  ft.  high,  with  w^s  17  ft. 
thick  at  the  lowest  story  and  2  ft.  at 
top.  The  internal  diameter  is  12  ft. 
all  the  way  up.  There  are  11  steps 
from  the  water  to  the  platform,  and 
then  26  steps,  1  foot  high,  to  the  1st 
room,  and  then  6  flights  of  18  steps 
each,  about  8  in.  high,  and  then  11 
steps  to  the  top.  The  revolving  gear 
has  to  be  wound  up  every  45  minutes, 
which  employs  2  men.  The  plain 
surface  of  the  dioptric  glass  alone 
shows  the  light.  The  wick  must  be 
fed  with  6  times  the  supply  of  oil. 
In  storms  the  waves  rise  50  ft.  up  the 
sides,  and  the  tower  vibrates.  Before 
this  lighthouse  was  built  dreadful 
shipwrecks  took  place  here,  and  many 
of  the  bodies  of  those  drowned  aro 

K  2 


132 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


1 


interred  in  Koldba  Cemetery.  It  is 
interesting  to  watch  the  light  from 
the  shore  of  Back  Bay  as  it  flashes 
into  full  splendour  and  then  in  a  few 
seconds  fades  into  darkness.  The 
light  can  be  seen  to  the  distance  of 
18  m.,  and  beyond  the  lighthouse  the 
shoal  water  extends  for  a  mile.  It 
flashes  every  10  seconds.  It  cost 
£60,000.  There  are  in  the  lighthouse 
one  European  and  five  Indians.  There 
is  also  an  Observatory  at  KoUba.  It 
may  be  as  well  to  mention  here  the 
Kennery  Lighthouse,  which  is  12  m. 
to  the  S.  of  Bombay,  and  has  a  fixed 
first-class  cata-dioptric  light  in  a 
tower  161  ft.  above  high-water  mark. 
It  cost  about  2  lAkhs.  There  are  2 
32-pounders  on  the  island  for  signal- 
ing. The  word  is  a  corruption  of  a 
Mardtha  word.  The  foundation-stone 
was  laid  by  Sir  Bartle  Frere,  on  the 
19th  of  September,  1867,  and  the 
light  was  first  shown  on  June  Ist  fol- 
lowing. 

Catliollc  Cluipel. — On  the  next  day 
the  Catholic  Chapel  in  Meadows  Street 
may  be  visited.  It  is  the  first  that 
was  built  in  the  Fort,  and  dates  from 
the  beginning  of  last  century.  It  is 
worth  a  visit  in  order  to  see  the  Bread 
Fruit  Tree,  the  only  one  in  India, 
which  will  be  found  in  the  inner  quad- 
rangle. 

St.  Andrew's  Kirlt.  —  Not  far  off 
from  the  Catholic  Chapel  is  St.  An- 
drew's Kirk  in  Marine  Street.  It 
was  begun  in  1816,  and  finished  in 
1818.  In  1826  the  steeple  was  thrown 
down  by  lightning,  and  rebuilt  by 
John  Caldecott,  F.R.S.,  Astronomer  of 
Trivandaram  University. 

Alexandra  College  for  Pdrsi  Ladies. 

This  institution  is  in  KAiisjl  Patel 

Street  in  the  Fort.  It  was  founded  by 
Mr.  M&nikji  Khurshidjl,  who  is  well 
known  for  his  travels  in  Europe  and 
for  his  excellent  knowledge  of  Eng- 
lish. It  was  opened  in  1863,  and  for 
a  time  amalgamated  with  the  Female 
Normal  School,  when  Government 
made  a  grant  to  it  of  Rs.  3120  annu- 
ally. The  institutions  are  now  again 
separated,  and  Grovernment  has  with- 
drawn its  grant.  The  young  ladies 
lemain,  in  some  cases,  to  the  age  of 


24,  and  are  extremely  well  instructed 
in  history  and  geography,  and  the 
English  and  Gujar&ti  languages.  They 
also  embroider  and  do  needle-work 
exceedingly  well.  Persons  desirous  of 
visiting  the  institution  could  no  doubt 
obtain  permission  from  Mr.  Manikjl 
Khurshidjl,  who  lives  at  Kambhdla 
Hill. 

Police  Court. — This  is  in  Hornby 
Row,  facing  the  Esplanade.  The 
chief  magistrate  sits  in  rooms  on  the 
3rd  floor,  and  below  him,  on  the  2nd 
floor,  is  the  court  of  the  second  magis- 
trate, an  Indian  gentleman.  Visitors 
who  take  an  interest  in  such  matters 
may  hear  cases  tried  here.  The  3rd 
magistrate,  who  is  also  an  Indian  gen- 
tleman, holds  his  court  at  GirgAon. 

Sir  Jamshidji  Jijihhdi's  Pdrsi 
IJenrrolent  Institution  is  in  Ram- 
j  part  Road,  facing  the  Esplanade.  This 
institution  was  founded  in  1849,  by 
Sir  Jamshidji,  who,  with  Lady  Ava- 
bdl,  his  wife,  set  apart  for  the  purpose 

3  Idkhs  of  rupees  and  25  shares  in  the 
Bank  of  Bengal,  to  which  the  PArsl 
PanchAyat  added  35  shares  more. 
The  Government  of  India  are  the 
trustees,  and  pay  interest  at  6  per 
cent,  on  the  3  Idkhs.  The  income  is 
divided  into  400  shares,  of  which  180 
go  for  the  Boys'  and  Girls'  Schools  in 
Bombay,  70  for  those  in  Surat,  &c., 
and  150  for  charities  for  the  poor. 
There  are  14  classes  of  bovs  and  7 
classes  of  girls  in  Hornby  Row,  and 

4  classes  of  boys  and  7  classes  of  girls 
at  Dhobi  Taldo.  There  are  also  6 
classes  of  girls  in  Mamba  Devi.  In 
June,  1842,  a  number  of  European  and 
Indian  gentlemen  presented  an  ad- 
dress to  Sir  Jamshidji,  with  a  testi- 
monial of  the  value  of  £1500.  This 
address  was  signed  by  937  PArsl 
gentlemen.  Sir  Jamshidji,  in  reply, 
announced  his  intention  of  devoting 
the  whole  testimonial  and  a  dona- 
tion of  3  Idkhs  from  himself,  for 
educational  and  charitable  purposes. 
A  second  meeting  was  held  on  the 
24th  of  Jime,  1866,  to  present  Sir 
Jamshidji  with  a  testimonial  in  the 
form  of  a  statue  of  himself ;  and  in 
February,  1871,  it  was  determined  to 
erect  a  new  building  for  the  institu- 


Sect.  II.     Scliool  of  Design — New  Elphinstone  High  Sclvod,  133 


tion.     On  the  foundation-stone   was 
inscribed : — 

This  Chief  Comer-Stone  of  the 
Sir  Jamshidji  Jijibhdi  Piirsi  Benevolent 
Institution,  was  laid  by 
His  Excellency  the  Bight  Honourable 
Sir  William  Robert  Seymour  Vesey  Fitz- 
gerald, G.C.S. I.,  Governor  of  Bombay. 
21st  of  February,  1871.  Yezdijirdi,  1240. 

Happy  is  he  that  has  mercy  on  the  poor, 
And  he  that  giveth  to  the  poor  shall  not  lack. 

The  same  inscription  will  afterwards 
be  put  upon  the  stone  in  Pehlavl.  In 
the  cavity  of  the  stone  was  placed  a 
glass  jar,  containing  a  portrait  of  Sir 
Jamshidji  JijibhAi,  the  first  Baronet ; 
the  elevation  and  plan  of  the  new 
building,  a  history  of  the  institution, 
abridged, "  Times  of  India  Calendar," 
"The  PArsl  Calendar"  (A.Y.  1240), 
"The  GujarAti  Almanack,"  "The 
Bombay  Gazette,"  "The  Times  of 
India,"  Jam-1-Jamshid,  and  the  cur- 
rent coins — a  sovereign,  a  rupee,  \ 
rupee,  \  rupee,  2-dnd  piece,  1  And, 
4  ^nd,  ^  dnd,  and  a  pie.  The  build- 
ing has  3  lofty  stories,  and  7  class- 
rooms on  the  first  2  stories.  The  3rd 
story  has  a  grand  committee-room, 
80  ft.  from  N.  to  S.,  and  33  ft.  from  E. 
to  W. ,  with  a  verandah  of  the  same 
length  and  12  ft.  broad.  In  this  room 
is  a  portrait  of  Sir  Jamshidji  seated, 
with  a  letter  in  his  hand,  and  the  in- 
scription "  B.  Montclar,  1863."  This 
room  commands  a  fine  view  over  the 
Esplanade  and  Back  Bay.  To  the  S., 
close  by,  is  the  old  house  in  which 
Sir  Jamshidji  lived.  There  are  4  other 
rooms  in  the  3rd  story  used  for  storing 
books,  &c.  In  the  2nd  story,  besides 
the  class-rooms,  is  the  library.  The 
girls  are  in  a  separate  story  from  the 
boys — there  being  about  500  girls  and 
400  boys.  Mr.  Burgess,  the  late 
master,  who  is  now  Archaeologist  for 
Government,  got  Rs.  728  a  month  as 
principal ;  but  the  present  principal, 
who  has  14  assistants,  gets  only  Rs.  400. 
School  of  Design. — This  was  for  a 
long  time  carried  on  in  mere  sheds  on 
the  E.  side  of  the  Esplanade.  It  was  first 
opened  for  pupils  in  September,  1857, 
and  in  1877  a  handsome  new  building 
was  erected  near  the  Gokaldds  Hospital. 
Excellent  drawings  and  pictures  may 


be  seen  here.  In  1875,  a  picture  by  Mr. 
Griffiths,  of  a  native  woman  carrying  a 
water-pot,  was  exhibited,  the  price  of 
which  was  £400.  Good  pottery  is  made 
here,  and  also  arms,  such  as  axes,  daggers 
and  swords,  at  prices  from  16  to  60  rs. 
There  are  now  190  pupils,  who  pay  1 
rupee  monthly.  Those  who  wish  to 
obtain  the  art  certificate  qualifying 
them  as  teachers,  pay  Rs.  5. 

St,  Xavier's  College. — This  institu- 
tion grew  out  of  the  development  of  St. 
Mary's  Institution  and  the  European 
Roman  Catholic  Orphanage.  A  site 
for  the  College  near  the  W.  end  of 
Esplanade  Cross  Road  was  granted  by 
Government  in  1867.  The  funds  were 
supplied  chiefly  from  private  sources, 
but  Government  contributed  Rs.  61 ,368. 

Ke^v  Mphinstone  High  School. — This 
building  shuts  out  the  W.  face  of  St. 
Xavier's  College.  Sir  Albert  Sassoou 
was  the  founder,  as  mentioned  in  the 
following  inscription : — 

This  the  First  Stone  of  the 
Sassoon  Buildings  for  the  Elphiiuitone  High 

School, 
Towards  the  erection  of  which  one  lakh  and 

a  half  of  Ra.  was  contributed  by  the 

Honorable  Sir  Albert  Sassoon,  Kt.,  C.S.I. , 

was  laid  by 

H.E.  the  Right  Hon. 

Sir  W.  R.  Seymour  Vesey  Fitzoerali», 

G.C.S.I.,  P.C,  Governor  of  Bombay, 

on  the  3rd  day  of  May,  a.d.  1872. 

This  is  the  great  public  school  of 
Bombay.  It  is  the  school  department 
of  the  old  "  Elphinstone  Institution," 
and  retained  possession  of  the  original 
buildings  on  the  Esplanade  when  the 
College  department  was  separated  to 
form  the  Elphinstone  College. 

'•  The  object  of  this  school  is  to  fur- 
nish a  high-class  and  liberal  educa- 
tion up  to  the  standard  of  the  Uni- 
versity entrance  examination,  at  fees 
within  the  reach  of  the  middle-class 
people  of  Bombay  and  the  Mafa§§il. 
It  has  classes  for  the  study  of  English, 
Mardthl,  Gujardti,  Sanskrit,  Latin  and 
Persian.  It  is  divided  into  two  sideSy 
the  Hindii  and  PdrsI,  containing  about 
300  pupils  each.  The  staff  consists  of 
a  Principal,  Vice-Principal,  and  26 
Assistant-Masters  and  Tutors."  The 
length  of  the  building  is  452  ft.  There 
are  28  class-rooms,  measuring  30  in*^ 


134 


]ioml)ay  Citp. 


Sect  II. 


25  ft.,  and  4  masters'  rooms  of  smaller 
dimensions.  There  is  a  hall  on  the 
Ist  floor  measuring  62  x  36  ft.  and  35  ft. 
high.  Above  the  hall  is  the  Library 
53  X  23  ft.  The  building  was  designed 
by  G.  T.  Molecey.  In  flie  place  oppo- 
site the  St.  Mary  Schools  close  by  is  a 
Gas  Tower  with  fountains,  a  work  given 
by  the  late  Rustamji  Jamshid,  Esq. 

Goltaldds  Ifosjntul. — The  next  place 
to  visit  as  being  adjacent,  is  the  Go- 
kaldds  Hospital,  which  can  contain 
126  patients,  and  is  generally  full. 
Fault  is  found  with  the  style  of  the 
building,  the  outside  of  which  is,  never- 
theless, handsome  ;  but  internally  the 
arrangement  is  not  so  judicious  as  it 
might  have  been.  The  history  of  this 
hospital  is  rather  curious.  Mr.  Bus- 
tamjl  Jamshldjl  had  offered  to  give 
£15,000,  if  Government  would  give  a 
site  for  a  native  hospital,  and  contri- 
bute £10,000  more,  and  if  the  Munici- 
pally would  undertake  to  support  the 
Institution.  Then  came  the  monetary 
crisis  in  Bombay,  and  the  affair  would 
probably  have  been  suspended  indefi- 
nitely, had  not  Mr.  Arthur  Crawford, 
C.S.,  obtained  from  GokaldAs,  then  in 
his  last  illness,  a  cheque  for  £15,000, 
and  induced  Government  to  adhere  to 
their  former  intention.  The  value  of 
the  institution  is  now  acknowledged. 

JDfvdrltandth'g  Temple, — Close  to  the 
Esplanade  on  the  right-hand  side  of 
the  road  that  leads  to  Parell  and  a 
little  N.  of  the  Framjl  Katisji  Insti- 
tute, which  is  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  road,  is  a  new  temple  to  DwAr- 
kandth  in  Kalka  Devi.  It  bears  this 
inscription : — 

This  Temple  is  built  by  Sundardas,  son  of 
Thakur  Midha^U  Jathr^,  and  dedicated  to 

God   DwARKANATHjf, 

in  the  Year  of  Samvat,  1981,  Jeth  Sudh  8th, 

Friday,  June  10th,  1876. 

Entering  by  a  side  door  on  the  N. 
the  visitor  finds  himself  in  a  room  40  ft. 
sq.  with  a  silver  door  at  the  end  7  ft. 
high,  which  hides  from  view  the  prin- 
cipal idol.  There  are  many  images 
and  paintings  of  Kfi^l^n  and  B4dh4, 
his  favourite  mistress.  After  this  the 
traveller  may  proceed  through  the  im- 
mensely crowded,  bustling  and  noisy 
BsizAr  to  the  Pinjra  Pol. 


Pinjrd  Pol^  or  Infirmary  for  ani- 
mals. This  curious  institution  covers 
several  acres.  In  the  1st  division  are 
diseased  and  aged  cattle  on  the  right, 
and  horses,  monkeys,  and  a  porcupine 
on  the  left.  In  the  2nd  division  are 
goats,  sheep  and  asses.  In  the  3rd 
are  buffaloes,  and  in  the  4th  dogs, 
some  of  which  are  in  a  horrid  state  of 
mange.  The  animals  are  all  quiet 
enough  except  the  dogs,  who  keep  up 
a  considerable  noise.  This  place  is  in 
the  quarter  called  Bholeshwar,  "  Lord 
of  the  Simple,"  and  the  temple  of 
the  Deity  so  called,  a  form  of  Shiva, 
is  within  the  inclosure.  The  head 
Guru,  whose  name  is  Sawejl  Shri 
Charitarpradhdn,  is  a  learned  scholar, 
who  speaks  Sanskrit  well.  He  is  also 
the  author  of  several  works.  Among 
them  is  a  Prdk^it  Grammar.  It  is 
remarkable  that  the  Hindiis,  who  sup- 
port this  institution,  are  not  pecu- 
liarly humane  in  their  treatment  of 
animals. 

Hovse  of  Correction. — After  this, 
should  the  traveller  be  interested  in 
such  matters,  he  may  visit  the  House 
of  Correction,  which  is  the  principal 
prison  in  Bombay.  It  is  in  the  Clare 
Boad,  BykaUah,  and  contains  a  number 
of  Europeans,  sailors  who  refuse  to 
work  on  board  their  ships,  and  soldiers 
who  have  to  work  at  shot  drill.  They 
raise  a  12  lb.  shot  and  put  it  down  on 
the  ground,  to  be  raised  again,  and 
again  put  down,  without  resting. 
There  are  sometimes  between  80  and 
90  Europeans  in  the  jail,  and  there  is 
very  little  sickness  among  them. 

Tlw  WorlfJwuse  adjoins  the  jail, 
and  there  are  sometimes  as  many  as 
20  Europeans  in  it,  some  of  respectable 
families.  They  sleep  in  an  open  shed, 
and  are  permitted  to  go  out  and  try  to 
obtain  places.  It  may  be  mentioned 
that  in  the  jail  there  are  shower-baths 
for  the  prisoners.  There  is  a  Black 
Hole,  but  confinement  in  it  is  not  much 
dreaded,  for.  as  the  jailer  says,  it  is  the 
coolest  room  in  the  building. 

This  will  be  a  sufficient  tour  for  the 
3rd  day.  On  the  4th  day  the  traveller 
may  drive  to  the 

Elphinstone  College  in  BykaUah. 
This  Institution  arose  out  of  a  separa- 


Sect.  IL         Victoria  Gardens — Christ  Church,  Byhillah. 


135 


tion  in  the  year  1856  of  the  profes- 
sorial element  from  the  Elphinstone 
Institution,  which  then  became  a  high 
school.  The  Elphinstone  Institution 
was  founded  in  consequence  of  a  meet- 
ing on  the  22nd  of  August,  1827,  to 
consider  what  should  be  a  memorial 
to  the  Hon.  Mountstuart  Elphinstone 
on  resigning  the  Government  of  Bom- 
bay. Upwards  of  2  lAkhs  were  then 
collected  to  endow  professorships  in 
English,  and  the  Arts,  Sciences  and 
Literature  of  Europe.  This  sum  accu- 
mulated to  about  4  14khs  and  a  half, 
and  Grovernment  augments  the  interest 
by  an  annual  subscription  of  Bs. 
22,000.  In  1863  Sir  Kiliisjl  JahAnglr 
Beadymoney  gave  a  Ukh  to  build  the 
Elphinstone  College,  and  in  1864  added 
another  14kh.  On  the  20th  of  February, 
1871,  the  new  building  in  the  Parell 
Boad  was  opened.  There  are  16  senior 
scholarships,  and  29  junior  are  com- 
peted for  annually.  A  certain  number 
of  under-graduates  who  cannot  pay 
the  College  fee  are  admitted  free.  In 
1862  Sir  Alexander  Grant,  Bart.,  was 
Principal  of  the  College,  and  many 
distinguished  scholars  have  filled  Pro- 
fessorships, as,  for  instance,  Mirzd 
Qairat,  who  translated  Malcolm*s 
*'  History  of  Persia  "  into  Persian.  The 
grounds  of  the  College  are  not  well 
kept,  but  the  building,  which  is  in  the 
Mcdissval  style,  is  handsome.  In  front 
of  the  side  which  passes  E.S.E.  is  a 
tablet  with  this  inscription  : — 

The  Kili^if  Jah&ngfr  Buildings, 

for  the  use  of 

Elphinstone  College, 

were  erected  at  the  cost  of*  rupees,  of  which 

2  lakhs  were  contributed  by 

Mr.  KAtfsjf  JAHAsafR  Readvmoney,  C.S.I. 

Completed  March,  1870. 

It  would  have  been  better  had  this 

tablet  been  placed  over  the  principal 

entrance,  or  in  the  Library.    On  the 

ground-floor  are  lecture  rooms,  and  on 

the  1st  floor  the  library,  to  which  one 

ascends  by  40  steps.    Here,  too,  is  a 

room  for  the  Principal,  with  one  for 

the  Professors.    In  the  2nd  floor  are 

dormitories  for  the  resident  students, 

each  bed-room  being  shared  by  two 

persons.    The  E.  front  looks  partly  on 

the  Victoria  Gardens,  partly  on  an  un- 

*  Blank  in  the  inscription. 


sightly  piece  of  ground  where  grass  is 
stored.  The  W.  front  looks  on  the 
G.  I.  P.  Bailway,  and  beyond  it  on  the 
Flats.  The  following  places  may  then 
be  visited  in  succession. 

Victoria  Gardens  and  Museum. — 
In  front  of  this  handsome  building, 
which  stands  about  100  yds.  back  from 
the  road,  is  a  Clock  Tower,  erected  by 
Sir  Albert  Sassoon.  The  Museum  was 
first  in  the  Fort  Barracks,  Dr.  Buist 
being  the  first  Curator.  When  the 
Mutiny  of  1857  broke  out,  the  Com- 
mandant of  the  garrison  ordered  the 
collection  to  be  ejected,  but  Dr.  Bird- 
wood,  who  had  been  appointed  curator 
by  Lord  Elphinstone,  raised  a  sub- 
scription of  a  l&kh  and  built  this  Mu- 
seum. Sir  B.  Frere  laid  the  first  stone 
in  1862,  but  the  works  were  stopped 
in  1865.  Government  in  1868  under- 
took to  complete  the  edifice,  and  it 
was  opened  in  1871.  There  is  a  fine 
statue  of  Prince  Albert  here  by  Noble. 
The  Gardens  have  an  area  of  34  acres. 
On  the  W.  side  is  a  handsome  Tailing 
with  ornamental  gates;  on  the  other 
sides  the  Gardens  are  walled  in.  The 
grounds  are  prettily  laid  out  with 
lakes,  rustic  bridges,  and  mounds. 
On  the  E.  is  a  Deer  Park  with  black 
buck,  spotted  deer,  elks,  and  the  ante- 
lope picta.  The  beautiful  Bougaim 
villea  is  very  conspicuous  in  the  gar« 
dens.  On  the  extreme  E.  is  a  mena- 
gerie, with  tigers,  bears,  panthers,  and 
hundreds  of  guinea  pigs,  quails,  and 
other  birds.  The  band  plays  here  twice 
a  week,  and  it  is  a  great  resort  for  the 
citizens.  The  Municipality  keep  up 
the  gardens  at  a  cost  of  Bs.  10,000 
yearly,  and  employ  75  gardeners  and 
others. 

Christ  Church,  Byhallah.  —  This 
Church  was  consecrated  by  Bishop 
Wilson  in  1835.  It  holds  600  people. 
A  stained  glass  window  was  set  up  in 
1870,  to  the  memory  of  Mr.  Spencer 
Compton,  eldest  son  of  Sir  Herbert 
Compton,  Chief  Justice  of  Bombay, 
and  there  is  a  handsome  monument 
to  Sir  Bobert  Grant,  G.C.B.,  Governor 
of  Bombay,  who  died  at  Dapurl  near 
PunA,  on  the  9th  of  July,  1838.  There 
are  also  other  tombs  of  interest  and 
some  monumental  brasses. 


136 


Bombay  City* 


Sect.  II. 


Grant  Medical  College^  in  Parell 
Koad,  was  established  in  1845,  in  me- 
mory of  Sir  Robert  Grant,  Governor  of 
Bombay.  One  half  the  cost  was  paid 
by  Sir  Robert  Grant's  friends,  the  other 
half  by  Government.  The  Principal 
is  subordinate  to  the  Director  of  Public 
Instruction.  There  are  8  European 
Professors  and  1  Indian,  besides  4 
teachers,  who  lecture  in  MarAthl  and 
GujarAtl.  There  are  10  scholarships, 
besides  funds  for  medals.  In  the  class 
of  the  Professor  of  Materia  Medica 
there  are  sometimes  as  many  as  130 
students.  In  the  laboratory  Dr.  Gray 
analysed  the  poison  that  was  given 
to  Colonel  Phayro  at  Baroda.  The 
Museum  is  fuU  of  curious  things,  Ittsi 
naturcB,  snakes  and  other  reptiles. 
The  grounds  cover  2  acres,  and  are 
being  made  instructive  by  planting  in 
them  all  kinds  of  useful  trees  and 
shrubs.  There  are  some  seedlings  of 
the  Eucalyptus  which  promise  well. 
Observe  also  the  Babiil,  Mimosa  ara- 
hicaj  with  its  soft  yellow  flowers  ;  the 
Bhehdi  or  hibUomt,  with  a  bell-like 
yellow  flower,  introduced  by  the  Por- 
tuguese, which  is  useful  for  shade,  as 
it  grows  quickly  ;  the  gum-tree,  which 
bears  a  round  glutinous  fruit  the  size 
of  a  large  black  currant ;  also  the 
Causilana  Moricata,  a  resinous  tree  of 
the  fir  kind.  This  College  turns  out  a 
number  of  Indian  Physicians  and  Sur- 
geons not  inferior  to  European,  who 
are  gradually  overspreading  India,  and 
find  lucrative  employment  in  the  na- 
tive States.  The  knowledge  of  medi- 
cine thus  diflfused  is  one  of  the  greatest 
blessings  India  has  derived  from  Eng- 
land. 

Jamshidji  Hospital. — This  institu- 
tion adjoins  the  one  just  mentioned. 
It  has  Parell  Road  to  the  W.,  and  Ba- 
biila  Tank  Road  to  the  S.  The  build- 
ing consists  of  a  Middle  Row,  1  story 
high,  400  ft.  from  N.  to  S.,  and  2 
wings,  2  stories  high,  which  extend 
200  ft.  from  E.  to  W.  In  the  middle 
building  are  14  wards,  holding  14  to 
16  patients  each.  The  5e  ought  all  to 
be  paved  with  Minton  tiles,  as  earth 
absorbs  miasma.  The  Duke  of  Edin- 
burgh, at  Dr.  Hunter's  request,  de- 
frayed the  cost  of  paving  one,  which 


is  now  called  the  Edinbui'gh  Ward; 
and  H.H.  the  MahdrAjd  Holkar  volun- 
teered to  pay  for  paving  another.  The 
pavement  of  each  ward  cost  £120.  At 
Sir  Jamshidji's  request,  1  ward  has 
been  assigned  to  PArsls ;  in  the  others 
all  castes,  Br^hmans,  Dherhs,  and  Mu- 
^ammadans  are  found  together.  They 
get  their  food  from  separate  cooks  ; 
but  Pdrsls  and  Muhammadans  will 
take  it  from  a  Christian  cook,  pro- 
vided that  fowls,  &c.,  are  not  stran- 
gled, but  killed  in  the  Mu^ammadan 
fashion.  In  the  hall  is  a  statue  of  Sir 
Jamshidji,  a  copy  of  the  stone  one  in 
the  Town  Hall,  but  of  bronze.  The 
name  of  the  sculptor  is  not  on  the 
statue.  The  2nd  story  can  be  as- 
cended to  by  a  hydraulic  lift,  but  the 
pressure  is  so  slight  that  the  ascent 
takes  a  long  time.  Patients  are  taken 
up  in  this  way.  The  wards  in  the 
wings  are  all  tiled.  To  the  W.  of  this 
hospital  are  the  Ophthalmic  Hospital, 
the  Grant  College,  the  Hospital  for 
Incurables,  and  huts  for  contagious 
diseases,  such  as  small-pox  and  cholera. 
Disease  is  said  to  be  more  prevalent  in 
the  cold  weather  than  in  the  hot. 
There  are  46  in-door  patients,  and  166 
out-door.  About  150  cases  of  accidents 
from  machinery  in  the  mills  are 
brought  to  the  Jamshidji  Hospital 
every  year.  In  the  Obstetric  Hospital 
there  are  40  patients,  but  many  out- 
door patients.  This  building  is  incon- 
veniently small,  and  so  is  the  quarter 
for  infectious  diseases.  There  ought 
to  be  a  separate  hospital  for  such  cases 
on  high  ground,  with  cottages  of  refuge 
below  for  the  families  of  the  patients. 
This  is  one  of  the  greatest  wants  in 
Bombay. 

Jarnshidji  DJiarmsdld.  —  This  may 
be  next  visited,  as  it  is  not  very  far 
off.  There  are  about  200  small  rooms 
which  families  or  individuals  may 
occupy.  There  is  no  light  or  ventila- 
tion, except  by  tbe  door  and  a  square 
hole  in  the  roof  about  6  in.  sq.  In  a 
3rd  row  in  the  same  line,  but  separated 
by  a  path,  are  about  200  lepers, 
covered  with  blotches,  and  many  with 
their  toes  and  fingers  gone.  When  a 
room  is  vacated  by  these  unfortunates, 
it  is  very  often  occupied  forthwith  by 


Sect.  IL 


Girgdm  Cemeteries — Elphinstone  Doch 


137 


a  person  who  is  not  a  leper.  It  is  no 
wonder,  therefore,  that  there  are 
between  200  and  300  people  afldicted 
with  this  dreadful  disease  in  Bombay. 
Dr.  Vandyke  Carter,  who  had  charge 
of  this  Dharmsdla  in  1875,  is  the 
great  authority  on  the  subject  of  this 
disease,  and  could  give  any  informa- 
tion respecting  it.  He  is  for  stamping 
it  out  by  seclusion ;  but  at  present 
there  are,  according  to  the  census  of 
1872,  p.  215,  no  less  than  13,842  lepers 
in  the  Presidency.  Europeans  are 
subject  to  it,  and  there  are  generally 
one  or  two  such  cases  in  Bombay. 

The  Nul  Marltct. — This  supplies  a 
large  part  of  Bombay,  and  is  gene- 
rally immensely  crowded.  Men  and 
women  may  be  seen  purchasing  opium, 
and  the  women  admit  that  they  give 
it  to  their  infants. 

Scotch  Mhifion  Scliool. — On  return- 
ing from  these  places,  the  Mission 
School  at  Ambroli  may  be  visited.  It, 
and  the  church,  cost  £6000.  There  is 
a  tablet  to  the  memory  of  Mrs.  Wilson, 
wife  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Wilson,  the  well- 
known  linguist  and  missionary,  in  the 
church,  with  an  inscription  in  English 
and  Marathl.  There  is  also  adjacent 
a  college  for  youths,  where  Sanskpt 
and  Persian  are  well  taught.  On  the 
way  back  to  the  Esplanade,  the  Gir- 
gdon  cemeteries  may  be  visited. 

Glrgdon  Cemeteries. — The  English 
cemetery,  which  is  to  the  W.,  is  very 
badly  kept.  Amongst  the  most  dis- 
tinguished persons  buried  here  is 
General  Kennedy.  His  tablet  is  thus 
inscribed  :- 

MAJOR-GENERAL  VANS    KENNEDY 

Died  on  the  29th  of  December,  1846, 

aged  63  years. 

Erected  to  his  Memory  in  token  of  regaixi 
for  his  Great  Talents  and  Attainments  and 
distinguished  Oriental  Scholarship  by  the 
Bombay  Branch  of  tlie  Royal  Asiatic  Society, 
of  which  he  was  successively  the  Secretary, 
President,  and  Honorary  President,  and  in 
the  inquiries  and  researches  of  which  he  ever 
manifested  the  deepest  interest. 

In  the  N.E.  corner  is  the  tomb  of 
Colonel  Foi"d,  who  commanded  the 
last  Peshwd's  Brigade,  which  mainly 
decided  the  defeat  of  that  Prince  at 
the  battle  of  Khirkl.  The  Peshwd  sent 
his  general,  Moro  Dikshat,  to  entreat 


Colonel  Ford  to  side  with  him  or  re- 
main neutral.  Colonel  Ford  refused  ; 
on  which  the  Mardthd  general  said 
that  he  would  take  care  of  the 
Englishman's  family  should  he  fall  in 
the  battle,  and  asked  that  he  would 
do  the  same  thing  for  him,  suppos- 
ing the  English  were  victors.  By  a 
curious  coincidence,  the  first  fire  of 
Colonel  Ford's  troops  killed  Moro 
Dikshat,  who  was  charging,  with  the 
Golden  Pennon  of  the  MarAthas  in 
his  hand,  at  the  head  of  15,000 
cavalry.  The  inscription  is  as  follows, 
on  the  N.  face  of  the  tall  white  tomb  : 

Sdcred  to  the  Memory  of 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  JOHN  FORD, 

C.B.,  of  tlie  Madras  Establishment, 

Who  departed  this  life  at  Bombay, 

on  the  2nd  day  of  Januarj',  1826, 

aged  46  years. 

About  the  oldest  epitaph  is  that  of 
Mrs.  Jane  Macquarie,  wife  of  Major 
Macquarie,  of  H.M.'s  77th,  daughter 
of  the  Chief  Justice  of  Antigua.  She 
died  July  loth,  1796.  To  the  E.  of 
this  cemetery  is  the  SmashAn,  where 
the  Hindii  corpses  are  burned.  Euro- 
peans who  desire  to  see  the  operation 
are  allowed  to  enter.  To  the  S.E.  is 
the  Scotch  Cemetery,  now  closed, 
where  is  the  tomb  of  the  *  Rev,  Dr. 
Wilson,  mentioned  above. 

The  5th  day  may  be  spent  in  visit- 
ing the  vast  reclamation  works  on  the 
E.  shore  of  Bombay  Island,  from  the 
Custom  House  to  Sewrl  on  the  N. 
On  these  works  and  on  those  at  Ko- 
Idba  and  Back  Bay  5  millions  sterling 
have  been  expended.  The  traveller 
will  drive  along  Frere  Road  to  the 
Elphinstone  Dock. 

Eljihinstone  Boclt. — This  was  com- 
menced during  the  Prince  of  "Wales' 
visit  in  1875-6.  In  excavating  the 
ground  the  remains  of  a  submerged 
forest  were  found  at  a  depth  of 
about  10  ft.  About  100  trees,  from 
10  to  20  ft.  long,  were  exhumed  ;  the 
wood  is  red  and  veiy  hard.  Many 
shells  of  the  teredo  were  also  found 
imbedded  iu  the  wood.  Within  the 
shell  the  wood  was  entirely  gone. 
This  barnacle  is  veiy  destructive  in 
Bombay  Harbour,  and  sometimes  at- 
taches itself  in  such  numbers  to  the 


138 


'  Bomhay  City, 


Sect.  11. 


bottoms  of  Tcssels  as  to  take  off  more 
than  a  knot  from  their  speed.  The 
excavations  extend  over  30  acres, 
from  which  more  than  a  million  cubic 
yards  of  earth  have  been  removed. 
7,000  Kulis  were  employed  every  day 
at  the  works ;  the  men  getting  6  Ands 
a  day,  and  the  women  3.  Adjacent  to 
the  Docks  whole  streets  of  warehouses 
and  offices  have  sprung  up.  Continu- 
ing N.,  the  visitor  will  arrive,  after  a 
drive  of  3  m.,  at 

Mdzagdon^  where  are  tJie  Office  and 
Bochyard  of  the  P.  and  0,  Company. 
The  office  is  situated  in  the  Mazagdoii 
Dock  Road,  in  a  beautiful  garden  with 
a  profusion  of  flowering  shrubs.  The 
gent's  office  is  fitted  up  with  polished 
wood,  and  handsomely  furnished,  and 
looks  out  upon  beds  of  flowers.  The 
works  were  finished  in  1866.  The 
walls  of  the  enclosure  are  strongly 
built  of  rubble  stone,  faced  with  cut 
stone.  The  dockyard  covers  12  acres. 
There  are  iron  sheds  for  18,000  tons 
of  coal ;  but  sometimes  these  are  quite 
full,  and  several  thousand  more  tons 
are  stored  uncovered.  The  Dock,  which 
is  the  largest  in  Bombay,  except  the 
Elphinstone,  is  420  ft.  long,  and 
capable  of  receiving  vessels  drawing 
20  ft.  of  water.  On  its  left,  looking 
towards  the  pier,  is  the  Ice  Manufac- 
tory, where  are  2  machines  which  can 
make  31  tons  a  day.  There  is  a  hand- 
some tomb  here  to  the  late  Captain 
Henry,  who  was  killed  by  a  fall  from 
his  carriage.  He  was  agent  for  the 
P.  and  0.  Company,  and  universally 
respected.  Commodore  Hawkins,  who 
is  buried  in  the  Girgdon.  Cemetery, 
was  killed  by  a  similar  accident  near 
the  Dockyard  in  the  Fort.    Close  by  is 

St.  Peter'' s  Churchj 3IazagdonyWhich 
seats  about  300  people.  Here  is  a 
memorial  window  to  the  officers  and 
men  drowned  in  the  S.S.  Caniatw. 
Continuing  the  drive,  and  passing  Sir 
Albert  Sassoon's  fine  house,  the  tra- 
veller will  arrive  at  Parell. 

Oovernment  House  at  Parell  was  a 
Portuguese  place  of  worship  and  mo- 
nastery, confiscated  by  the  English 
Government,  on  account  of  the  traitor- 
ous conduct  of  the  Jesuits  in  1720. 
Governor  Hornby  was  the  first  who 


took  up  his  residence  there,  between 
1771-1780.  One  of  the  stones  of  the 
buUding  is  inscribed  :— 

This  built  by  the  direction  of 

Honourable  Hornby, 

1771. 

It  remained  in  statu  quo  till  the  ex- 
piration of  Sir  Evan  Nepean's  govern- 
ment.    When  that   Governor  quitted 
Bombay  in  1819,  he  left  a  minute  re- 
gretting that  he  had  been  compelled 
by  the  necessities  of  Government  to 
neglect  the  house  at  Parell.  To  supply 
the  required  accommodation,  Mr.  El- 
phinstone   built   the    right  and  left 
wings.     In  the  right  wing  are  the 
apartments  belonging  to  the  Governor 
and  his  family,  in  the  left  are  those 
appropriated  to  the  aides-de-camp  and 
staff.     The  public  rooms  are  in  the 
centre  facing  the  W.  The  dining  room 
below,  where  also  the  Governor  holds 
his  public  breakfasts,  is  86  ft.  long  by 
30  broad,  with  a  fine  verandah  on  three 
sides,  about  10  ft.  broad.    Above  the 
dining  room  is  a  drawing  room,  or  ball 
room,  of  corresponding    dimensions, 
with  a  similar  verandah.    The  veran- 
dah below  is  open,  and  that  above  is 
closed.    These  rooms  occupy  the  place 
of  the  old  Portuguese  chapel.    The 
altar  was  where  the  billiard  table  is 
now,  in  the  recess  at  the  end  of  the 
hall.    In  the  ball  room  is  a  full  length 
portrait  of  the  Marquess  Wellesley,  by 
Home,  an  artist  of  Calcutta.  The  like- 
ness is  good  and  the  painting  excel- 
lent. On  the  landing  place  of  the  very 
handsome  stone  staircase  is  a  valuable 
marble  bust  of  the  Great  Duke,  vTith. 
"P.Turnerelli  fecit,  181  o."    In  the  side 
room  or  corridor  to  the  ball  room,  are 
2  full-length  marble  figures  of  Lucretia 
and  Cleopatra.    For  the  memorials  of 
the  Duke  of  Wellington  and  his  bro- 
ther, under  the  former  of  whom  Mr, 
Elphinstone  served  as  Political  Assist- 
ant throughout  the  brilliant  campaign 
of  1803-4,  it  has  been  asserted  his  suc- 
cessors are  indebted  to  the    private 
liberality  of  Mr.   Elphinstone.     The 
garden  of  Parell  is  pretty,  and  has  at 
its  W.  extremity  a  tank,  and  on  its 
margin  a  noble  terrace,  which  rises 
about  10  ft.  above  the  water  and  the 
grounds.    It  is  here  that  visitors  of 


Sect.  II.         £afoped7t  Cemetery — Kurla  Cotton  Mill. 


139 


distinction  are  entertained  on  royal 
birthdays  and  other  festivals,  and  from 
this  spot  they  witness  the  display  of 
fireworks.  Toe  Prince  of  Wales  was 
received  by  Governor  Sir  Philip  Wode- 
house  at  Parell,  in  November,  1875  ;  Sir 
Richard  Temple  moved  to  the  Govern- 
ment House  at  Malabar  Hill,  where  the 
sea-breeze  blows  refreshingly.  Beyond 
the  corridor  in  which  are  the  marble 
statues  is  a  good  suite  of  rooms  for  a 
guest  of  distinction,  with  an  excellent 
bath  room.  In  fact,  all  the  bath  rooms 
in  the  house  are  good,  being  of  white 
stone  or  chunam,  with  pavements  of 
coloured  tiles  at  the  side.  At  the  end 
of  the  ball  room  is  what  is  called  the 
Darbdr  room.  Beyond  is  a  broad 
chunam  platform,  with  a  pretty  look- 
out on  the  garden.  Next  to  the  Dar- 
bAr  room  is  't  sitting  room,  with  a  por- 
trait of  Moantstuart  Elphinstone.  A 
bangld  in  the  garden  is  usually  occu- 
pied by  the  Governor's  doctor  when 
the  Governor  is  here.  From  the  S. 
corridor  one  can  descend  by  steps  out- 
side the  building  to  a  platform  in  the 
garden,  where  the  band  plays.  The 
ball  room  is  82  ft.  6  in.  long,  32  ft.  10 
broad,  and  27  ft.  high.  It  is  a  hand- 
some room  and  suitable  for  a  Govern- 
ment House.  In  it  is  a  fine  full-length 
portrait  of  the  Queen,  by  Sir  George 
Hayter,  inscribed  London,  1864.  On 
the  E.  of  the  ball  room  is  a  refresh- 
ment room,  sometimes  used  as  a  din- 
ing room.  Lord  Mayo  dined  there.  On 
the  next  story  are  bed  rooms  and  sit- 
ting rooms  for  the  military  secretary 
and  private  secretary,  and  on  the 
story  above  that  are  3  bed  rooms  and 
dressing  rooms,  and  a  sitting  room.  In 
all,  19  bed  rooms  can  be  made  avail- 
able. Below  the  drawing  room,  but 
not  on  the  ground  floor,  are  the  Go- 
vernor's bed  room  and  his  office  room, 
the  latter  very  good,  and  between 
them  is  the  private  secretary's  office. 
The  dining  room  ends  in  a  billiard 
room  looking  W.  towards  the  garden. 
In  the  garden  are  2  iron  arches 
with  a  creeper,  which  has  a  beauti- 
ful white  flower.  One  arch  fell  in 
1875,  and  the  creeper  was  cut  down 
almost  to  the  ground,  but  soon  reco- 
vered itself.    Just  before  the  2nd  arch 


is  a  circular  basin  with  a  small  foun- 
tain, in  which  is  a  plated  tube  imitat- 
ing a  flower  and  other  devices.  Beyond 
this  is  a  flight  of  steps  and  a  terrace, 
where  the  Governor  receives  at  his 
garden  parties.  The  grounds  are  pretty, 
but  there  are  numerous  snakes  of  the 
phursen  kind,  most  poisonous.  There 
are  also  many  damans^  a  serpent  which 
grows  to  9  ft.  and  is  incredibly  swift. 
The  mango  trees  are  particularly  fine, 
and  there  is  a  lovely  jessamine  with 
flowers  as  large  as  the  palm  of  one's 
hand. 

European  Cemetery  at  Parell, — ^This 
cemetery  was  formerly  a  Botanical 
Garden,  which  was  opened  by  Mr. 
Farish,  Member  of  Council,  in  1830. 
It  is  a  sheltered  spot  under  Flag  StaflE 
Hill,  with  pine  trees  on  either  side, 
and  was  turned  into  a  cemetery  about 
1867.  Remark  here  the  magnificent 
crimson  poinciana. 

Kurla  Cotton  Mill, — Should  the  tra- 
veller have  a  couple  of  hours  free,  and 
have  obtained  permission  to  visit  the 
Kurla  mill,  which  is  on  the  causeway 
between  Bombay  and  Salsette,  and  6 
m.  from  Parell,  he  may  now  drive  to 
the  Parell  Railway  Station,  which  is 
6  m.  from  KolAba,  and  close  to  Pa- 
rell Government  House,  from  which 
trains  go  to  Kurla  at  6.12  and  6.52 
A.M.,  and  1.22,  3.58,  and  5.22  P.M., 
arriving  in  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour. 
This  is  one  of  the  largest  cotton  mills 
in  the  world,  and  employs  3000  hands, 
of  whom  700  are  women  and  300  boys. 
The  rooms  are  760  ft.  long,  and  the 
temperature  is  about  90  deg.  There  is  a 
tower  80  ft.  high,  to  which  one  may 
ascend  for  the  view.  The  mill  opened 
about  1863  on  a  smaller  scale,  and  in 
1869  on  its  present  footing.  There  are 
large  lodging-houses  adjoining,  which 
can  accommodate  400  persons.  There 
are  also  salt  pans  close  by,  and  owing 
to  these,  the  spot  is  said  to  be  un- 
healthy in  November.  They  have  a 
fire  engine,  which  the  hands  work  very 
well.  The  management  is  good,  and 
the  mill  will  serve  as  a  specimen  of 
the  mill  industry  in  Bombay.  Re- 
mark to  the  S.E.  Sion  Hill,  a  place 
once  fortified  by  the  Portuguese. 

GovernmentHmise  atMalabarHill.  — 


140 


Bombay  City, 


Sect.  II. 


On  the  6th  day  the  traveller  may  drive 
from  his  hotel  to  Malabar  Hill.  If  he 
be  located  in  Watson's  Hotel,  or  any 
other  hotel  in  or  near  the  Fort,  his 
drive  will  be  a  pleasant  one  along  the 
sea-side  skirting  Back  Bay,  which,  on 
account  of  the  sea  breeze,  is  a  prefer- 
able road  to  that  through  the  hot  and 
crowded  bdzars.  At  about  3^  m.  from 
the  Cathedral,  the  road  begins  to  as- 
cend a  long  steep  hill,  whence  Govern- 
ment House  may  be  reached  by  one  of 
2  turnings  to  the  left.  The  S.  turning 
leads  through  iron  gates  down  a  rather 
steep  pitch  to  the  house  of  the  Gover- 
nor. At  the  iron  gate  there  is  a  notice 
that  no  person  will  be  admitted  except 
on  business.  The  Governor's  bangld 
consists  of  a  suite  of  rooms  only  one 
story  high,  and  of  moderate  dimen- 
sions. The  principal  banglA  to  which 
visitors  must  go  to  enter  their  names, 
is  also  only  of  one  story,  but  contains 
two  rooms,  a  dining  room  and  a  draw- 
ing room,  each  about  90  ft.  long  and 
40  broad,  with  a  verandah  surrounding 
them  16  ft.  broad.  You  ascend  to  these 
rooms  by  a  flight  of  20  steps,  and,  pass- 
ing through  the  verandah  where  the  vi- 
sitor's book  is  placed  on  the  left  hand, 
find  yourself  in  a  middle  room,  sepa- 
rated from  the  other  2  rooms  by  ex- 
tremely handsome  carved  black  wood 
doors,  ornamented  with  gilt  work  in  a 
very  tasteful  fashion.  The  verandah 
on  the  E.  side  commands  a  fine  view 
over  Back  Bay  to  Koldba  and  the  Es- 
planade, where  the  Government  Offices 
are  an  imposing  feature.  At  night,  all 
this  part  is  lighted  up  with  myriads  of 
lamps,  and  the  effect  is  extremely 
pleasing.  There  are  several  detached 
banglAs  for  the  Governor's  staff  and 
for  guests,  all  being  from  80  to  100  ft. 
above  the  sea.  Below  them  is  a  bat- 
tery, which  would  sweep  the  sea  ap- 
proach. The  water,  however,  is  too 
shallow  for  anything  but  boats,  and  is 
besides  full  of  rocks.  Not  far  off  to 
the  N.  a  large  ship,  the  Diamond^  was 
wrecked,  and  80  passengers  were 
drowned.  The  stables  of  the  Governor 
are  very  commodious,  and  generally 
contain  from  20  to  30  fine  horses. 
They  are  to  the  N.  of  the  other  build- 
ings, and  in  front  of  them  is  a  very 


curious  row  of  trees,  the  branches  of 
which  have  been  turned  by  the  mon- 
soon winds  to  the  B.  at  about  10  ft. 
from  the  ground,  as  if  they  had  been 
carefully  trained  in  that  direction.  A 
few  words  may  be  said  as  to  the  his- 
tory of  the  Governor's  residence  here. 
Up  to  the  time  of  Sir  Evan  Nepean, 
the  Governor  had  resided  either  at  the 
Fort  or  at  Parell.  At  Malabar  Point 
there  were  only  Sergeants'  quarters 
near  the  Flagstaff.  In  1813,  Sir  Evan, 
feeling  the  cool  sea  breeze  to  be  indis- 
pensable to  his  health,  built  an  addi- 
tional room  to  the  Sergeants'  quarters. 
He  also  somewhat  improved  the  ac- 
cess by  the  back  road  then  in  exist- 
ence. In  1819-20,  Mr.  Elphinstone 
added  a  public  breakfast  room,  and  a 
detached  sleeping  baogla  on  a  small 
scale.  At  that  time  there  was  not  a 
single  house  on  the  Malabar  Hill  and 
Breach  Candy,  now  so  covered  with 
villas,  except  that  called  Tlw  Retreat^ 
and  one  other.  But  the  presence  of 
the  Governor  soon  attracted  various 
individuals  to  settle  in  villas  near  the 
spot ;  and  the  colonization  of  this  part 
of  the  island  of  Bombay  may  be  said 
to  date  from  1820.  In  1828  Sir  John 
Malcolm  gave  up  for  public  offices  the 
Government  House  in  the  Fort  and 
the  Secretary's  office  in  Apollo  Street, 
and  considerably  enlarging  the  resi- 
dence at  Malabar  Point,  regularly  con- 
stituted it  a  Government  House.  He 
also  converted  a  footpath,  so  steep  and 
rugged  as  to  be  almost  impracticable, 
into  a  carriage  road.  The  Governor's 
residence  at  the  Point  is  elevated  about 
80  ft.  above  the  sea,  and  stands  close 
to  the  edge  of  the  steep  cliff,  in  which 
Malabar  Hill  on  this  side  terminates. 
The  drive  to  Malabar  Point,  and  thence 
along  the  sea  by  Breach  Candy,  is  one 
of  the  most  beautiful  in  the  island,  and 
is  well  thronged  with  carriages  and 
equestrians.  A  traveller  (Grant)  says 
that  he  was  reminded  of  Naples  by 
this  promenade. 

Valkeshwar. — The  temple  of  Val- 
keshwar,  "  Sand  Lord,"  is  on  the  W. 
side  of  Malabar  Hill,  and  close  to  Ma- 
labar Point.  Throngs  of  Hindiis  will 
be  met  coming  from  it,  their  foreheads 
newly   coloured   with    the    sectarial 


Sect.  TI. 


Towers  of  Silence, 


141 


mark.  The  legend  says  that  Kama,  on 
his  way  from  Ayodhya  (Oadh)  to 
Lankd  (Ceylon),  to  recover  his  bride 
SltA,  carried  off  by  RAvana,  halted 
here  for  the  night.  Lakshman  pro- 
vided his  brother  Bdma  with  a  new 
Lingam  direct  from  Bandras  every 
night.  This  night  he  failed  to  arrive 
at  the  expected  time,  and  the  impa- 
tient Rdma  made  for  himself  a  Lin- 
gam of  the  sand  at  the  spot.  When 
the  one  from  Bandras  arrived,  it  was 
set  up  in  the  temple,  while  the  one 
which  Bdma  had  made,  in  after  ages, 
on  the  arrival  of  the  Portuguese, 
sprang  into  the  sea  from  horror  of  the 
barbarians.  There  is  also  a  very  fine, 
but  small,  tank  here,  adorned  with 
noble  flights  of  steps,  which,  too,  is  not 
without  its  legend.  Rdma  thii-sted, 
and  there  being  no  water  here,  he  shot 
an  arrow  into  the  earth,  and  forthwith 
appeai'ed  the  tank,  hence  called  F<4im^- 
tirtJuif  "  Arrow-Tank."  The  tank  is 
shaded  by  fine  trees,  and  encircled  by 
snow-white  pagodas  and  neat  houses 
of  Brdhmans.  On  the  sea- shore  is  a 
rock  with  a  cleft  in  it,  through  which 
the  Hindiis  pass  as  a  sign  of  regenera- 
tion or  new  birth.  The  legend  says 
Shivajl  passed  through  this  cleft. 

Towers  of  Silence, — After  visiting 
Valkeshwar,  the  traveller  will  drive 
along  a  fine  road  to  Breach  Candy, 
where  he  will  see,  on  the  left  hand, 
the  swimming  bath,  which  is  60  ft.  by 
30,  and  from  4 J  ft.  to  10  ft.  deep.  The 
subscription  is  a  rupee  a  month,  and 
those  who  do  not  subscribe  pay  2  «^nAs 
for  each  bath.  Bathers  can  have  coffee 
and  cigarettes.  The  baths  are  open 
for  subscribers  on  Sundays  to  8  A.M. ; 
on  Tuesday  and  Friday  to  10  A.M.  ; 
and  for  ladies  on  Monday  and  Thurs- 
day to  10  A.M.  At  other  hours  non- 
subscribers  may  bathe.  In  order  to  see 
the  Towers  of  Silence,  permission  must 
be  obtained  from  the  Secretary  to  the 
Pdrsl  Panchdyat.  There  are  2  ways 
of  approaching  the  Towers,  one  is 
from  the  N.  side  by  turning  to  the 
right  from  the  Breach  Candy  road  as 
you  come  from  Malabar  HiU.  This 
was  the  road  taken  by  the  Prince  of 
Wales.  Sir  Jamshidjl  Jijlbhdl,  at  his 
own  expanse,  made  the  splendid  road 


which  loiids  to  the  Towers  on  this  side. 
Sir  Jamshldjf  further  gave  100,000  sq. 
yds.  of  land  on  the  N.  and  E.  sides  of 
the  Towers.  Ascending  by  his  road 
you  can  drive  nearly  to  the  top  of  the 
hill  on  which  the  Towers  are,  which  is 
over  100  ft,  high,  and  whence  there  is 
a  charming  view  over  the  E.  part  of 
the  island.  Over  the  N.  entrance  there 
is  this  inscription  : — 

This  Road,  leading  to  the  Parai  Towers  of 
Silence,  was  constructed  in  Memory  of  the 
lato  JAMSHfDjf  JiJiBHAf,  the  First  Barcnet, 
by  his  Son,  and  has  been  given  in  charge  of 
the  Trustees  of  the  Parsi  Panchdyat  Fund,  for 
the  use  of  PJlrsis  only.  19th  December,  1888. 
A.c.  1238  Yezd. 

After  driving  in  the  carriage  as  far 
as  possible,  the  traveller  will  come  to 
a  fiight  of  80  steps,  at  the  end  of  which 
he  will  find  a  notice  facing  him, 
"  None  but  Pdrsls  may  enter."  Accom- 
panied by  the  Secretary  of  the  Pan- 
chaydt,  the  stranger  will  pass  in,  and 
turning  to  the  right  come  to  a  stone 
building,  where,  during  funerals, 
prayer  is  offered.  Between  this  and 
the  enclosing  wall  is  a  little  space 
where  the  traveller  may  take  a  chair 
and  enjoy  one  of  the  finest  views  ob- 
tainable in  Bombay.  To  the  left  he 
will  see  Sion,  Sewrl,  and  Mazagdoii 
Hills,  and  between  them  some  20  lofty 
chimneys  of  cotton  mills  and  other 
high  buildings.  From  the  foot  of  the 
hill  on  which  are  the  Towers  stretches 
a  vast  grove  of  palms,  in  which  no  hu- 
man habitation  is  visible,  though  many 
are  concealed  by  the  broad  palm 
leaves.  On  the  right  are  seen  in  suc- 
cession the  Cathedral,  the  Government 
Offices,  the  Memorial  Church  of  St. 
John  at  Koldba,  and  the  Prong  Light- 
house. Probably  while  the  traveller  is 
looking  at  the  view,  a  funeral  will 
take  place.  A  bier  will  be  seen  carried 
up  the  steps  by  4  Nasr  Salars  or  "  car- 
riers of  the  dead,"  with  2  bearded  men 
following  them  closely,  and  perhaps 
100  Pdrsls  in  white  robes  walking  2 
and  2  in  procession.  The  bearded  men 
who  come  next  the  corpse  are  the  only 
persons  who  enter  the  Tower.  They 
wear  gloves,  and  when  they  touch  the 
bones  it  is  with  tongs.  On  leaving  the 
Tower  after  depositing  the  corpse  on 


142 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


the  grating  within,  they  proceed  to 
the  purifying  place,  where  they  wash 
and  leave  the  clothes  they  have  worn 
in  a  tower  built  for  that  express  pur- 
pose. In  1875  the  tower  was  so  full 
that  the  garments  at  the  top  were 
blown  about  by  the  wind.  It  should 
be  said,  that  the  Parsls  who  walk  in 
procession  after  the  bier,  have  their 
clothes  linked,  in  which  there  is  a 
mystic  meaning.  There  is  a  model  of 
the  Tdwer  which  was  exhibited  to  the 
Prince  of  Wales,  and  would  probably 
be  produced  to  any  visitor  on  his  ask- 
ing permission  to  see  it.  There  are  6 
towers,  the  largest  of  which  cost 
£30,000,  while  the  other  4  on  an  aver- 
age cost  £20,000  each.  The  largest 
tower  is  276  ft.  round  and  25  high.  At 
8  ft.  from  the  ground  is  an  aperture  in 
the  encircling  wall  about  5^  ft.  sq., 
to  which  the  carriers  of  the  dead  as- 
cend by  a  flight  of  steps.  Inside,  there 
is  a  circular  platform  or  grating  gra- 
dually  depressed  towards  the  centre, 
in  which  is  a  well  5  ft.  in  diameter. 
The  bodies  are  deposited  in  fluted 
grooves  in  3  series,  with  a  circular  path, 
3  ft.  broad,  round  each,  and  a  straight 
path  to  the  well  from  the  aperture  in 
the  wall,  which  straight  path  commu- 
nicates with  the  3  circular  ones.  The 
adult  males  are  laid  in  the  outer  series, 
the  women  in  the  middle  series,  and  the 
children  in  that  nearest  the  well.  The 
bodies  are  placed  in  the  grooves  quite 
naked,  and  in  half  an  hour  the  flesh  is 
so  completely  devoured  by  the  numer- 
ous vultures  that  inhabit  the  trees 
around,  that  nothing  but  the  skeleton 
remains.  This  is  left  to  bleach  in  sun 
and  wind  tiU  it  becomes  perfectly  dry. 
Then  the  carriers  of  the  dead,  gloved 
and  with  tongs,  remove  the  bones  from 
the  grooves  and  cast  them  into  the 
weU.  Here  they  crumble  into  dust. 
Bound  the  well  are  perforations  which 
allow  the  rain-water  or  other  moisture 
to  escape  into  2  deep  drains  at  the 
bottom  of  the  Tower,  and  the  fluid  then 
passes  through  charcoal  and  becomes 
disinfected  and  inodorous  before  it 
passes  into  the  sea.  There  is  a  ladder 
in  the  well  by  which  the  carriers  of 
the  dead  descend  if  it  be  requisite  to 
remove  obstructions  fi-om  the  perfora- 


tions.   The  dust  in  the  well  accumu- 
lates so  slowly  that  in  40  years  it  'rose 
only  5  ft.    This  method  of  interment 
originates  from  the  veneration  the  Pdr- 
sls  pay  to  the  elements  and  their  zeal- 
ous endeavours  not  to  pollute  them. 
Pdrsls  respect  the  dead,  but  consider 
corpses  most  unclean,  and  the  carriers 
are  a  separate  and  peculiar  class  who 
are  not  allowed  to  mix  in  social  inter- 
course with  other  Pdrsls.    Yet  even 
these  men  wear  gloves  and  use  tongs 
in  touching  the  remains  of  a  deceased 
person,  and  purify  themselves  and  cast 
away  their  garments  after  every  visit 
to  a  tower.  Fire  is  too  much  venerated 
by  Ptels  for  them  to  allow  it  to  be 
polluted  by  burning  the  dead.    Water 
is  almost  equally  respected,  and  so  is 
earth  ;  hence  this  singular  mode  of  in- 
terment has  been  devised.    There  is, 
however,   another   reason.      Zartasht 
said,  that  rich  and  poor  must  meet  in 
death  ;  and  this  saying  has  been  liter- 
ally"  interpreted  and  carried  out  by 
the  contrivance  of  the  well,  which  is  a 
common  receptacle  for  the  dust  of  all 
PArsls,  of  Sir  Jamshidji  and  other  mil- 
lionaires, and  of  the  poor  inmates  of 
the  Pdrsi  Asylum.     In  the  arrange- 
ments of  the  vast  area  which  surrounds 
the  Towers,  nothing  has  been  omitted 
which  could  foster  calm  and  pleasing 
meditation.   You  at  once  arrive  at  the 
house  of  prayer,  and  around  is  a  beau- 
tiful garden  full  of  flowers  and  flower- 
ing shrubs.   Here,  under  the  shade  of 
fine  trees,  relatives  of  the  deceased  can 
sit  and  meditate.    The  height  of  the 
hill  and  the  proximity  of  the  sea  en- 
sures always  a  cool  breeze ;  and  the 
view  to  the  W.  and  S.  over  the  waters, 
and  to   the  E.  and  N.  over  the  city, 
the  islands  in  the  harbour  and  the  dis- 
tant mountains  beyond,  is  really  en- 
chanting and  perhaps  unrivalled.  The 
massive  grey  towers  and   the  thick 
woods  about  them  are  very  picturesque. 
Even  the  cypresses,  as  the  PArsis  them- 
selves say,  tapering  upwards,  point  the 
way  to  heaven  ;  and  it  is  certain  that 
the  PArsis  follow  out  that  thought  and 
are  firm  believers  in  the  resurrection 
and  the  re-assemblage  of  the  atoms, 
here  dispersed,  in  a  glorified  and  incor« 
I  ruptible  body. 


Sect.  IL 


Pdrfi  Dharmsdld — Slwoting. 


143 


PdrH  Wiarrnsdld,  —  If  the   ascent 

to  the  towers  be  made  from  the  S.  side, 

the  traveller  will  drive  to  the  Grdm 

Devi  Road,  in  which  is  the  Dharms&ld 

for  poor  Persian  PArsis.    The  building, 

which  is  a  good  and  clean  one,  stands 

in  an  extensive  garden  in  which  is  a 

tank.    Over  the  door  is  ^vritten — 

In  the  Name  of  God  !  Amen ! 
Khorshidjf  Ardeshir  Dddy  Sefs  Dhannsil&, 

Under  trast 

For  the  Destitute  Irdni  Pdrai  Zoroastrians. 

Year  Yezdajird  1222— Vikram,  1929— a.c.  1853. 

In  this  Irinl  Dharms^U  are  some- 
times as  many  as  200  men,  women, 
and  children.    In  the  morning  they 


of  fruit.  There  is  also  a  large  upper 
room  which  looks  over  the  garden,  and 
at  the  end  of  it  is  the  conmiittee  room. 
There  are  also  four  side  rooms.  In 
the  room  below  is  the  dispensary,  and 
on  the  far  side  of  the  quadrangle  the 
store  room.  The  ghi  and  other  comes- 
tibles are  kept  in  gigantic  Chinese  jars, 
big  enough  to  hold  'Ali  Bdbd's  thieves. 
These  jars  cost  2000  rs.  The  whole 
charity  does  much  credit  to  the  muni- 
ficence of  the  Parsls. 

There  are  two  leading  papers  in  Bom- 
bay, the  Timrs  of  India  and  theBmnbay 
Gazette.    There  is  also  a  theatre,  "  the 


have  tea  and  bread,  at  11  a.m.  rice  and  I  Gaiety,"  near  the  G.I.P.  Railway  Ter 


curry,  and  at  B.fiO  P.M.  a  dinner  of 
meat  and  vegetables  gratis.  The  chil- 
dren are  taught  by  a  Persian  Munshi. 
A  register  is  kept  in  Gujardti  of  things 
supplied  to  the  inmates.  Close  to  the 
dining-room  is  a  well  of  clear  water, 
and  a  large  airy  sleeping-room  for  men. 
Close  to  the  Irini  Dharms^^  is  an- 
other for  the  use  of  the  same  persons, 
over  the  door  of  which  is  written  : — 

Ehurshldjf  Ardeshir  DharmsiUl. 
Erected  at  the  expense  of 

Sir  KltJsjf  JahAnoIr  Beadymoney,  C.S.I., 

in  Commemoration  of  his  Maternal 

Grandfather, 

for  the  nse  of  Poor  Persian  Zoroastrians. 

Yezdi^ird,  1241.       a.c.  1812. 

At  the  S.E.  foot  of  the  hUl  on  which 
are  the  Towers  of  Silence  is  an  alms- 
house for  decayed  P4rsis  of  both  sexes. 
Over  the  door  is  written . — 

This  Asylum, 
for  the  Reception  of  Blind  and  I>i8abled  Poor 

Pdrsfs, 
was  erected  at  the  expense  of  the 
Sons  of  the  late  FardtiA)!  Sorabjl  Parak,  Esq., 
in  Commemoration  of  the  Death  of 

PIRUZ   BAI, 

the  Wife  of  the  late 

Jamshfdjf  Fardiinji  Parak,  Esq., 

in  the  Yezd  year  1214— a.c.  1845,  and  given  in 

cliaige  of  the  Tmstees  of  the  PusiPanchiyat. 

The  Upper  Floor  of  this  Building  was  built  at 
the  expense  of 

KHURSHfDji  FARDtJNjf  Pabak,  Esq., 
in  the  Yezd  year  1233— a.c.  1864. 

There  are  6  rooms  on  the  ground  floor, 
in  which  are  generally  about  8  fe- 
males and  3  or  4  times  the  number  of 
men  ;  some  are  blind.  In  the  centre 
of  the  quadrangle  are  flowering  shrubs, 
and  outside  is  a  very  large  garden  full 


minus,  at  the  S.  end  of  Esplanade  Mar- 
ket Boad,  and  one  in  the  Grant  Eoad. 
On  the  Eidge  is  a  gymnasium  called 
GymJihdnahj  where  lawn  tennis  is 
played  ;  attached  is  a  skating  rink. 

Shooting. — Tigers  and  panthers  are 
rather  numerous  in  the  Koukan,  and 
may  be  found  occasionally  in  Salsette. 
At  the  hill  fort  of   Tungafh,   about 
20  m.  from  Bombay,  tigers  are  sure  to 
be  found,  but  it  is  difficult  to  get  ac- 
commodation there,  as  there  are  only 
one  or  two  huts,  and  horses  picqueted 
outside  are  very  likely  to  be  killed 
during  the  night.    The  monthly  pay  of 
a  huntsman  or  thikdri  is  about  Bs.  15  ; 
but  shooting  tigers  is  very  expensive, 
as  a  great  number  of  beaters  is  required 
at  about  6  4nds  each.    New  comers 
should  endeavour  to  go  with  some  ex- 
perienced sportsman,  by  whom  all  the 
arrangements  should  be  made.    If  the 
traveller  can  give  a  week  to  sport,  he 
might  go  by  steamer  to  Edrwdr,  270  m., 
occupying  36  hours,  and  would  find  on 
landing  that  panthers  abound  in  the 
jungles  all  round  the  harbour,  and  are 
bold  enough  to  come  even  to  the  tra- 
veller's bangld.    A  few  miles  up  the 
river,  royal  tigers  are  sure  to  be  met 
with,     fc^nipe  are  so  numerous  on  the 
E.  side  of  Bombay  Harbour  in  Panwell 
Creek,  that  more  than  50  brace  have 
been  killed  by  a  single  sportsman  in  a 
day.    At  the  Yihdr  Lake  and  Thdnd 
and  close  to  Ndrel  wild  duck,  snipe, 
hares  and  partridges  are  to  be  found. 
At  places  in  Gujardt,  easily  reached 
by  the  railway,  such  as  Nariad,  quail 
and  florican  can  be  got. 


144 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


Ra'dn^aAjsi  and  Sfcamfrst.  —  Tho  sta- 
tions of  the  tramways,  and  of  the 
Bombay,  Baroda  and  Central  India 
Railway  are  at  EolAba,  ^  m.  S.  of 
"Watson's  Hotel  and  of  the  hotels  in 
the  Fort,  but  there  is  a  station  much 
closer,  and  nearly  due  W.  of  Watson's 
Hotel,  called  Church-gate  Station, 
whence  passengers  can  start  for  any 
places  reached  by  the  B.  B.  and  C.  I. 
line.  Those  who  are  living  at  the 
Bykallah  hotels  will  go  of  course  from 
the  Bykallah  Station,  and  those  living 
at  Malabar  Hill  and  its  vicinity  will 
go  from  the  Grant  Koad  Station.  Pas- 
sengers for  the  Great  Indian  Penin- 
sula Line  will  start  from  the  Bori 
Bandar  Station.  The  office  of  the  Bri- 
tish India  Steam  Navigation  Company 
is  that  of  Messrs.  Mackinnon,  Mac- 
kenzie and  Co.,  in  the  Fort  in  Elphin- 
stone  Circle,  inner  circle,  S.  side.  The 
office  of  the  B.  B.  and  C.  I.  Ry.  is  in 
Church-gate  Street,  in  a  detached 
block  of  buildings  facing  the  N.  side  of 
the  Cathedral ;  that  of  the  Rubattino 
Steam  Navigation  Company  in  Hamdm 
Street,  N.  side.  The  office  of  the  G.  I.  P. 
Ry.  is  in  Elphinstone  Circle,  Fort. 

SIGHTS  IN  THE  VICINITY  OP  BOMBAY. 

ElepJianta.  —  For  visiting  this  re- 
markable place  steam  launches  can  be 
hired  at  Apollo  Bandar,  and  make  the 
passage  in  an  hour,  or  a  bandar-boat 
may  be  hired  at  from  3  to  6  rs.  In 
this  case  the  length  of  the  passage  will 
depend  on  wind  and  tide.  Or,  if  living 
near  Mazagaon,  the  traveller  may  hire 
a  boat  or  engage  a  steam  launch  from 
the  pier  there.  He  will  then  cross  close 
to  Butcher's  Island,  which  is  3  m. 
nearly  due  E.  from  Mazagdon  Dock. 
Persons  coming  from  sea  with  infec- 
tious diseases,  such  as  small-pox,  are 
placed  in  quarantine  at  Butcher's 
Island,  which  was  at  first  intended  for 
Madras  troops  coming  to  Bombay. 
From  this  island  to  the  landing  place 
at  Elephanta  is  IJ  m.  due  E.  The 
view  in  this  part  of  the  harbour  is 
beautiful.  To  the  N.  one  sees  Salsette 
Hill,otherwise  called  the  Neat's  Tongue, 
atTrombay,  which  is  100  ft.  high  above 
high  water  spring  tides.  The  ruins  of 
an  old  Portuguese  chapel  at  Trubah  in 


Trombay  are  at  a  height  of  324  ft.  The 
I  highest  point  of  Elephanta  is  568  ft. 
There  is  another  hill  400  ft.  high  to  tho 
left  of  the  Caves  as  you  approach  them, 
and  here  are  3  tanks,  and  further  to  the 
left  the  ruins  of  a  tower.  A  pleasant 
trip  may  be  made  by  water  from  Ele- 
phanta to  Thdnd,  a  distance  of  16  m. 

Elephanta^  called  by  the  natives 
GluirapuH  (*'  the  town  of  the  rock," 
or  "  of  purification,"  according  to  Dr. 
Wilson)-— according  to  the  Rev.  J.  Ste- 
venson, Journal  of  the  Bombay  Asiatio 
Society^  for  July,  1852,  Art.  iv.,  Gara^ 
purl,  •'  the  town  of  excavations," — is 
a  small  island,  distant  about  6  miles 
from  the  Fort  of  Bombay.  The  caves 
are  called  Lenen  (Lend)  by  the  na- 
tives, a  word  used  throughout  India 
and  Ceylon  for  these  excavations,  most 
probably  on  account  of  the  first  of 
them  being  intended  for  hermitages 
of  Buddhist  ascetics.  The  walk  to  the 
caves  is  first  of  all  over  a  slippery  pier 
formed  of  blocks  of  concrete,  which 
rise  about  5  ft.  from  the  water  and 
have  an  interval  of  some  6  or  8  inches 
between  every  two.  The  total  dis- 
tance to  the  caves  is  about  a  J  of  a  m. 
After  passing  the  pier  the  ascent  is  by 
flights  of  steps,  118  in  all,  with  plat- 
forms or  standing-places  between  each 
flight  and  the  next.  The  island  is  co- 
vered with  low  corinda  bushes.  It 
consists  of  two  long  hills,  with  a  narrow 
valley  between  them.  The  usual  land- 
ing-place "was  formerly  towards  the 
S.W.,  where  the  valley  is  broadest.  It 
is  now  on  the  N.W.  About  250  yards 
to  the  right  of  the  landing-place,  on 
the  rise  of  one  of  the  hills,  and  not  far 
from  the  ruins  of  the  Portuguese  build- 
ing, was  a  mass  of  rock,  which  was 
cut  into  the  shape  of  an  elephant  of  the 
following  dimensions,  which  we  give 
as  a  specimen  of  native  knowledge  of 
proportion  at  the  remote  age  when  the 
figure  was  sculptured,  which  was  pro- 
bably the  10th  century  : — 

rr.  IN. 
Length  from  the  forehead  to  the  root 

of  the  tail 13    2 

Height  at  head 7    4 

Whole  circumference  at  shoulders  .  35  6 
Ditto  round  four  legs  .  .  .  .  32  0 
Breadth  of  back  across  rump  .  .80 
Girth  of  body  about  the  middle  .  .  20  2 
Height  of  left  hind  foot        .       .       .56 


Sect.  II. 


Eleplumta» 


U5 


FT.  IN. 

Circamference  of  right  fore  foot      .    .    6    7| 
„  „  hind  foot  .       .63 

Circiunference  of  left  hind  foot       ..77 
„  ,,  forefoot     .       .73 

Height  of  stone  support  to   sustain 

belly 2    2 

Length  of  tail 7    9 

Circumference  of  tail  .  .  .  .  2  10 
From  top  of  brow  to  curve  of  trunk  .  6  3 
Length  of  trunk  flrom  between  tusks  .    7  10 

Right  tusk 0  11 

Left  ditto 0    6 

Pyke  in  1712,  and  Anquetil  in  1760, 
represented  the  elephant  as  having 
another  smaller  one  on  its  back.  In 
1764,  Niebuhr  reported  that  there  were 
the  remains  of  something  on  the  back, 
but  that  it  was  impossible  to  distin- 
guish what  it  was.  Basil  Hall,  how- 
ever, conjectured,  and  no  doubt  cor- 
rectly, that  the  smaller  animal  was  a 
tiger.  Mr.  Erskine  {Transactiong  of 
tins  Bombay  Literary  Society,  vol.  i.) 
gives  the  following  dimensions :  length, 
4  ft.  7  in. ;  distance  of  two  hind  paws, 
3  ft.  6  in.  ;  breadth  of  body,  1  ft.  2  in. 
In  September,  1814,  the  head  and  neck 
of  the  elephant  dropped  off,  and  the 
body,  which  had  a  huge  crack  down 
the  back,  sank  down,  and  threatened 
to  fall.  In  1864  the  then  shapeless 
mass  of  stones  was  removed  to  the 
Victoria  Gardens  in  Bombay. 

Advancing  up  the  valley,  which 
grows  more  and  more  narrow,-  at  a 
place  where  the  two  hUls  approach  'so 
close  as  to  leave  only  a  steep  gulley 
between  them,  is  the  spot  where  Fryer, 
ill  1673,  found  a  stone  horse,  which 
had  sunk  into  the  earth  up  to  the  belly. 
It  still  remained  in  1712,  but  disap- 
peared in  1784.  There  is,  however, 
now  a  staircase  leading  directly  to  the 
excavations  from  the  W.  The  follow- 
ing description  is  extracted  chiefly 
from  Mr.  Erskine's  paper  in  the  TranS' 
actions  of  tlie  Bombay  Literary  Society 
above  alluded  to  : — 

"  Ascending  the  narrow  path  where 
the  two  hills  are  knit  together,  we  at 
length  come  to  a  beautiful  and  rich 
prospect  of  the  northern  part  of  the 
island,  of  the  sea,  and  the  opposite 
shores  of  3alsette.  Advancing  forward, 
and  keeping  to  the  left  along  the  bend 
of  the  hill,  we  gradually  mount  to  an 
open  space,  and  come  suddenly  on  the 

[5o7»5ay— 1880.1 


grand  entrance  of  a  magnificent  temple, 
whose  huge  massy  columns  seem  to 
give  support  to  the  whole  mountain 
which  rises  above  it. 

The  time  when  these  caves  were  e:^- 
cavated  can  only  yet  be  guessed  at, 
but  it  is  supposed  that  it  must  have 
been  some  time  between  the  eighth  and 
twelfth  centuries  of  the  Christian  era. 
The  main  reason  for  this  supposition 
is,  that  from  inscriptions  and  tablets 
found  in  various  parts  of  Southern 
India,  and  architectural  structures 
whose  age  is  known,  it  seems  that  the 
religious  system  to  which  the  carved 
images  and  architectural  embellish- 
ments belong,  had  not  gained  much 
currency  before  the  first  mentioned  of 
those  eras ;  and,  owing  to  their  conflicts 
with  the  Mul;^ammadans,  the  Hindii 
Bdjds,  it  is  surmised,  would  not  be 
able  to  give  attention  to  such  works 
after  the  last  mentioned  period.  The 
rock,  also,  out  of  which  tne  caves  are 
excavated,  being  full  of  rents,  the 
water  penetrates  through  it,  and  de- 
taches piece  after  piece  from  the  figures, 
so  as  to  threaten  to  destroy  them  one 
day  altogether.  This  process,  then,  it 
is  conjectured,  if  the  caves  had  been  of 
very  ancient  date,  would  by  this  time 
have  occasioned  a  greater  degree  of 
damage  than  we  find  has  actually  taken 
place.  This  damage,  since  the  caves 
were  first  described  by  Niebuhr,  has 
been  very  considerable,  and  several 
Europeans  in  Bombay  can  testify  that 
even  during  the  last  quarter  of  a  cen- 
tuiy  it  has  been  by  no  means  imma- 
terial. 

The  entrance  into  the  temple,  which 
is  entirely  hewn  out  of  a  stone  resem- 
bling porphyry,  is  by  a  spacious  front 
supported  by  two  massy  pillars  and  two 
pilasters  forming  three  openings,  under 
a  thick  and  steep  rock  overhung  by 
brushwood  and  wild  shrubs.  The  whole 
excavation  consists  of  three  principal 
parts  :  the  great  temple  itself,  which  is 
in  the  centre,  and  two  smaller  chapels, 
one  on  each  side  of  the  great  temple. 
These  two  chapels  do  not  come  forward 
into  a  straight  line  with  the  front  of 
the  chief  temple,  are  not  perceived  on 
approaching  the  temple,  and  are  con- 
siderably in  recess,  being  approached 


146 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  Ik 


by  two  narrow  passes  in  the  hill,  one 
on  each  side  of  the  grand  entrance, 
■bat  at  some  distance  from  it.  After 
advancing  to  some  distance  up  these 
confined  passes,  we  find  each  of  them 
conduct  to  another  front  of  the  grand 
excavation,  exactly  like  the  principal 
front  which  is  first  seen,  all  the  three 
fronts  being  hollowed  out  of  the  solid 
rock,  and  each  consisting  of  two  huge 
pillars  with  two  pilasters.  The  two 
side  fronts  are  precisely  opposite  to 
each  other  on  the  E.  and  W.,  the 
grand  entrance  facing  the  X.  The 
two  wings  of  the  temple  are  at  the 
upper  end  of  these  passages,  and  are 
close  by  the  grand  excavation,  but 
have  no  covered  passage  to  connect 
them  with  it. 

The  left  side  of  the  cave,  that  is  the 
side  on  which  the  square  temple  is 
situated, is  130  ft.  Sin.  in  length,  while 
the  right  side  is  only  128  ft.  J  in.  Va- 
rieties of  this  kind  are  observable  in 
every  other  part ; — ^some  of  the  pillars 
are  situated  from  each  other  at  a  dis- 
tance only  of  12  ft.  10 in.,  others  are 
separated  by  16  ft.  4^  in. ;  some  of  them 
are  at  15  ft.  3  in.,  others  at  13  ft.  2  in., 
others  at  14  ft.  3  in.  from  each  other, 
and  so  on  ;  nor  is  the  size  of  the  pillars 
themselves  less  various  ;  the  side  of  the 
pedestals  being  some  of  them  3  ft.  3  in. ; 
others  3  ft.  4  in.,  others  3  ft.  5  in.,  and 
others  3  ft.  6  in. 

The  great  temple  is  about  130)  feet 
long,  measuring  from  the  chief  en- 
trance to  the  furthest  end  of  the  cave, 
and  130  ft.  broad  from  the  eastern  to 
the  western  entrance.  It  rests  on  26 
pillars  (eight  of  them  now  broken) 
and  16  pilasters  ;  and  neither  the  floor 
nor  the  roof  being  in  one  plane,  it 
varies  in  height  from  17J  to  15  ft. 
The  plan  is  regfular,  there  being  eight 
.pillars  and  pilasters  in  a  line  from 
the  N.  entrance  to  the  S.  extreme  of 
the  temple,  and  the  same  number 
from  the  E.  to  the  W.  entrances.  The 
only  striking  deviation  from  this 
regularity  in  the  chief  temple,  is  the 
small  square  excavation,  that  is  seen 
as  we  go  up  the  temple  on  the 
right :  it  occupies  the  place  of  four 
pillars  and  of  the  intermediate  space 
inclosed  between  them,  as  if  a  veil 


had  been  drawn  around  them,  and 
the  spot  so  enclosed  divided  from  the 
rest  of  the  temple.  At  the  furthest 
extremity  there  are  two  small  exca- 
vations facing  each  other,  the  one  on 
the  r.  the  other  on  the  L  ;  their  use 
is  not  well  ascertained :  they  were 
probably  employed  for  keeping  the 
holy  utensils  and  offerings.  The  exca- 
vation presents  to  the  .eye  the  ap- 
pearance of  perfect  regularity,  which 
it  is  not  found  to  possess  when  accu- 
rately examined.  The  pillars,  which 
all  appear  to  run  in  straight  lines 
parallel  to  each  other,  and  at  equal 
distances,  are  crossed  by  other  ranges 
running  at  right  angles  in  the  oppo- 
site direction ;  they  are  strong  and 
massive,  of  an  order  remarkablv  well 
adapted  to  their  situation  and  the  pur- 
pose wliich  they  are  to  serve,  and  liave 
an  appearance  of  very  considerable 
elegance.  They  are  not  all  of  the  same 
form,  but  differ  both  in  their  size  and 
ornaments,  though  this  difference  also 
does  not  at  first  strike  the  eye.  They 
rise  to  upwards  of  half  their  height 
from  a  square  pedestal,  generally 
about  3  feet  5  each  way,  crowned 
on  the  top  by  a  broad  bandage  of  the 
same  shape :  above  this,  but  divided 
from  it  by  a  circular  astragal  and  two 
polygonic  fillets,  rises  a  short  round 
fluted  shaft,  forming  about  a  fourth  of 
the  column  and  diminishing  with  a 
curve  towards  the  top,  where  a  circular 
cincture  of  beads  binds  round  it  a  fillet 
composed  of  an  ornament  resembling 
leaves,  or  rather  cusps,  the  lower  ex- 
tremity of  which  appears  below  the 
cincture,  while  the  superior  extremity 
rises  above,  projecting  and  terminating 
gracefully  in  a  circle  of  over-hanging 
leaves  or  cusps.  A  narrow  band  divides 
this  ornament  from  the  round  fluted 
compressed  cushion,  which  may  be  re- 
garded as  the  capital  of  the  column, 
and  as  giving  it  its  character  :  its  fluted 
form  coalesces  beautifully  with  the 
fluted  shaft  below.  This  cushion  has 
its  circumference  bound  by  a  thin  flat 
band  or  fillet,  as  if  to  retain  it ;  and 
above  supports  a  square  plinth,  on 
which  rests  the  architrave  that  slopes 
away  on  each  side  in  scrolls  connected 
by  a  band  or  riband,  till  it  meets  the 


Sect.  II. 


JElephanta, 


147 


large  transverse  beam  of  rock  which 
connects  the  range  of  pillars. 

77ie  TJ/nga  Chapel, — ^The  great  cave 
at  Elephanta  is  what  the  Hindiis 
call  a  Shiva  Linga  Temple,  a  class 
of  sacred  buildings  very  common  in 
S.  and  Central  India.  Many  of  the 
Brahmans  in  Bombay  will  not  ac- 
knowledge its  claim  to  this  honour, 
and  the  place  is  now  nearly  desei-ted. 
They,  with  other  natives,  maintain  that 
this  and  all  the  rest  of  the  excava- 
tions around  are  the  works  of  the  sons 
of  Pdndu,  who  constructed  them  while 
wandering  about  the  country  in  banish- 
ment from  their  native  land.  They  ima- 
gine these  excavations  are  works  far 
too  mighty  for  the  degenerate  mortals 
of  our  day.  The  reason  why  this  temple 
lias  been  deserted  may  have  been  the 
nnhealthiness  of  the  island,  which, 
during  certain  seasons  of  the  year, 
is  very  prolific  of  ague  ;  or  perhaps 
the  first  Europeans  may  have  dese- 
crated the  images,  and  led  the  Hindtis 
to  abandon  them.  Although  the  cur- 
rent tradition  that  the  Portuguese  fired 
into  the  cave  from  the  offing,  and 
hauled  guns  up  the  hill  to  its  mouth 
to  destroy  the  idols,  is  absurd,  and 
could  never,  even  if  true,  account  for 
the  actual  damage  done,  as  every  visitor 
may  easily  satisfy  himself ;  still  it  is 
not  improbable  that  they  desecrated 
the  place,  and  that  hence  arose  those 
popular  stories.  The  great  cave  is 
nevertheless  still  visited  by  Hindiis, 
especially  of  the  Banyan  caste,  on  the 
p:reat  festivals  of  Shiva,  and  the  great 
Ling  is  worshipped  on  these  occasions 
by  crowds  of  devotees. 

After  entering  the  great  cave  from 
the  usual  entrance  on  the  N.,  the 
popular  object  of  worship,  which  more 
particularly  attracts  the  devotees 
above  mentioned,  is  seen  about  half- way 
up  on  the  r.,  or  towards  theW.  of  the 
cave.  It  is  a  conical  stone  2  ft.  10  in 
diameter,  called  the  Ijiiig,  and  is  en- 
closed in  a  chapel  19^  ft.  square, 
with  four  doorn,  facing  the  four 
principal  directions.  The  Ling  is  in- 
tended to  represent  Shiva  in  his  cha- 
racter of  the  prolific  power  of  nature. 
Around  this  chapel  on  the  outside  are 
a  number  of  la^e  figures,  representing 


door-keepers,  who  arc  supposed  to  be 
high  caste  Hindiis.  They  lean  on 
dwarfs,  intended  for  low  caste  men, 
but  called  by  the  Hindiis  pishich, 
or  demons.  This  Ling,  then,  is  the 
principal  object  of  popular  worship. 
All  the  other  figures  in  this  exca- 
vated temple  are  to  be  considered 
merely  as  subsidiary  to  this,  and  might 
rather  be  compared  to  our  historical 
frescoes  in  Europe  than  to  anything 
else.  At  most  they  can  but  be  con- 
sidered analogous  to  the  pictures  in 
churches  in  S.  Europe,  additional  to 
the  altar-piece,  which  receive  a  degree 
of  homage  far  inferior  to  that  reserved 
for  the  patron  saint. 

Three-faced  Bmt,  or  TrimurtL — The 
chief  of  the  mural  figures  is  the  im- 
mense three-faced  bust,-19  ft.  in  height, 
which  faces  the  northern  entrance. 
It  is  the  representation  of  Shiva  in 
his  three-fold  character  of  Brahmd, 
Vishnu,  and  Rudra.  The  Hindti  notion 
of  the  deity  is,  that  God  is  essentially 
one,  but  that,  when  the  time  for  the 
renewal  of  the  world  arrives,  he  causes 
to  emanate  from  his  essence  three 
impersonations  of  the  divinity,  one 
who  creates,  a  second  who  preserves, 
and  a  third  who  destroys.  The 
three-feced  figure,  then,  called  by 
the  Hindiis  a  Trimurti,  is  intended  to 
represent  these  three  gods,  who  eman- 
ate from  the  one  divinity,  and  still 
continue  united  in  him.  According 
to  the  system  of  Hindiiism  followed 
in  these  sculptures,  the  eternal  divin- 
ity is  Shiva,  in  another  system  it  is 
Vishnu,  and  in  a  third  the  principal 
goddess  of  the  Hindiis.  Shiva  is  some- 
times represented  with  five  faces,  and 
it  has  been  surmised  that  this  three- 
faced  bust  is  intended  to  represent 
him  in  that  form,  one  of  the  heads 
being  hid  behind,  and  another  above ; 
but  in  those  figures  part  of  all  the  five 
faces  are  visible,  four  arranged  round 
the  head,  and  one  peeping  out  from 
the  crown  before  the  knot  of  twisted 
hair.  In  the  other  figures,  especially 
that  of  Brahmd,  as  carved  in  these 
caves,  a  portion  of  all  the  faces  any 
being  is  supposed  to  have  are  always 
represented.  We  do  not,  then  need 
to  go  to  the  Greek  and  Boman  repre- 

l2 


148 


B<ynd)ay  City, 


Sect.  11. 


sentations  of  the  three-faced  Hecate 
as  preserved  in  ancient  sculptures, 
for  an  illustration  of  the  theory  for 
which  we  contend,  when  we  find  it 
universally  adopted  by  Hindii  artists, 
and  even  in  these  very  caves.  The  bust, 
then,  represents  a  three-faced  god. 

The  central  face — ^the  one  tiiat  im- 
mediately fronts  the  spectator  in  this 
triple  bust — ^is  intended  for  Shiva  in 
the  character  of  Brahmd,  the  Creator. 
Brahm^,  again,  is,  perhaps,  the  imper- 
sonation of  the  Brdhman  caste, — the 
originator  of  the  sacred  rites  of  the 
Hindi^  Eemark  the  jewel  on  the 
breast,  which  is  one  of  the  finest  speci- 
mens of  Hindii  taste  extant.  He  is  re- 
presented as  an  ascetic  Brdhman,  with 
his  characteristic  gourd  in  one  hand, 
to  serve  for  a  drinking  vessel.  The 
face  to  the  spectator's  right,  and  to  the 
-left  of  the  bust,  is  Shiva  in  the  form 
of  Vi§hnu  the  Preserver  ;  he  has  here 
his  uid^ailing  mark,  a  full-blown  lotus, 
in  his  right  hand.  To  the  right  of  the 
bust,  again,  or  to  the  spectator's  left, 
Shiva  appears  as  Budra,  t.^.,  the  De- 
stroyer, which  is  generally  considered 
to  be  his  proper  character.  He  is 
smiling  on  a  cobra  capeUa-,  which  is 
twisted  round  his  arm,  and  with  ex- 
panded hood  looking  him  full  in  the 
face.  A  swelling  on  his  forehead  is 
liis  third  eye,  from  which  is  to  burst 
the  flame  that  will  consume  at  last 
the  world.  Among  the  ornaments  of 
his  cap  are  a  skull,  a  leaf  of  the 
nirgvdi,  and  a  branch  of  the  hilva 
tree,  all  peculiar  characteristics  of  this 
god.  The  figures  at  the  portals,  1 3  ft.  6 
and  12  ft.  9  high,  are  Hind^  door- 
keepers, and  they  lean,  as  before,  on 
dwar&,  called  by  the  natives  pish^ch,  or 
demons,  probably  caricaturesof  the  rude 
aborigines  or  hill  tribes  of  the  country. 

ArddhandrUh/rtar,  or  Half  Male  Half 
Female  Divinity, —  In  the  first  com- 
partment to  the  right  of  the  central 
figure,  or  to  the  spectator's  left,  there  is 
an  exhibition  of  Shiva  16  ft.  9  high  in 
his  character  of  Arddhan^rishwar .  The 
right  half  of  the  figure  is  intended  to  be 
that  of  a  male,  and  the  left  that  of  a 
female,  and  thus  to  represent  Shiva  as 
uniting  the  two  sexes  in  his  one  per- 
son.   The  first  European  visitors  sup^ 


posed  this  figure  to  be  intended  for  an 
Amazon,  trajosferring  the  traditions  of 
Greece  to  India.  No  such  being  is 
known,  however,  to  Indian  mythology, 
while  such  a  manifestation  of  Shiva  as 
we  have  mentioned  is  described  in  the 
Purdnas.  The  buU  on  which  two  of 
the  hands  of  the  figure  lean,  and  on 
which  it  is  supposed  to  ride,  is  called 
Nandi,  a  constant  attendant  on  Shiva. 
Brahmd,  on  his  lotus  throne,  supported 
by  five  swans,  and  with  his  four  faces, 
is  exhibited  on  the  right  of  the  figure. 
He  has  a  portion  of  all  these  faces 
visible.  On  the  left,  Vishnu  is  seen 
riding  on  what  is  now  a  headless 
Garuda,  a  fabulous  creature,  half  man 
half  eagle.  Above  and  in  the  back- 
ground are  found  a  number  of  inferior 
gods  and  sages  of  the  Hindi!is.  Indra, 
king  of  the  old  gods — ^tfaose  worshipped 
in  ancient  times  —  appears  mounted 
on  an  elephant. 

Shiva  and  Parvati. — In  the  com- 
partment next  on  the  left  of  the  Ttn- 
murti  are  two  gigantic  figures  of  Shiva 
and  PArvati,  the  former  16  ft.  high, 
the  latter  12  ft.  4  in.  Shiva  has  a 
very  carious  cap,  on  which  the  crescent 
and  other  ornaments  are  sculptured, 
and  from  the  top  of  which  issues  some- 
thing which  looks  like  a  foam-crested 
wave,  from  which  arise  three  female 
heads,  to  represent  the  Gang4  Proper, 
the  YamunA,  and  Saraswatf,  which 
three  streams  unite  at  Praydg,  or 
A114hAbAd,  and  form  the  Ganges. 
According  to  a  well-known  Hindii 
legend,  the  Ganges  flowed  from  the 
head  of  Shiva.  The  god  is  standing, 
and  has  four  arms,  of  which  the  outer 
left  rests  on  a  pishdchah,  who  seems 
to  bend  under  the  weight.  Niebuhr 
mistook  the  twisted  hair  of  this  dwarf 
for  a  turban,  whereas,  as  is  worthy  of 
remark,  there  is  no  such  head-dress  on 
any  figure  at  Elephanta,  and  it  is 
altogether  ignored  in  ancient  Hindii 
books.  In  the  dwarfs  right  hand  is  a 
cobra,  in  his  left  a  clmuiiri;  from  his 
neck  hangs  a  necklace,  the  ornament 
of  which  is  a  tortoise.  On  Shiva's 
right  are  several  attendants,  and  above 
them  Brahmd,  sculptured  much  as  in 
the  compartment  on  the  right  of  the 
Trimurti.  Between  BrahmA  and  Shiva 


Sect.  II. 


EUphanta. 


149 


is  Indra  on  his  elephant  Airdvatah, 
which  appears  to  be  kneeling.  Pik- 
vati  leans  slightly  from  left  to  right, 
towards  Shiva,  and  is  represented  with 
very  full  breasts.  Her  left  hand  rests 
on  a  female  jmM^7Wf,  above  whom  is 
Vishnu  on  Gamda,  with  the  sectarial 
mark  and  a  snake  tied  like  a  neck- 
cloth. Above  is  a  group  of  six  figures, 
two  of  which  are  females. 

Marriage  of  Shiva  and  Pdrvati. — 
Proceeding  still  to  the  left  of  the  5H- 
murti,  and  in  a  westerly  direction,  the 
visitor  comes  to  the  compartment  re- 
presenting Bhiva's  marriage,  as  Pyke 
and  Moor  were  the  first  to  discover. 
Mr.  Erskine,  however,  in  mentioning 
iheir  conjecture,  adds,  '^  though,  from 
the  most  careful  inspection  of  the 
sculpture,  I  can  perceive  nothing  to 
favour  the  supposition."  This  remark 
from  so  learned  an  Orientalist,  is  the 
more  singular,  as  the  position  of  P^- 
vatt  on  the  right  of  Shiva  would  alone 
go  far  to  prove  it  to  be  the  delineation 
of  her  bridal ;  it  being  well  known 
that  to  stand  on  the  right  of  her 
husband,  and  to  eat  with  him  are 
privileges  vouchsafed  to  a  Hindii  wife 
only  on  her  wedding-day.  In  the 
comer,  at  the  right  of  P^vati,  is 
Brahmd,  known  by  his  four  faces, 
sitting  and  reading  the  sacred  texts 
suited  to  the  occasion.  Above,  on 
Shiva's  left,  is  Vishnu.  Among  the 
attendants  on  the  right  of  Pirvatl  is 
one  bearing  a  vessel,  supposed  to  be 
filled  with  sugar-plums,  as  is  the  cus- 
tom still  in  Bombay  on  such  occasions. 
Behind  the  goddess  is  a  priest,  who  is 
pushing  her  forward  to  overcome  her 
bashfulness. 

Birth  of  Oanesliah,  Shiva's  eldest 
son, — In  the  corresponding  compart- 
ment, to  the  east  and  right  of  the 
Trimurti,  Shiva  and  Pdrvati  are  seated 
together,  with  groups  of  male  and 
female  inferior  divinities  showering 
down  flowers  from  above,  the  rock 
being  cut  into  various  shapes  to  repre- 
sent the  clouds  of  Kailds,  Shiva's 
heaven.  At  Shiva's  feet  is  the  skeleton 
figure  of  Bhringi,  one  of  his  favourites ; 
and  behind  Pdrvati  is  a  female  with  a 
child  a-straddle  on  her  left  hip.  This 
child,  according  to  Sterenson^  is  Yin^- 


yaka,  or  Ganesh,  though  Erskine  su]^- 
poses  it  to  be  Ei^rtikej^.  Beneath  is 
Nandi  and  the  tiger  on  which  Pdr- 
vati rides,  with  Apishdcluih  lifting  up 
its  leg.  Two  skeleton  Ri^his,  the  one 
on  the  left  holding  a  basket,  may  be 
remarked  in  the  clouds. 

Mdvanah  attempting  to  remove  Xai^ 
Ids. — ^The  visitor  must  now  face  com- 
pletely round,  and  look  to  the  N. 
instead  of  the  S.,  and,  advancing  a 
few  paces,  he  wiU  come  in  front  of  the 
sixth  compartment,  which  is  to  the 
right  of  the  eastern  entrance.  Here 
Rdvan,  the  demon  king  of  Lankd,  or 
Ceylon,  is  attempting  to  remove  Kailds, 
the  heavenly  hill  of  Sliiva,  to  his  own 
kingdom,  in  order  that  he  may  have 
his  tutelary  deity  always  with  him,  for 
Bdvan  was  ever  a  worshipper  of  Shi- 
va. Rdvan  has  ten  heads  and  arms, 
and  is  with  his  back  to  the  spectator. 
Shiva  is  seen  in  Kailds,  with  Pdrvati 
on  his  right,  and  votaries  and  Rishis 
in  the  background.  On  the  left  of 
Shiva,  who  is  represented  with  eight 
arms,  his  third  eye,  and  the  crescent 
on  his  cap,  is  Vishnu  on  Garuda,  Ga- 
nesh,  and  Bh]*ingi,  and  in  the  recess  is 
the  VdJiana^  or  vehicle  of  Pdrvati,  a 
tiger  crouched  on  its  paws.  Two  of 
Shiva's  attendants,  on  opposite  sides 
of  the  compartment,  have  the  eye  on 
the  forehead,  and  one  has  a  death's 
head  on  his  cap,  "  for,"  says  the  Shiv- 
Gltd,  "he  who  worships  me  disinte- 
restedly, by  knowing  me  gains  my 
form."  The  legend  runs  that  Rdvan 
shook  Kailds  so  much,  that  Pdrvati 
was  alarmed,  whereupon  Shiva  pressed 
down  the  hiU  with  one  of  his  toes  on 
the  head  of  Rdvan,  who  remained  im- 
movable for  10,000  years,  till  his  grand- 
father, Pulasti,  the  son  of  Brahma, 
taught  him  how  to  propitiate  Shiva, 
and  thus  effected  his  release.  Rdvan 
afterwards  ever  remained  a  worshipper 
of  Shiva.  In  this  tale  is  depicted  the 
devotion  of  the  aboriginal  races  to  the 
worship  of  the  destroying  god. 

Dakfkd's  sacrifice  destroyed. — The 
visitor  must  now  cross  over  to  the  op- 
posite side,  passing  the  Linga  chapel, 
in  order  to  arrive  at  the  correspond- 
ing compartment  on  the  W.  to  that 
just  described    on  the  E,     Jlere  ie 


150 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


represented  the  sacrifice  of  Dak^ha,  a 
legend  very  famous  in  Hindii  mytho- 
logy, which  is  twice  depicted  at  Eliira, 
and  more  than  once  at  the  Amboll 
caves  in  Salsette.  Daik^ha,  a  son  of 
Brahmd,  bom  from  the  thumb  of  his 
right  hand  for  the  purpose  of  peopling 
the  world,  had  60  daughters,  of  whom 
27  are  the  nymphs  of  the  lunar  aster- 
isms.  Another  of  them,  named  Satl 
or  Duigd,  married  Shiva,  and  17  were 
maiTied  to  Kasyapa,  and  were  the 
mothers  of  all  created  beings.  On  one 
occasion,  Daksha  began  a  sacrifice  ac- 
cording to  the  ancient  Vaidik  ritual, 
and  as  the  gods  of  the  Vedas  alone 
were  invited,  Shiva  and  his  wife  were 
not  asked  to  attend.  Satl  went,  never- 
theless, unbid,  and  being  badly  re- 
ceived, threw  herself  into  the  fire, 
whereupon  Shiva  made  his  appear- 
ance in  his  most  terrific  form  as  Vim 
Bhadra,  which  manifestation  of  the 
god  here  forms  the  principal  figure  of 
the  tableau.  He  dispersed  the  gods 
and  other  attendants  of  the  sacrifice, 
and  seizing  Daksha  with  one  hand, 
decapitated  him  with  another,  while 
in  a  third  he  held  a  cup,  into  which 
spouted  the  blood.  The  head  was 
hacked  to  pieces ;  but  when  Shiva's 
wrath  was  appeased,  he  put  the  head 
of  a  ram  on  Daksha's  body,  thus  keep- 
ing him  ever  in  mind  of  the  power  of 
his  decapitator.  Vlra  Bhadra  has  here 
eight  arms,  three  of  which  are  occu- 
pied in  slaughtering  Daksha,  two  are 
stretched  up,  and  tlu^e  are  broken  off. 
The  face  of  the  god  is  distorted  with 
rage,  long  tusks  project  on  either  side 
of  his  mouth,  and  a  necklace  of  human 
heads  passes  over  his  left  shoulder  and 
thigh,  and  returns  by  his  right  thigh. 
On  the  right  of  V&a  Bhadra  is  an 
elephant,  around  are  the  gods  in  atti- 
tudes expressive  of  fear,  and  above  are 
ten  figures,  two  of  which  are  children. 
They  are  seated  in  devotion  round  a 
curious  bottle-shaped  figure,  which  is 
the  Lingam,  or  Phallus,  and  is  exactly 
over  the  head  of  Vlra  Bhadra.  On  it 
is  a  curious  character,  which  Erskine 
and  Stevenson  suppose  to  be  the  mys- 
tic 0-m^  a  monosyllable  which  contains 
letters  from  the  names  of  Mahddeo, 
Yishnn,  nn:l  Brahma.  T^e  whole  gro^p 


refers  to  the  contest  between  the  fol- 
lowers of  the  ancient  Hindil  ritual  and 
the  worshippers  of  Shiva,  which  latter 
prevailed. 

Bluiirava, — ^Advancing  to  the  en- 
trance of  the  cave,  and  still  on  the 
same  side,  the  visitor  comes  to  another 
compartment.  Here  Shiva  appears  in 
his  terrific  form  of  Bhairava,  which  he 
assumed  to  outdo  the  incarnation  of 
Vishnu  as  Narsinha,  the  man-lion. 
Above  is  a  very  perfect  Ganesh  ^vith 
elephant  head.  Bhairava  has  eight 
arms,  which  are  all  broken  but  one. 
Beneath  is  Bhfingi  with  his  skeleton 
form,  and  on  the  right  is  an  attendant 
with  the  crescent  on  his  cap,  and  a 
skull,  from  the  right  eye  of  which  a 
eohra  issues.  The  appearance  of  con- 
flict is  avoided,  perhaps  in  deference 
to  the  numerous  worshippers  of  Vishnu. 

Shiva  as  an  Anoetic, — If  the  visitor 
now  turns  and  advances  a  little,  he 
will  come  in  front  of  the  last  group, 
which  is  to  the  left  of  the  grand  en- 
trance. Here  Shiva  appears  as  a  Yogi, 
and  the  figure  so  much  resembles 
Buddha,  that  many  describers  of  the 
cave  before  Erskine  thought  it  to  be 
that  personage.  The  figure  has  the 
remains  of  two  arms,  which  appear  to 
have  rested  on  his  lap.  It  is  seated  on 
a  lotus,  the  stalk  of  which  is  supported 
by  two  figures  below.  The  Brdhmans 
detest  Buddhism,  so  it  is  hardly  pos- 
sible that  this  can  be  a  figure  of  the 
genuine  Buddh;  but  perhaps  it  is 
Shiva  under  the  form  of  Buddh,  for 
there  appears  to  have  been  some  at- 
tempt to  reconcile  the  two  religions. 
At  the  two  wings  of  the  Eltira  Caves 
are  Buddhistic  excavations,  a  fact 
which  favors  the  supposition  of  an  at- 
tempt to  unite  the  creeds. 

So,  too,  Vishnu  is  said  to  have  be- 
come incarnate  in  Buddh,  to  deceive 
mankind.  Brahmd  is  seen  on  the  right 
of  the  principal  figure,  and  Vishnu,  on 
Garuda,  on  the  left.  There  is  also  a 
figure  riding  on  an  animal,  which 
Erskine  conjectures  to  be  a  horse.  It 
has  lost  the  head,  but  has  a  saddle, 
saddle  cloth,  and  girth,  like  those  used 
in  Europe.  If  it  be  a  horse,  it  is 
unique  in  these  sculptures. 

SuppUinentartj  Mvca^athm, — Oppo  ^ 


Sect  11. 


ElepJiaiUa, 


151 


site  the  Xing  chapel  first  described 
m  the  face  of  the  hill  to  the  W., 
is  a  small  excavation  dedicated  to 
Ganeshy  who  is  seate<l  at  the  S.  ex- 
tremity with  a  company  of  Shiva's 
attendants.  At  the  £.  opening  is 
a  stair  with  a  few  steps,  on  either 
side  of  which  is  a  sculptured  lion, 
leading  to  a  small  Ling  chapel,  in 
which  are  no  figures.  Round  the  hill, 
a  little  to  the  S.,  are  two  other  ex- 
cavations fronting  the  £.  These  are 
also  Ling  chapels,  with  DwdrpdU 
sculptured  outside.  On  a  hill  opposite 
to  the  Great  Cave,  an  excavation  has 
been  commenced,  but  without  much 
progress  having  been  made.  Diogo 
de  Couto,  the  Portuguese  annalist,  in 
his  8th  Decade,  Book  iii.,  chap,  xi., 
mentions  that  "a  famous  stone  over 
the  gate  (of  the  Pagoda,  as  he  calls 
the  cave  of  Elephanta),  which  had  an 
inscription  of  large  and  well- written 
characters,  was  sent  to  the  King  D. 
John  IIL,"  and  that  it  was  lost  in 
Portugal.  He  also  asserts  that,  in 
another  hill  towards  the  E.  of  the 
great  Pagoda,  there  was  another  Pa- 
goda, which  had  "  a  marble  porch  very 
curiously  executed,"  as  also  another  in 
the  same  hill  as  the  great  Pagoda, 
**  about  two  stone  throws  to  the  E.," 
*•  the  most  stupendous  work  of  its 
size."  He  adds,  that  these  Pagodas 
were  constructed  by  a  King  of  Ka- 
iiada,  named  Bandsur,  and  that  the 
Portuguese  soldiers  did  all  in  their 
power  to  destroy  them. 

Dr.  Wilson  traces  a  resemblance  be- 
tween some  of  the  compartments  at 
Elephanta  and  those  at  Elilira,  particu- 
lai'ly  in  that  which  represents  the 
marriage  of  Shiva  and  Pdrvati,  and 
considers  the  Elephanta  cave  as  of 
later  construction  than  that  at  Eliira. 
He  adds  that  the  image  of  Devi,  in 
the  form  of  a  tiger,  on  the  hill  above 
the  caves,  which  is  called  Unid-  Wdgesh' 
fearif  is  mentioned  in  the  29th  chap, 
of  the  1st  sec.  of  the  Sahyddrl  Khwiid 
of  tlie  Skanda  Purdna,  In  1851,  a 
subscription  of  2000  Rs.  having  been 
raised  at  Bombay,  the  earth  was  cleared 
from  the  front  of  the  N.  aisle,  when 
two  remarkably  well-executed  leogrififa 
of  porphyritic  basalt  were  discovered. 


Their  counterpart  may  be  seen  in  the 
*'  DhiimAr  or  Dumar  Ijend  "  at  Eliira, 
and  the  reddish  basalt  of  which  they 
are  formed  is  not  found  at  Elephanta, 
but  is  of  the  same  material  as  that  of 
which  the  temple  of  Ahalyi  B41,  at 
the  village  of  Eliira,  has  been  built. 
In  a  notice  of  these  caves  one  is  natu- 
rally reminded  of  Goethe's  lines  :— 

Auch  diese  will  ich  nicht  verschonen. 
Die  tollen  Hdhlexcavationen, 
DaB  dUiitere  Troglodytengewtlhl, 
Mit  Schnauz'  und  Rttsael  ein  albem  Spiel 
Verriickte  Zierath  brauerei, 
Es  ist  eine  saubere  Baaerei. 
Nehme  sie  Nleiuand  zum  Exempel, 
Die  Elephanten— und  Fratzen— Terapel ! 
Mit  heifigen  Gi-illen  trieben  sie  Spott, 
Man  fUhlt  weder  Natur  noch  Gott — 
In  Indien  niocht  'ich  aelber  leben, 
Hiitt'  es  nur  keine  Steinlmuer  gegeben. 

Mr.  Burgess'  account,  which  is  the 
best,  was  published  in  Bombay,  1871. 
There  are  5  caves  in  another  part  of 
the  island,  but  the  great  cave  alone  is 
much  visited.  It  is  in  the  W.  hill, 
250  ft.  above  high  water  level.  It  is 
hewn  out  of  a  hard  compact  trap  rock, 
which  has  also  been  cut  away  on  either 
side,  affording  entrances  from  the  E. 
and  W.  It  bears  a  strong  resemblance 
in  size,  plan,  and  detail  to  the  Dhii- 
mar  Len4  at  Elilira.  The  entrance 
faces  the  N.,  and  over  it  is  a  mass  of 
rock  overhung  by  trees  and  shrubs. 
The  view  from  the  front  of  the  caves, 
says  Mr.  Burgess,  is  one  of  exceeding 
beauty.  "Any  true  lover  of  Nature 
will  feel  himself  amply  rewarded  for 
his  trouble  by  the  magnificent  views 
to  be  here  enjoyed."  From  the  front 
entrance  to  the  back  the  cave  measures 
130  ft.,  and  its  length  from  E.  to  W. 
is  the  same.  The  portions  on  the  3 
open  sides  are  54  ft.  long  and  16^  ft. 
deep ;  omitting  these  and  the  back 
aisle,  the  body  of  the  cave  is  a  square 
of  91  ft.,  supported  by  6  rows  of 
columns  with  6  columns  in  a  row.  The 
columns  are  very  massive,  and  were 
26  in  number,  with  16  half  columns ; 
but  8  of  the  separate  pillars  have 
perished,  and  others  are  much  injured. 
Neither  the  floor  nor  the  roof  is  quite 
level,  so  the  columns  vary  from  7  ft, 
to  15  ft.  in  height.  The  principal  ar- 
chitectural feature  of  the  caves  is 
the  pillars,    Mr.  Burgess  has  given  a 


152 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  II. 


drawlDg  of  one  of  the  columns,  and 
thus  describes  it : — "  First,  a  square 
shaft,  about  3  ft.  4  in.  each  way,  rising 
to  nearly  half  the  total  height  or  8  ft., 
the  upper  16  inches  of  which  is  bound 
about,  as  it  were,  by  a  band  of  very 
slight  projection;  the  next  2  inches 
is  octagonal,  and  on  the  shoulders  thus 
formed,  on  all  the  columns  within  the 
square  of  the  temple,  and  on  those 
.of  the  W.  porch,  mt  male  figures  of 
Qat}esha  or  some  other  d^a.  Above 
this  7  in.  have  shallow  flutes,  32  in. 
in  the  circumference,  and  the  next  6  in. 
in  height  is  octagonal.  From  this 
springs  the  fluted  neck  of  the  column, 
3  ft.  in  length,  and  diminishing  from 
3  ft.  1  in.  to  2  ft.  9  in.,  the  flutes  end- 
ing in  projecting  cusps  under  a  thin 
beaded  torus,  and  over  this  a  second 
line  of  cusps  project  and  curve  out- 
wards under  a  thin  fillet.  On  this 
again  rests  the  compressed  cushion- 
shaped  capital,  1  ft.  9^  in.  thick,  and 
projecting  about  16  in.  beyond  the 
face  of  the  pillar ;  the  middle  of  this 
capital  is  bound  by  a  narrow  flat  band 
breaking  its  64  flutes.  Above  is  a 
circular  neck  3  in.  deep,  and  then  a 
square  plinth  of  the  same  width  as  the 
base,  and  about  8  in.  deep.  This  last 
and  the  abacus  or  bracket  it  supports 
are  plainly  enough  imitations  of  wooden 
details.  The  bracket  slopes  away  up- 
wards on  each  side  to  the  architrave 
in  a  series  of  fanciful  scrolls,  divided  or 
connected  by  aband  over  their  middle." 
(Bock  Temples  of  Elephanta,  p.  5.) 

Hydraulic  Dock, — From  Elephanta 
to  the  Hydraulic  Lift  Dock  at  Hog 
Island  is  IJ  m.  Hog  Island  is  in  re- 
ality joined  to  the  main  land  by 
swampy  ground.  Here  Captain  She- 
rard  Osborne  proposed  to  bring  the 
G.  I.  P.  Railway  from  Fund,  and  pas- 
sengers and  goods  were  to  be  landed 
in  Bombay  by  a  steam  ferry.  The 
object  was  to  save  the  circuit  by  Kal- 
y6ii.  There  is  deep  water,  about  8 
fathoms,  close  to  the  Dock.  Water  is 
forced  by  steam  power  into  the  hy- 
draulic pillars,  and  this  lifts  the  girder. 
There  are  36  pillars  and  72  lifts.  The 
pressure  on  a  cubic  inch  is  1  ton  3  cwt 
Altogether,  23,000  tons  can  be  lifted. 
There  are  sluices  in  the  pontoon  by 


which  the  water  is  let  out  rapidly. 
The  length  of  the  pontoon  is  380  ft., 
inside  measurement,  and  the  breadth 
86  ft.  The  pontoon  weighs  1600  tons. 
The  engine  is  of  ISO-horse  power.  The 
pipes  of  the  engine  are  covered  with 
Gilroy's  patent  coating,  which  is  a 
non-conductor.  The  Lift  Dock  was 
constructed  in  1868,  by  Mr.  Edwin 
Clark,  and  the  cost  was  £350,000,  and 
the  money  expended  has  been,  up  to 
the  present  time,  uselessly  thrown  away. 
Hence  to  Thdn^  is  16  m.,  and  the  trip 
may  be  made  by  water,  and  at  fuU 
moon  in  fine  weather  the  distance  can 
be  crossed  most  agreeably. 

Yih6,r  Lake  is  15  m.  from  Bombay, 
and  the  journey  can  be  made  in  a  car- 
riage, or  the  traveller  may  go  by  the 
G.  L  P.  Railway  to  Bhdndiip,  16f  m., 
leaving  Bombay  at  8.30  A.M.  and  reach- 
ing Bhdndi:ip  at  9.33  A.M.  At  Bh&ndilip 
he  must  take  care  to  have  a  pony 
ready,  and  he  can  canter  to  the  Lake 
in  J  an  hour.  He  will  turn  to  the 
right  after  leaving  Bhtodi!ip  at  a  sign- 
post, which  is  marked  3  m.  to  Paw^. 
This  Paw^  is  a  village  belonging  to  a 
P^lrsf ,  on  the  ground  around  which  are 
16,000  mango  trees,  which  bring  in 
from  \\  Rs.  to  2  Rs.  yearly.  The  estate 
however  has  been  the  subject  of  a  law- 
suit, and  is  in  much  disoixler ;  and  the 
jungle  is  very  thick  after  leaving  PAwe 
a  m.  or  so.  From  the  gateway  called 
the  Darwdzah  of  Paw^,  it  is  2  m.  to 
the  lake,  part  of  which  is  along  a  steep 
height,  and  in  one  place  is  a  chasm 
with  only  just  room  for  the  bullocks 
of  a  native  gd^i  to  pass.  On  reaching 
the  lake  you  cross  an  embankment 
800  ft.  long;  you  then  come  to  the 
outhouses  where  the  labourers  lodge ; 
and  beyond  that  is  a  curious  embank- 
ment about  200  ft.  long.  The  great 
embankment  is  30  ft.  broad  and  30  ft. 
above  the  water,  to  which  it  slopes 
down.  The  water  is  75  ft.  deep,  of 
which  50  ft.  are  available  for  the  sup- 
ply of  Bombay  and  25  ft.  are  kept  for 
settling f  that  is,  for  allowing  the  mud 
to  be  deposited.  Fish  are  numerous, 
particularly  singara  or  "cat-fish.** 
There  are  also  many  conger-eels,  which 
grow  to  8  or  9  ft.  long.  At  the  end 
of  the  embankment  there  is  a  notice 


Sect.  II. 


Montpezir  Caves. 


153 


that  after  March,  1875,  no  person  is  to 
enter  the  Municipal  bangli  without 
showing  a  permission  from  the  exe- 
cntive  engineer  of  the  municipality. 
The  lake  is  2f  m.  long  from  N.  to  S.,  and 
2 J  m.  broad  from  E.  to  W.  A  delicious 
cool  breeze  blows  over  the  lake  from 
the  N.  It  is  however  a  dreadful 
place  for  fever,  and  out  of  76  labourers 
all  but  10  died  in  a  few  months. 
There  are  many  teal  on  the  lake,  but 
it  is  very  difficult  to  get  within  shot  of 
them,  unless  it  be  in  the  very  early 
morning.  Tigers  are  scarce  now,  but 
many  have  been  killed  there.  One 
that  was  shot  by  Mr.  Robertson,  C.S., 
had  killed  16  persons.  The  lake  covers 
1400  acres,  and  was  made  by  Mr. 
Conybeare,  C.E.,  by  damming  up  the 
Garptir  river.  It  cost  £373,660,  and 
can  supply  eight  million  gallons  of 
water  a  day.  As  fears  had  been  en- 
tertained of  a  scarcity  of  water  should 
the  supply  of  rain  in  any  year  be  un- 
usually small,  it  was  determined  to 
clam  up  the  Tulsi  Lake  also,  which 
lies  to  the  N.  This  was  done  in  1872, 
at  a  cost  of  £40,000,  and  a  pipe  has  been 
carried  tlience  to  the  top  of  Malabar  HUl. 
Montpezir  Caret.  —  These  caves, 
properly  Mandapethwar,  are  so  near 
to  the  K&nhari  Caves  that  it  will 
be  well  to  take  them  in  the  morn- 
ing and  the  Kdnharl  Caves  in  the 
afternoon.  The  traveller  will  go  to 
the  Grant  Boad  Station  and  start  by 
the  7.16  AM.  train,  local  time,  for  Bor- 
wali  Station,  224  ^^  which  he  will 
reach  about  8.30  A.M.  He  will  be  care- 
ful to  write  beforehand  to  the  station- 
master  to  have  6  Kulls  ready  for  him 
to  carry  a  chair  resting  on  bambi!is,  in 
which  he  will  sit,  and  it  would  be 
better  to  have  1  Kuli  to  carry  his  tiffin- 
basket.  .  He  will  take  an  umbrella 
with  a  thickly  padded  white  cover,  as 
the  sun  is  very  hot  even  in  the  winter 
months.  If  he  would  prefer  to  ride, 
he  must  write  beforehand  to  the  sta- 
tion-master for  a  pony.  There  is  a 
good  clean  waiting-room  at  Borwall. 
After  leaving  the  station,  proceeding 
N.,  the  road  turns  off,  at  about  200 
yds.,  into  the  fields  to  the  left.  Deep 
ruts  make  it  rather  difficult  for  the 
bearers.    In  about  an  hour  he  will 


reach  a  ruined  Portuguese  church, 
which  is  roofless,  but  is  substantially 
built,  chiefly  of  stone.  The  nave  is 
100  ft.  long  from  the  portal  to  the 
steps  of  the  altar,  and  17  ft.  more  from 
the  steps  to  the  rock  against  which  the 
E.  side  is  built,  and  34  ft.  broad.  There 
are  no  aisles.  The  arch  in  front  of  the 
altar  is  now  30  ft.  high,  and  when  the 
roof  existed  must  have  been  about 
45  ft.  W.  of  the  church,  at  a  distance 
of  182  ft.,  is  a  cross,  inscribed  at  top 
with  I.  N.  R.  I.,  which  stands  for  Jesus 
Nazareus  Rex  Judeae.  Turning  round 
the  comer  of  the  church  to  the  N.E. 
and  descending  a  little,  you  come  to  3 
caves  hewn  out  of  the  rock,  which, 
judging  from  the  pillars,  may  be  of  the 
9th  century.  The  cave  on  the  E.  is 
57  ft.  8  in.  from  N.  to  S.,  and  18J  ft. 
from  E.  to  W.  There  is  no  carving  in- 
side, but  there  are  2  pillars  in  the 
f  a9ade  shaped  somewhat  like  the  Ionic. 
Adjoining  this  cave  to  the  W.  is  a  stone 
basin  for  water,  of  which  there  is  a 
good  supply,  said  never  to  fail,  and  this 
may  be  one  reason  why  the  Portuguese 
built  here.  The  cave  which  adjoins  is 
27  ft.  3  in.  from  E.  to  W.,  and  14  ft. 
9  in.  from  N.  to  S.  In  the  W.  wall  is 
a  group  of  figures  very  much  muti- 
lated. The  principal  figure  has  4  arms, 
and  is  said  to  be  Bhim,  but  is  probably 
Shiva,  with  26  Ganas.  In  the  comer 
of  the  outside  wall  is  half  a  door  of  the 
church,  of  teak,  with  2  saints  carved  on 
it.  The  3rd  or  W.  cave  is  to  the  N.  of 
the  other  2,  and  is  49  ft.  7  in.  from  N. 
to  S.,  and  57  ft.  2  in.  from  E.  to  W. 
At  the  N.  end  is  a  partition  with  pil- 
lars leading  to  3  cells,  and  to  the  W. 
are  also  similar  partitions  with  cells. 
This  cave  was  converted  into  a  chapel 
in  A.D.  1555.  The  stone  on  which  the 
date  is  inscribed  was  originally  over 
the  entrance  door,  but  has  been  re- 
moved and  stuck  in  the  N.  part  of  the 
E.  wall,  upside  down.  The  inscription 


IS,— 


Esta  Ecclesia  fabrico  no  anno 
Mil  quinientoa  ciDcueute  cinco. 

At  the  S.  end  of  the  chapel  is  a  figure 
of  the  Virgin,  and  W.  of  it  a  confes- 
sional, on  which  some  recent  visitors 
have  scrawled  their  names.  The  chapel 
is  kept  locked,  but  the  key  can  be  ob- 


154 


Bombay  City. 


Seet»  !!• 


tamed  from  the  priest,  who  lives  J  of 
a  m.  off.  On  the  W.  side  of  this  cave 
are  4  pillars  and  2  pilasters.  The  pe- 
destal of  one  of  the  pilasters  appears 
to  liave  been  painted.  The  pillars  have 
a  taperinj?  shaft  and  an  anj^ular  capital, 
which  reaches  the  ceiling,  and  they  and 
the  room  are  12  ft.  2  in.  high.  This 
cave  was  probably  a  VihAra  cave  in 
which  10  or  12  hermits  lived.  At  200 
vds.  to  the  S.,  on  an  eminence  80  ft. 
high,  is  a  round  tower,  which  the  priest 
says  was  a  Calvarium.  It  is  40  ft.  high, 
and  has  a  place  for  a  bell  at  the  top. 
In  the  lower  part  are  rooms,  now 
choked  with  rubbish  and  bushes,  and 
the  tower  itself  is  surrounded  by  such 
a  thicket  as  makes  it  difficult  to 
reach.  The  staircase  is  on  the  out- 
side, and  in  places  there  are  apparently 
embrasures  for  guns.  The  people  about 
say  it  was  used  as  a  tower  of  defence. 
There  is  a  good  view  from  the  top  over 
the  plain,  and  about  3  m.  off  to  the  E. 
is  the  hill  in  which  are  the  KAnhari 
C'aves.  There  is  a  platform  at  about 
25  ft.  from  the  ground,  on  aline  with  the 
entrance  into  a  room  14^  ft.  diameter, 
which  forms  the  top  of  the  tower. 

T/w  Cave  Templeg  of  Kdnh-ari  {Kan- 
narl  or  Ketierif). — These  caves  are  all 
excavated  in  the  face  of  a  single  hill 
in  the  centre  of  the  island,  and  about 
5  m.  from  the  traveller's  bangld  at 
Thand,  which  is  situate  to  the  N.  of  the 
town.  Thand  is  on  the  E.  coast  of  the 
island,  opposite  the  main  land,  and  the 
caves  lie  due  W.  of  it.  There  are  109  of 
them  ;  but  though  more  numerous,  they 
are  pronounced  by  Mr.  Fergusson  *  to  be 
much  less  interesting  than  those  at 
Ajanta,  Eliir  (Ellora),  or  KArli.  The 
same  authority  considers  this  series  of 
caves  to  be  •'  one  of  the  most  modem 
of  the  Buddhist  series  in  India,  and 
that  the  greater  part  of  them  were 
executed  by  a  colony  of  Buddhists, 
who  may  have  taken  refuge  here  after 
being  expelled  from  the  continent,  and 
who  tried  to  reproduce  the  lost  Kdi'li 
in  their  insular  retreat."  He  ranks 
them  as  follows : — "  Those  in  the  ra- 
vine, in  the  4th  and  5th  century  A.D. ; 
those  on  the  S,  side,  under  the  brow 


of  the  hill,  with  those  on  each  side  of 
the  great  cave,  a  century  later ;  then 
the  great  cave ;  and  lastly,  the  un- 
finished one,  which  is  the  first  the  tra- 
veller approaches  by  the  usual  route, 
and  which  dates  about  the  9th  or  lOtb. 
century  A.D.,  or  is  even  still  more  re- 
cent." Heber  conjectures  that  the 
Kdnhori  caves  are  older  than  those  of 
Elephanta,  to  which  he  is  **not  dis- 
posed to  assign  any  great  degree  of 
antiquity  ; "  but  Caunter  ♦  speaks  of 
"sixteen  or  eighteen  hundred  years, 
the  latest  probable  date  aflsigned  even 
by  Bishop  Heber  himself  to  these  ex- 
cavations." However  this  may  be,  it 
is  at  least  certain,  to  use  Heber's 
words,  "the  beautiful  situation  of  these 
caves,  their  elaborate  carving,  and 
their  marked  connection  with  Buddk 
and  his  religion,  render  them  every 
way  remarkable." 

A  good  account  of  the  Kanhari  caves 
is  given  by  Salt,  p.  47,  vol.  i.,  Transac- 
tions of  the  Literary  Society  of  Bombay  y 
which  is  here  followed,  corrected  by  Mr. 
Burgess's  account  in  "  Cave  Temples  of 
India"  just  published.  This  writer 
speaks  of  there  being  no  regular  road  to 
them,  and  of  its  being  requisite  to  clear  a 
way  to  them  thi*ough  the  jungle,  the 
whole  of  the  part  of  the  island  where 
they  lie  being  covered  with  a  thick  and 
almost  impenetrable  jungle.  Most  of 
this  jungle,  however,  has  now  disap- 
peared. The  path  is  naiTow,  and  winds 
along  the  sides  of  rocks,  but  it  is 
quite  possible  to  proceed  along  it  in. 
pdlkls  or  on  horseback.  Most  of  the 
surrounding  hills  are  covered  with, 
jungle,  but  the  one  in  which  are  the 
caves  is  nearly  bare,  its  summit  being 
formed  by  one  large  rounded  mass  of 
compact  rock,  under  which  a  softer 
stratum  has  been  washed  out  by  the 
rains,  forming  natural  caves,  which, 
slightly  improved  by  art,  were  appro- 
priated as  cells.  The  road  which 
ascends  the  hiU  leads  to  a  platform  in 
front  of  the  great  ai'ched  cave,  where 
are  several  mounds  of  masomy.  The 
largest  of  them  was  opened  by  Dr. 
Bird,  and  many  relics  and  inscriptions 
on  copper  were  foimd.   This  is  the  first 


r-  (( 


RofU-Piit  Tei]ij»les  of  India,"  p,  34. 


"  Oriental  Animal,"  p,  373, 


Sect  IL 


The  Cave  Temples  of  Kdnlmri, 


155 


stage  of  ascent  to  the  caves,  which  con- 
sist of  six  stories,  on  the  ledges  of  the 
mountains,  connected  witli  each  other 
hj  footsteps  cut  in  the  rock.  The 
ascent  is  gradual  until  withm  a  few 
hundred  yards  of  the  southernmost, 
when  the  path  becomes  steep  and 
ragged,  and  so  closely  shaded  with 
shrubs  and  lofty  trees  as  to  conceal 
every  appearance  of  the  caves  until 
actually  in  front  of  them.  This  gives 
a  striking  effect  to  the  first  which 
comes  in  view.  Two  massive  columns, 
of  the  same  order  as  those  at  Ele- 
phanta,  support  a  plain  solid  entabla- 
ture, above  which  an  oblong  square  is 
hollowed  out.  Within  are  two  ante- 
rooms, each  about  35  ft.  broad  and 
12  ft.  deep ;  and  beyond,  an  unfinished 
chamber  26  ft.  deep.  Thei  front  screen 
has  three  doors,  and  three  windows 
over  them,  and  the  partition  between 
the  second  ante-room  and  the  inner 
chamber  has  likewise  three  doors,  and 
over  the  centre  one  a  large  open  arch, 
rising  nearly  to  the  roof.  Salt  thinks 
that  the  workmen  began  this  cave 
from  the  top,  and  worked  downwards. 
There  are  here  no  figures  or  carvings, 
and  the  details  are  of  little  interest. 
Fergusson  supposes  it  to  be  the  latest  ex- 
cavation in  the  hill,  and  to  date  in  the 
9th  or  10th  century  A.D.,  or  even  later. 
From  this  a  viliAra^  consisting  of  a 
long  irr^ular  verandah  with  cells  at 
the  back,  extends  in  a  direction  from 
south-west  to  north-east  to  the  great 
cave,  from  which  it  is  divided  by  a 
partition,  so  thin  that  it  has  been 
broken  through  by  some  accident.  It 
contains,  and  this  is  the  chief  point  of 
interest,  two  sanctuaries,  in  which  are 
dahgopas^  or  solid  masses  of  stone  or 
earth,  in  the  form  of  a  cupola.  The 
most  southern  of  these  stands  in  a 
recess,  the  thi'ee  sides  of  which  are  di- 
vided into  panels,  on  which  are  carved 
one,  two,  or  more  figures  of  Buddha 
and  of  Bodhisatwas  in  various  atti- 
tudes. Behind  the  northern  dahgopa 
Buddha  is  represented  on  a  lion-throne, 
which  rests  on  a  lotus,  whose  stalk  is 
supported  by  two  boys  with  hoods  like 
that  of  the  cobra.  From  the  main 
stem  spring  two  othera,  on  which  are 
two  youths  with  the  fans  called  clmuri^ 


and  one  with  a  lotus-head  in  his  hand. 
Above  are  two  flying  figures,  and  two 
of  priests  below,  and  a  group  is  thus 
formed,  the  fac-simile  of  which  is  seen 
at  K4rli  and  Ajayanti  (Ajunta).  One 
of  the  dahgopas  was  opened  by  Dr. 
Bird,  but  no  relics  were  found.  In 
digging  round  the  foundation,  how- 
ever, a  small  earthen  pot  was  dis- 
covered, in  which  was  a  bi-ass  serpent 
and  an  image  of  Buddha  of  baked 
earth,  inscribed  with  very  minute  cha- 
racters. 

The  Great  Cliaitya  6lif«.— Joining 
this  verandah,  in  the  manner  just  men- 
tioned, is  the  Greut  Clmitya  Caccy 
which  resembles  the  great  cave  at 
K^rli ;  but  it  is  here  even  still  more 
evident  that  the  centre  at  least  must 
have  been  roofed,  though  the  roof 
could  not  have  extended  to  the  ends, 
for  then  it  would  have  cut  across  the 
figures  of  Buddh,  23  ft.  high,  which  oc- 
cupy both  extremities.  On  the  jamb 
of  the  entrance  to  the  verandah  is  an 
inscription  of  Gautamiputra  II.,  in 
the  4th  centurv  A.D.  The  dimeu- 
sions  of  the  interior  are  somewhat  less 
than  those  of  Karli,  the  length  being 
86  ft.  6  in.,  breadth  39  ft.  10  in. ;  the 
length  and  breadth  of  the  nave,  74  ft. 
2  in.  and  39  ft.  10  in. ;  but  in  front  of 
the  cave  itself  is  a  poi*tal,  and  after 
that  a  vestibule.  In  going  fi-om  the 
verandah  to  the  Great  CavCy  you  pass  a 
small  tank.  An  ascent  of  five  steps  leads 
to  the  portal,  which  was  once  arched 
or  much  higher  than  at  present,  as  is 
proved  by  the  broken  figures  on  either 
side.  The  portal  opens  into  a  court,  in 
which  are  two  lofty  columns,  that  on 
the  right  surmounted  by  4  lions 
couchant.  Its  pedestal  is  cut  into 
panels  and  supports  an  image  of  Bud- 
dha, whose  head  is  canopied  by  five 
heads  of  the  hooded  snake.  The  left 
column  has  3  dwarf  figures  on  the  top, 
which  once,  perhaps,  supported  awheel. 
The  whole  space  at  the  further  end  of 
the  portico  is  occupied  by  the  front  face 
of  the  cave,  which  is  divided  by  plain 
columns  into  three  square  portials  be- 
neath and  five  open  windows  above, 
beyond  which  is  the  vestibule.  On  the 
right  and  left  of  the  vestibule,  in  re- 
cesses, arc  gigantic  statues  of  Buddlia, 


156 


Bombay  City. 


Sect*  II. 


23  ft.  high.  On  the  leg  of  the  left- 
hand  image  are  a  cross  and  an  inscrip- 
tion in  Boman  letters,  which,  accord- 
ing to  Dr.  Bird,  is  shown  to  be  more 
ancient  than  the  times  of  the  Portu- 
guese by  the  -Slthiopic  or  Arabic  term, 
Abuk^  "the  father,"  and  which,  ac- 
companied by  the  date  78,  with  a  re- 
semblance of  the  cross,  and  the  letters 
for  Kal  Buddha^  Buddha  Sakya^  may 
indicate  its  connection  with  primitive 
Christianity,  whose  spurious  doctrines, 
introduced  into  India,  are  supposed  by 
Wilford  to  have  given  rise  to  the  aera 
of  Sh^livdhana,  which  dates  78  years 
after  Christ.  The  court  is  parted  by  a 
screen,  over  which  was  once  a  music 
gallery,  from  a  vestibule.  The  interior 
temple  again  is  parted  from  the  vesti- 
bule by  a  second  screen,  the  figures  of 
which  are  only  remarkable  for  their 
miserable  execution.  Indeed,  all  the 
carving  and  the  general  execution  of 
this  cave  are  declared  by  Fergusson  to 
be  most  slovenly.  The  pillars  that  sur- 
round the  nave  are  of  the  same  order 
as  those  at  Kdrll,  but  much  inferior 
in  execution.  fcJix  on  one  side  and 
eleven  on  the  other  have  capitals  orna- 
mented with  figures  of  elephants  pour- 
ing water  from  jars  on  the  sacred  bo- 
tree  or  on  dahgopas,  and  boys  with 
snake  heads  are  also  introduced.  The 
remaining  fifteen  columns  are  finished 
as  plain  octagons.  These  columns 
stand  at  about  5  ft.  distance  from  the 
sides  of  the  cave,  and  thus  form  a 
narrow  aisle  on  each  side  of  the  nave, 
which  terminates  in  a  semicircle ;  and 
at  this  end  is  a  dahgopa  49  ft.  in  cir- 
cumference. 

Mr.  Fergusson  is  of  opinion  that  this 
great  Chaitya  Cave  was  excavated  after 
the  vihdra,  and  that  the  three  dahgo- 
pas  existing  at  its  threshold  are  more 
ancient  than  the  cave  itself.  As  the  spot 
had  been  regarded  as  sacred,  owing  to 
them,  some  devotee,  he  thinks,  deter- 
mined on  excavating  a  great  temple 
behind  and  between  them.  There 
being,  however,  but  thirty  feet  be- 
tween them,  the  court  in  front  of  the 
great  cave  could  only  be  made  of  that 
width,  while  the  great  cave  itself,  in 
the  rear  of  them,  swells  to  40  ft.  This 
way  of  accounting  for  dimensions  that 


are  contraiy  to  all  rules  of  architec- 
ture, seems  preferable  to  Mr.  Salt's 
supposition,  that  the  form  of  the  hill 
occasioned  such  a  plan  of  construction. 

The  Barhdr  Chve,  —  Proceeding  a 
little  to  the  N.E.  from  the  cave  just 
described,  and  turning  to  the  right, 
round  an  angle  of  the  rock,  is  a  long 
winding  ascent  by  steps  cut  in  the 
rock,  leading  to  many  smaller  caves 
in  a  ravine,  through  which  a  strong 
mountain  torrent  pours  in  the  rainy 
season.  There  are  ranges  of  caves  at 
different  heights  on  ^th  sides  the 
ravine,  communicating  by  steps  with 
one  another,  and  above  are  the  re- 
mains of  a  dam  erected  across  the 
ravine,  by  which  a  capacious  reser- 
voir was  once  formed.  The  first  cave 
on  the  right  hand  is  the  so-called 
Darh&r  Cdve^  or  "  Cave  of  Audience," 
the  finest  vih^bra  of  the  series,  and  the 
only  one  that  can  compete  in  size  with 
those  at  Ajayanti.  It  is  96  ft.  6  in. 
long,  and  42  ft.  3  in.  deep,  exclusive  of 
the  cells.  The  colonnade  goes  round 
only  tliree  sides,  and  the  sanctuary 
occupies  one  intercolunmiation  of  the 
inner  range.  It  is  scarce  9  ft.  high,  and 
therefore  too  low  for  its  other  dimen- 
sions. The  pillars  and  plan  are  similar 
to  those  of  the  Viswakarma  at  EUora. 
The  verandah  has  a  range  of  eight 
plain  octagon  piUars,  with  pilasters. 
Below  is  another  cave,  which  gives  to 
the  DarbAr  Cave  the  appearance  of 
having  two  stories.  Immediately  op- 
posite is  a  vast  excavation,  in  which 
are  a  few  fragments  of  columns  hang- 
ing to  the  roof. 

Up;per  Caves, — ^Ascending  still  higher 
from  the  platform  of  the  Great  Cave, 
the  traveller  comes  to  20  or  30  exca- 
vations, containing  nothing  of  note. 
Above  these  again  is  another  series  of 
mhdraSj  of  which  three  are  very  in- 
teresting, their  walls  being  entirely 
covered  with  figures,  finely  executed. 
The  general  design  is  Buddha  seated 
on  a  lotus.  Bemains  of  plaster  and 
painting  are  seen  here  and  there.  Mr. 
Fergusson  remarks  on  the  peculiar 
head-dress  of  the  principal  figure  in 
some  of  the  groups,  which  he  had  not 
noticed  elsewhere,  and  observes,  also, 
that  this  figure  is  attended  by  two 


Sect.  IL 


The  Gave  Temples  of  Kdhhart 


157 


female  fignres,  whereas  the  tme  Bud- 
dha is  always  attended  by  men.  On 
the  east  side  of  the  hill  is  a  broad,  long, 
and  level  terrace,  commanding  a  very 
fine  view  of  the  surrounding  country. 

The  inscriptions  at  Kduhari  have 
been  translated  and  explained  to  some 
extent,  and  Mrith  much  learning,  by 
the  Rev.  Dr.  J.  Stevenson  in  the 
"Journal  of  the  Bombay  Asiatic  So- 
ciety," vol.  v.,  No.  XVIIL,  Art.  I., 
for  July,  1853.  In  Bird's  "  Caves  of 
Western  India,"  also  will  be  found 
some  translations  furnished  to  the 
author  by  persons  acquainted  with 
Sanskrit ;  but  the  most  valuable  part 
of  the  work  lajst  named  is  the  notice 
of  discoveries  made  on  opening  the 
dahgopas,  etc.  The  following  passage 
refers  to  a  discovery  of  great  impor- 
tance made  by  Dr.  Bird  : — 

"The   tope   at    KAnhari    (Kanari) 
which  was  opened  by  me  in  1839,  ap- 
peared to  have  been  originally  twelve 
or    sixteen    feet  in  height,  and  of  a 
pyramidal  shape  ;    but    being   much 
dilapidated,  formed  exteriorly  a  heap 
of  stones  and  rubbish.    The  largest  of 
several,  being  selected  for  examina- 
tion, was  penetrated  from  above   to 
the  base,  which  was  built  of  cut  stone. 
After  digging  to    a    level  with   the 
ground  and  clearing  away  the   loose 
materials,   the  workmen   came   to   a 
circular  stone,  hollow  in  the   centre 
and  covered  at  the  top  by  a  piece  of 
gypsum.     This  contained  two  small 
copper  urns,  in  one  of  which  were  a 
ruby,  a  pearl,  and  small  piece  of  gold 
mixed  with  ashes.    In  this  urn  there 
was  also  a  smaU  gold  box,  containing 
a  piece  of  cloth,  and  in  the  other,  ashes 
and  a  silver  box  were  found.    Outside 
the    circular    stone    there  were  two 
copper  plates,  on  which  were  legible 
inscriptions  in  the  Lath  or  Cave  cha- 
racter.   The  smaller  of  the  plates  had 
two  lines  of  writing   in  a  character 
similar  to  that  met  with  at  the  en- 
trance of  the  Ajanta  caves  ;  the  larger 
one  was  inscribed  with  letters  of  an 
earlier  date.   The  last  part  of  the  first- 
mentioned  inscription  contained .  the 
Buddhist  creed,  as  found  on  the  base 
of  the  Bauddha  image  from  Tirhut, 
and  on  the  stone  taken  from  the  tope 


of  Samdthj  near  Banai'as ;  an  excel- 
lent commentary  on  which  will  be 
found  in  Mr.  Prinsep's  journal  for 
March  and  April,  1835.  The  original 
of  the  Kinhari  (Kanari)  inscription 
reads, 

"  '  Ye  dharma  hetu  prabhava 
hetuii,  tesh^n  Tathagata  hyavadat 
— t^hAncha  yo  nirodha  evam  vAdi 
Maha  Shramana.' 

"  And  may  be  translated, 

"  *  Whatever  meritorious  acts  pro- 
ceed from  cause,  of  these  the  source 
Tathagata  (Buddha)  has  declared ; 
the  opposing  principle  of  these,  the 
great  one  of  golden  origin  has  also 
demonstrated.' 

"  This  discovery  at  KAnhari  of  the 
Buddhist  confessio  Jldci  establishes  the 
Buddha  origin  of  the  cave  temples  of 
Western  India." 

The  most  curious  fact  of  all  con- 
nected with  KAnhari  is  the  existence 
there  in  ancient  times  of  a  tooth  of 
Buddha.  The  cave  over  which  in- 
scription VII.  of  those  mentioned  by 
Stevenson  is  engraved,  is  called  SAka- 
datya-lena,  the  *'  Buddha-tooth  Cave," 
probably  because  the  relic  was  there 
temporarily  deposited,  while  the  tope, 
there  compared  to  the  pole  of  the 
heavens,  in  which  it  was  finally 
lodged,  was  being  prepared.  The 
final  lodgment  (says  Dr.  Stevenson) 
of  the  tooth  was  doubtless  in  the  tope 
opened  by  Dr.  Bird,  opposite  the  great 
temple  cave,  as  appears  from  the  im- 
portant copper-plate  inscription,  of 
which  there  is  a  fac-simile  in  his 
work.  At  the  foot  of  this  inscription, 
in  very  large  letters,  is  written 
DAdhA,  "  Canine  tooth."  There  was 
no  tooth  among  the  valuables  brought 
to  light  by  Dr.  Bird  ;  but  Dr.  Steven- 
son thinks  there  was  a  secret  door  or 
passage  to  the  adytum  in  which  it 
was  contained,  for  a  plate,  in  a  cha- 
racter more  modern  than  that  above 
referred  to  by  five  or  six  centuries, 
was  found  with  it  in  the  same  mound. 
The  same  authority  therefore  supposes 
that  when  Buddhists  began  to  be  per- 
secuted in  India,  their  priests  con- 
veyed the  tooth  to  a  place  of  safety, 
and  he  is  even  of  opinion,  "  that  it  is 
not  beyond  the  bounds  of  probability 


158 


Bombay  City. 


Sect  IL 


that  the  Ceylonese  tooth,  said  to  have 
)>een  brought  from  the  other  side  of 
India,  A.D.  810,  may  be  the  identical 
Kdnhari  relic." 

Besides  the  name  of  ChAnakya,  the 
Kanhari  inscriptions  record  that  of 
Buddaghosha,  who  is  claimed  by  the 
inhabitants  of  Siam  and  Barmah  as 
their  apostle,  and  who,  the  Ceylonese 
affirm,  translated  into  PAli  or  com- 
piled the  AtthakathA  or  commentary 
on  the  sayings  of  Buddha.  There  are 
also  the  names  of  Gautamiputra  and 
Yadnya  Shrl-Sdt-Kami,  two  famous 
sovereigns  of  the  Andhra  dynasty 
mentioned  by  Pliny,  and  perhaps  that 
of  a  third,  Balin,  first  sovereign  of  the 
race.  Lastly,  there  has  been  the 
name,  now  obliterated,  of  one  of  the 
MahAkshatrapas,  kings,  who  in  the 
beginning  of  the  Christian  era  reigned 
over  the  country  on  the  Indus  and 
GujarAt,  at  first  as  satraps  of  the  Bac- 
trian  or  Parthian  monarchs,  but  after- 
wards as  independent  princes.  Di*. 
Stevenson  thinks  that  in  Dltannka- 
Kata,  who  is  mentioned  in  No.  7  in- 
scription as  an  artist,  and  in  No.  11 
of  Bird's  Kdrleii  inscriptions  as  a 
Yavan  or  Greek,  we  have  the  name  of 
the  principal  architect  of  the  excava- 
tions, whose  Greek  name  was  Xeno- 
crates.  The  whole  subject  is  worthy 
the  study  of  orientalists  and  the  con- 
tinued research  of  travellers. 

Mr.  Salt  remarks  that  "there  is, 
perhaps,  no  spot  in  the  world  where 
the  catholic  and  heathen  imagery 
come  so  closely  in  contact  as  here." 

Magathana  Caves. — Two  miles  south 
by  east  from  Montpczir  are  the  caves 
of  Magathana,  which  are)  in  a  most 
decayed  state,  and  the  entrance  over- 
grown with  thick  bushes.  It  seems 
doubtful  whether  it  would  be  worth  any 
traveller's  while  to  explore  them,  a  task 
from  which  Mr.  Salt  excused  himself. 

Jogeslirvar  Cave. — Six  miles  to  the 
south  of  Magathana  Caves  is  that  of 
Jogeshwar.  which  is  two  miles  N.E. 
of  the  village  of  Jogeshwar,  and  this 
again  is  eight  miles  to  the  N.  of 
Mahim,  the  town  at  the  N.W.  point 
of  the  island  of  Bombay.  The  W.  en- 
trance is  that  now  used ;  but  the  de- 
corations on   the  E.    side  are  more 


carefully  executed,  and  the  prin- 
cipal entrance  was  probably  there. 
Over  the  sloping  path  that  leads  to 
the  W.  entrance,  a  natural  arch  is 
formed  by  the  branches  of  a  banyan 
tree,  which,  shooting  across,  have 
taken  root  on  the  other  side,  and 
render  the  approach  singulai'ly  pic- 
turesque. Eight  steps  lead  down  to 
a  small  ante-room,  in  which  the  figures 
are  greatly  decayed.  A  door  leads  into 
the  great  cave,  and  above  this  are  two 
figures  in  the  attitude  in  which  Bdmah 
and  Sitd  are  often  represented.  The 
great  cave  is  120  feet  square,  and  18 
feet  from  the  door  are  20  pillars  of  the 
same  order  as  at  Elephanta,  forming 
an  inner  square.  Within,  there  is  a 
chamber  24  feet  square,  with  doors 
corresponding  to  each  other  on  the 
four  sides.  This  is  a  temple  sacred 
to  Mahddeo.  On  the  walls  are  the 
vestiges  of  many  figures.  Over  the 
door  at  the  east  entrance  is  a  curious 
design  of  a  monster,  with  the  mouth 
of  a  hippopotamus,  trunk  of  an  ele- 
phant, and  a  dragon's  tail,  which 
appears  to  vomit  forth  a  sculptured 
group,  representing  Kdmah  and  Sita, 
supported  by  RAvan.  From  this  en- 
trance two  vestibules  lead  to  three 
doorways,  which  again  open  into  the 
great  cave.  Over  the  doorways  are 
some  curious  designs,  as,  c.g.^  over  the 
centre  one  a  figure  resembling  Buddha, 
and  on  one  side  a  hero  leaning  on  a 
dwarf,  who  grasps  in  his  hands  two 
enormous  snakes  that  are  closely 
twined  round  his  body.  Adjoining 
the  principal  cave  are  several  vihdras. 
The  whole  locality  used  to  be  much 
infested  by  tigers,  and  Mr.  Salt  saw 
the  footprints  of  many  of  these  ani- 
mals. Mr.  Burgess  thinks  the  date  of 
this  cave  may  be  the  latter  half  of  the 
8th  century  A.D. 

BasHn. — To  visit  this  interesting 
place,  which  is  about  30  m.  N,  of 
Bombay,  the  traveller  will  leave  the 
Grant  Koad  Station  by  the  B.  B.  and 
C.  I.  Ry.  at  7.16  A.M.,  and  will  reach 
Bhaindar  Station,  284  ™v  ^^  ^-48  A.M. 
Therd  is  no  waiting-room  at  this 
station,  and  the  traveller  will  walk  j 
of  a  m.  over  heavy  sand  to  what  is 
called  the  han4ai\    This  bandar  is  so 


Sect.  II. 


BoMtn. 


159 


built  that  at  high  water  one  has  to 
scramble  on  to  the  wall  of  rough 
stones,  instead  of  being  able  to  step 
into  the  boat  at  once.  On  getting 
into  the  boat,  for  which  application 
must  be  made  beforehand  to  the 
station-master,  the  water  is  very 
shoaly  in  places,  and  unless  one  has 
a  steam  launch  it  will  take  pro- 
bably 40  minutes  to  reach  the  bandar 
at  Bassin,  which,  as  the  crow  flies,  is 
about  2  m.  off.  A  lai'ge  fishing  village 
of  huts  extends  due  S.  from  the  Fort. 
The  landing  is  at  a  jetty,  from  which 
the  road  goes  due  W.  to  the  Govern- 
ment bangla.  The  walls  of  the  Fort  are 
even  now  strong,  and  are  32J  ft.  high 
in  some  places,  and  26  ft.  in  others. 

The  fijst  notice  we  have  of  Bassin 
is  in  1532,  when  the  Portuguese 
ravaged  the  neighbourhood  and 
burned  all  the  towns  between  it  and 
Chikli  TArdpur.  In  1534  they  took 
Daman,  and  obliged  Sult&n  Bahadur 
of  Gujardt,  then  hard  pressed  by  the 
Emperor  Humdydn,  to  cede  Bassin  in 
perpetuity,  on  the  17th  of  February, 
1765.  Chimnaji  ApA,  brother  of  the 
Peshwa  B4ji  RAo  I.,  invested  Bassin, 
and  the  town  surrendered  on  the  16th 
of  May,  after  a  most  desperate  resist- 
ance, in  which  the  commandant,  Sil- 
veira  de  Mineyes,  was  killed,  and  800 
of  the  garrison  killed  and  wounded, 
while  the  Mardtha  loss  was  upwards 
of  5000.  The  capitulation  was  made 
by  Captain  de  Souza  Pereira,  and  the 
historian  of  the  Mardthas  declares 
that  it  was  the  most  vigorous  siege 
ever  prosecuted  by  that  people,  while 
another  authority  *  says  that  "  no 
contest  bad  been  so  glorious  for  the 
Indo-Portuguese."  By  the  terms  of 
capitulation,  "  all  the  garrison,  as  well 
regulars  as  auxiliaries,"  were  allowed 
free  passage  out  of  the  town,  "  with 
their  arms  in  order,  drums  beating 
and  colours  flying,  also  with  four 
pieces  of  cannon  and  two  mortars." 
The  seventh  article  declared,  "that 
the  Christians  who  remain  voluntarily 
in  the  place  shall  enjoy  the  liberty  of 
.worshipping  God  in  the  faith  they 
profess."      The   English,  who  might 

*  **'  Bombay  Quarterly  Review  "  for  July, 
1866,  No.  Aii.  p.  84. 


easily  have  saved  the  i)lace,  but,  out 
of  a  miserable  jealousy,  had  refused  all 
aid,  except  16,000  Rs.,  for  which  they 
took  the  security  of  the  church  plate 
and  some  brass  guns,  which  were  for 
the  purpose  removed  fi*om  the  de- 
fences, now  made  some  amends  for 
their  gross  indiflEerence  to  the  interests 
of  an  allied  nation.  They  sent  boats 
with  a  strong  escort  to  bring  off  the 
garrison,  permitted  them,  800  in 
number,  to  remain  in  Bombay  during 
the  monsoon,  and  advanced  4000 
rupees  monthly  for  their  support. 
But  the  disasters  of  the  gallant  Por- 
tuguese were  not  over.  On  the  29tli 
of  September  they  left  Bombay,  but, 
taking  the  overland  route  from  ChA- 
wal  (Choul)  to  Goa.  were  attacked  by 
Khem  Sdwant  with  300  horse  and  5000 
foot,  and,  after  a  furious  contest  of 
two  hours,  routed,  with  the  loss  of 
200  of  their  best  men.*  The  remnant 
escaped  to  Goa,  where  the  English 
commodore  saw  them  arrive  "with 
care  and  grief  in  their  faces."  The 
Portuguese  never  recovered  this  blow, 
and  soon  afterwards  ceded  the  forts 
of  Chdwal  and  Maira  to  the  Mardthas. 
On  the  13th  of  November,  1780, 
General  Goddard  arrived  before  Bas- 
sin, and  on  the  28th  his  first  batteiy 
opened  against  it.  He  had  very 
powerful  artillery,  and  one  battery  of 
20  mortars,  which  was  shortly  after 
opened  at  the  distance  of  500  yards, 
did  great  execution.  The  place  sur- 
rendered on  the  11th  December,  on 
which  day  Colonel  Hartley,  with  a 
covering  army  of  2000  men  defeated 
the  Maratha  relieving  army  of  up- 
wards of  24,000  men,  and  killed  its 
distinguished  General,  RAmchandra 
Ganesh. 

Before  reaching  the  bangla,  it  will 
be  advisable  to  turn  off  S.  to  a  bastion, 
which  has  an  iron  gate  with  knobs, 
16  ft.  high.  From  this  a  path  pro- 
ceeds through  a  thick  jungle  of  cus- 
tard apple  trees,  mangoes,  and  the 
creeper  which  bears  the  ganja  seed 
used  for  weights  (the  Abrus  j)7'€cato- 
riu^).  After  150  yds.  the  ruined  ca- 
thedral of   Baint  Joseph  is  reached. 

^  "Bombay  Quarterly  Kcview"  for  July, 
1856,  No.  vii.  p.  84. 


160 


Bombay  City. 


Sect.  n. 


There  is  no  roof,  but  the  walls  are 
apparently  in  good  preservation.  It 
is  not  safe,  however,  to  ascend,  as  a 
serious  accident  happened  here  some 
years  ago  to  a  climber.  The  tower  is 
60  ft.  high,  and  has  the  following  in- 
scription, 2  ft.  sq.,  over  the  door  : — 
"  No  Anno  de  1601,  sendo  Arcebispo 
Primar  o  Ill"<»  Dom  Frei  Aleixo  de 
Menezes,  e  vigario  o  Pe.  Pedro  Galao 
Pereira,  se  reformou  esta  Matriz." 
"  In  the  year  1601,  in  the  time  of  the 
most  illustrious  Primate  Archbishop 
Sr.  Dom  Frei  Aleixo  de  Menezes,  and 
the  Rev.  Pedro  Gtilao  being  Vicar, 
this  Cathedral  was  rebuilt."  In  the 
body  of  the  church,  left  of  the  en- 
trance, over  which  the  above  inscrip- 
tion is  placed,  is  a  large  slab  with  the 
following  inscription  in  Portuguese  : — 
**  To  this  grave  are  transferred  the 
bones  of  Pedro  Galao,  servant  of  the 
Lord,  who  governed  and  enlarged  this 
church.  He  died  at  Goa  on  the  19th 
of  March,,  in  the  year  1618."  This 
cathedral  was  built  about  1546,  when 
Dom  JoSo  De  Castro  was  governor,  its 
erection  being  ordered  by  Dom 
Joilo  III.,  King  of  Portugal.  It  is 
referred  to  by  the  traveller  Gemelli 
Careri.  (See  Churchill's  "Voyages," 
p.  192.)  The  learned  J.  Gerso  da 
Cunha,  in  his  notes  on  the  history 
and  antiquities  of  Bassin,  caUs  the 
slab  an  oblong  black  tomb-stone,  but 
there  seems  some  mistake  here  about 
the  colour.  He  mentions  another 
tomb-stone,  half  buried,  with  the 
name  Antonio  de  Almeida  de  Sam- 
pano  e  Sa,  at  the  W.  extremity  of  the 
uave.  At  the  end  of  the  street,  to  the 
left  of  the  Sea  Gate,  is  the  ruined 
doorway  of  the  castle,  with  the  date 
1606.  There  is  also  a  ruined  bastion 
with  an  inscription,  the  English  of 
which  is,  "  The  1st  Captain  who  built 
this  fortress  was  Garcia  de  Sa,  by  com- 
mand of  the  Governor,  Nunc  da  Cunha, 
1636."  This  is  the  oldest  inscription 
in  Bassin.  Bocarro  ("  Chronista," 
vol.  iii.  p.  243)  says  the  captain  re- 
sided in  this  bastion,  and  that  in  front 
of  the  portal  was  a  market,  which  was 
the  busiest  thoroughfare  in  the  city. 
Behind  it  are  the  ruined  palaces  of 
the  General  of  the  Korth  and  the  Cap- 


tain of  Bassin.  At  the  end  of  the  street 
leading  from  the  Sea  Gate  to  the  Pillory 
Yard  are  the  ruins  of  a  large  bmlding, 
thought  to  be  the  church  and  convent 
of  the  Augustines.  In  front  is  a  sty- 
lobate  witib.  5  steps,  and  a  portico  with 
4  pillars,  at  the  back  of  wMch  appear 
the  roy^  arms  of  Portugal.  On  the 
entablature  and  pediment  were  2  in- 
scriptions, now  removed.  Translation 
of  the  Ist : — 

While  the  Viceroy  Dom  Migael  de  Noronha, 
Count  of  Linhares,  was  governing  tiie  State  of 
India,  this  Portal  was  built,  on  which  was 
placed  St  Francis  Xavier  as  Patron  of  this 
City,  on  the  10th  of  May,  1631. 

Translation  of  the  2nd  : — 

When  Gaspar  de  Mello  de  Miranda  was 
Captain  of  this  City,  and  Goncalo  Coeila  da 
Silva,  Fero  Ferreira,  and  Jo&o  Bolo  Machado, 
were  aldermen  with  other  officers,  this  (in- 
scription) was  placed  in  this  Portal  to  St. 
Xavier,  who  was  chosen  Patron  in  1681. 

The  ruins  of  the  factory  come  next, 
and  then  those  of  the  Ambdr  or  Store- 
house, and  in  the  garden  of  the  General 
of  the  North's  Palace  are  the  ruins  of 
the  Misericordia,  a  church  with  a  hos- 
pital attached.  First  comes  a  large 
square  cloister,  the  walls  of  which  are 
most  curiously  intermixed  with  mas- 
sive shoots  and  roots  of  the  Fmut 
Indica  and  other  trees.  The  church 
has  a  stone  front  with  pillars,  and  a 
Maltese  cross  in  the  centre.  Within 
are  2  tombstones.  On  the  large  one  is 
an  inscription,  of  which  the  following 
is  the  translation : — 

The  Grave  of  Po  Cabral  de  Navais  and  of 
his  son  P.  Hieronimo  Po  Cabral  and  his  heirs. 

On  the  second  tombstone  is — 

Sa 
Da  L.  H. 
E.  D.  E. 

Opposite  the  entrance  of  the  church  is 
a  mound  of  stones,  on  which  probably 
stood  a  cross,  and  to  the  W.  is  a  temple 
of  Shiva  with  a  circular  top.  The  Bull 
or  Nandi  is  well  carved  in  stone,  and 
was  remarked  on  by  Mrs.  Heber.  Here 
is  a  fosse  60  ft.  broad  and  25  ft.  deep, 
in  which  is  water  a  few  feet  deep. 
Parallel  with  the  temple  is  the  chmxdi 
of  N.  S.  da  Vida,  one  of  the  oldest  in 
Bassin.    Here  a  sugar   rcfinery  was 


Sect.  IT. 


Basstn, 


161 


established  by  Mr.  Littlewood,  which 
is  now  abandoned.  All  the  ecclesias- 
tical buildings  are  near  this  and  be- 
tween the  Citadel  and  Land  gateway. 
To  ^e  right  of  the  chnrch  of  N.  S.  da 
Yida  is  another  church,  which  was 
made  into  a  warehouse  for  the  sugar 
factory.  This  latter  church  is  pro- 
bably that  of  the  Hospitallers,  and 
near  it  are  the  ruins  of  a  monastery. 
Further  on  are  seen  the  ruins  of  the 
monastery  and  church  of  the  Jesuits. 
The  church  has  a  fine  arch  with  co- 
lumns, of  which  the  shafts  are  fluted 
and  ^e  capitals  Corinthian.  Near  it 
are  the  ruins  of  a  college  with  the  date 
1636  over  the  door.  The  Jesuits' 
church  and  monastery  were  founded 
in  1548.  St.  Xayier  visited  Bassin  3 
times — ^in  1544, 1548,  and  again  in  the 
same  year,  when  he  founded  the  Jesuit 
Mission.  The  Jail  is  thought  to  have 
been  near  the  Captain's  palace,  but  all 
that  remains  of  it  is  a  slab  near  the 
T.  B.,  with  an  inscription  which  may 
be  thus  translated : — 

Pero  dA  Silva  being  Viceroy, 

and  Bui  Diaz  da  Cunha,  Captain  of  this 

fortress  at  the  City  of  Busm,  Dom  Luiz 

d'Athaide,  Fitmcesco  Perrelra 

and  Alvaro  Caelho  caused  this  Jail 

to  be  bnilt,  which  was  completed, 

while  Andrt  Saleme  was  Captain, 

and  Antonio  Teleo,  Tristram  .... 

Aldermen. 

The  date  is  gone,  but  Pero  da  Silva 
was  Viceroy  in  1635  to  1639,  during 
which  period  the  Jail  must  have  been 
built.  The  architecture  is  essentially 
appropriate  to  the  climate,  in  marked 
contrast  to  the  buildings  in  Bombay. 
In  the  nave  of  the  church  of  the  Jesuits 
are  2  gravestones  with  these  inscrip- 
tions:— 

Grave  of  Isabel  de  Agniar,   widow  and 
notable  benefactress  of  this  College. 

Died  24  January,  1591. 

and 

Grave  of  Dona  Filipa  da 

Fonseca,  widow  and  famous 

benefactress  of  this  church,  to  which 

she  gave,  during  her  lifetime,  all  she 

possessed.    Died  on  the  20tb  of  July,  1628. 

Beyond  is  the  church  of  S.  Antonio, 
the  oldest  and  one  of  the  largest  in 
Bassin.  ••  It  dates  from  the  time  of 
Yt.  Antonio  do  Porto,  who  built  11 

[jBoroiay— 1880.] 


churches,  conveiied  10,150  heathen, 
and  destroyed  200  Pagodas.  The 
ruins  of  the  Franciscan  church  or 
monastery  are  remarkable.  It  was  the 
largest  and  most  important  Portu- 
guese church  after  that  of  S.  Francis 
at  Goa.  To  it  were  affiliated  the 
churches  of  Espirito  Santo,  Monte 
Calvario,  Madre  de  Deva,  and  N.  S. 
da  Luz  at  Agasi  in  Salsette.  The 
arched  ceiling  of  the  principal  chapel 
is  tolerably  well  preserved.  The 
church  has  4  lateral  chapels,  in  which 
are  tombstones  inscribed  as  follows : — 

ITrantlation.J 

I. 

H.  M.  Counsellor,  died  on  the  24th  of 

August,  1568,  and  of  his  wife.  Dona 

Luiza  da  Silva  and  of  his  heirs. 

II. 

Here  lies  Dona  Francisca  da 

Miranda,  wife  of  Manoel  de 

Helo  Perreira,  founder  of  this 

Chapel,  and  her  dau£;hter  Dona  Ines  de 

Melo,  and  her  grandson  Luis  de  Melo. 

She  died  on  the  10th  of  November,  1606. 

IIL 
Grave  of  Dona  Giomar  da  Aguiar,  widow  of 
Alvaro  de  Lemos.  May  he  be  with  God !  Died 
on  tlie  11th  of  March  of  W  (1596).    Hera  and 
her  son's. 

In  the  third  chapel  right  of  the 
chancel  are  two  tombstones  inscribed 
as  folloYTs: — 

I. 

This  tombstone  was  placed  by 

Dona  Sra  de  Barredo  for  her 

Interment  in  the  grave  of  her  husband 

Antonio  Tello  de  Menezes,  who 

died  on  the  26th  of  October,  1676.    This 

Grave  was  purchased  by  Mimoel  de 

Carvalhar  Pereira  and  his  heirs.     Our  Father. 

IL 
In  the  reign  of  the  most  high  and  puissaut 

King 

D.  JoSo  de  Portugal,  III.  of  the  name. 

When  the  Viceroy  D.  Affonso  de  Noronha  was 

governing  India, 
Son  of  the  Huquls  of  Villa  Real,  and  when 

Francisco 
De  S&  was  captain  of  this  fortress  and  of  the 

city 

of  Bassin.    This  bastion  was  founded  under 

tiie  name  of  San 

Sebastian  on  the  22nd  of  February 

In  the  year  1554. 

A  few  yards  from  this  bastion  is  a 
tombstone  inscribed, — 

Here  lies  the  body  of  .  .  .  Durban,  wife 
of  Andrew  Durban,  Surgeon,  who  departed 
this  life  in 

M 


162 


licnUe  1. — Bombay  to  Mdtherdn. 


Sect.  II. 


There  is  a  cayemoiu  passage  towards 
the  riyerside,  where  the  air  is  so  me- 
phitic  as  to  extinguish  a  light.  An 
ancient  street,  almost  parallel  to  the 
new  high  road,  leads  through  the 
middle  of  the  Fort  to  the  Sea  gate- 
way. Fryer,  in  1675,  says,  here  were 
"stately  dwellings,  graced  with  co- 
Tered  balconies  and  large  windows 
two  storeys  high,  with  panes  of  oyster 
shell,  which  is  the  nsoal  glazing  among 
them  (the  Portuguese)  in  £dia,  or 
else  latticed.*'  In  a  waU  to  the  left 
of  the  street,  near  the  newly-built  cot- 
tages for  the  men  who  worked  at  the 
Sugar  Factoiy,  is  a  slab  5}  ft.  long  and 
2  ft.  broad,  inscribed  as  follows : — 

[Traihflation.'] 

These  cottages 

were  built  by 

SamEafoe 

Sae  *  *  in  the  year 

1617. 


The  rest  of  the  inscription  is  much 
obliterated.  Close  by  these  buildings 
is  the  chapel  of  N.  S.  da  Annunciada, 
which  was  under  the  care  of  the  Augus- 
tines.  The  altar  faces  the  N.  There 
.is also  an  ornamented  bath-house  built 
of  hard  cement.  The  churches  at  Bas- 
sin,  of  which  the  principal  have  been 
mentioned,  have  square  towers  without 
spires.  The  roofs,  now  fallen,  were 
very  steep  and  covered  with  tiles.  In 
the  Jesuit  church  there  were  remains  of 
a  handsome  ceiling  of  teak,  carved  and 
gilded.  The  tombs  of  Don  Lorenzo, 
who  encountered  the  Turkish  Armada 
near  Din,  and  of  Alfonso  Albuquerque, 
who  first  took  Qoa,  are  said  to  have 
been  here.  Heber  notices  the  monu- 
ment of  Dona  de  Souza,  dated  1606. 
The  learned  Doctor  da  Cunha  of  Bom- 
bay has  lately  published  a  valuable 
account  of  Bassln. 


ROUTE  1. 

BOMBAY  TO  MATHBBAN. 

Mdtherdn, — This  word  is  derived 
from  M&thd,  ''crest  of  a  hill,"  and 
Rdn,  "  wood  or  forest,"  it  being  a 
jungly  hill  on  the  crest  of  the  Ghdts. 
The  traveller  will  proceed  to  this  place 
by  the  G.  I.  P.  Railway,  S.E.  division. 
ThJB  line,  which  starts  from  the  Fort 
of  Bombay,  approaches  the  B.  B.  and 
C.  L  By.  very  closely  at  Parell  Station, 
and  continues  in  near  proximity  to 
Dddar  Station,  and  then  begins  to  di- 
verge and  crosses  from  Bombay  into 
Salsette  by  the  causeway  at  Sion  and 
Eurla,  while  the  B.  B.  and  C.  I.  crosses 
to  Salsette  from  Mahim  to  Bandora. 
The  railways  continue  to  diverge,  and 
from  Kalydn  Junction  Station  the 
G.  I.  P.  turns  to  the  S.E.  to  go  to  Pun4 
and  Madras,  whilst  its  K.£.  division 
goes  on  to  Ndshik  and  Jabalpiir.  On 
this  line  1st  and  2nd  class  return  tick- 
ets, available  forretum  any  day  witiiin 
2  calendar  months,  are  issued  at  all 
stations  to  all  stations  throughout  the 
Une.  Holders  of  such  tickets  can  break 
their  journey  either  way  as  often  and 
as  long  08  they  like  within  the  two 
months,  provided  they  do  not  travel 
more  than  once  in  the  same  direction. 
Coupon  or  special  tickets,  1st  and  2nd 
class,  are  issued  from  Bombay  or  Byk- 
allah  Station  to  Khand414  or  N^cl 
from  1st  October  to  31st  May,  and  to 
Pun4  or  Ehirki  from  1st  June  to 
30th  Sept.  for  use  up  or  down  any  time 
within  two  months,  so  that  the  holders 
may  make  4  journeys  each  way.  These 
tickets  are  chargeable  as  follows : — 

Bombay,  or  Bvkallah,  to  N&rel,  Ist  class, 

Bs.  24 ;  2nd  class,  Rs.  13. 
Bombay,  or  Bykallah,  to  KhandAl^,  1st  class, 

Rs.  40 ;  2nd  class,  Bs.  20. 
Bombay,  or  Bykallab,  to  Puni  or  Khirki,  1st 

class,  Bs.  60 ;  2nd  class,  Bs.  30. 

Holders  of  single  journey  tickets  of 
all  classes  are  allowed  one  day  for 
every  100  m.  or  part  of  100  m.  to  break 
their  journey,  but  the  tune  must  not 
exceed  the  time  occupied  by  the  train 
plus  the  1  day  for  each  100  m.    The 


RoiUe  1. — .Vdl/unlii. 


164 


Rovie  1. — Bombay  to  Mdtlierdn, 


Sect.  IT. 


traveller  having  taken  his  ticket  to 
N4rel,  or  Neral,  will  not  have  occafiion 
to  stop  anywhere  before  reaching  that 
station.    He  will  take  care  to  have 
written  to  the  station  master  to  have  a 
pony  or  a  tonjan  with  6  men  to  carry 
him  up  the  hill.    The  ascent  will  take 
about  1}  hr.      The  Ist  m.  is  mostly 
over  level  ground,  which  extends  fi'om 
NArel  to  low  hills  at  the  foot  of  the 
higher  hill   of    M4ther4n.      The  1st 
milestone  marks   an  ascent  of  only 
126*70  ft.     The  tonjon  is  a  sort  of  long 
chair  with  poles  to  carry  it  by,  and 
seated  in  it,  the  traveller  is  much  above 
the  bearers'  heads.     In  the  next  mile, 
which  rises  to  576'13  ft.,  the  road  be- 
gins to  skirt  precipices.    The  3rd  m. 
brings  the  altitude  to  975*38  ft.,  and  the 
4th  rises  to  1526-07  ft.    At  the  end  of 
the  5th  m.  the  height  of  2138*49  ft.  is 
reached.  The  6th  m.  brings  the  traveller 
to  the  plateau  on  the  top  of  Mdther^n 
Hill,  which  is  2283*95  ft.  above  the  sea 
level.    The  7th  m.  reaches  2375*71  ft., 
and  the  8th  m.  descends  to  2109*30  ft. 
From  the  3rd  m.  the  ascent  is  very 
steep  indeed,  but  the  greater  part  of 
the  way  luxuriant  trees  clothe  the  side 
of  the  hill,  and  cloak  the  precipice. 
The  Alexandra    Hotel    is    near   this 
point  where  the  road  first  descends. 
It  must  be  said  that  the  food  is  not 
very  appetizing.     There  is  an  account 
of  the  hills  by  Dr.  J.  Y.  Smith,  which 
may  be  read  by  the  traveller  before 
proceeding  to  a  personal  inspection. 
The  church  is  200  yds.  from  the  Alex- 
andra Hotel,  and  is  a  neat  structure, 
capable  of  holding  240  people.    Over 
the  Communion-table  is  a  handsome 
stained-glass  window,  given  by  Michael 
Scott,  merchant  of  Bombay,  who  ob- 
tained great  wealth  during  the  cotton 
famine,  but  speedily  lost  it.  The  church 
is  called  St.  Paul's,  and  is  in  charge  of 
the  junior  chaplain  of  Bombay  Cathe- 
dral, and  there  is  service  regularly 
during  the  season  and  at  Christmas  at 
7.30  A.M.  and  5.30  PJi.    There  is  a 
library,  the  subscription  to  which  is 
Rs.  5  for  the  1st  month,  8  for  the  2nd, 
2  for  the  3rd,  and  so  on.    There  are 
also  grounds  for  croquet,  badminton, 
and  lawn  tennis.    The  charge  for  con- 
yeyance  is  as  f oUowb  :  for  a  p&lkl  or 


tonjon  with  12  bearers  between  Ndrel 
and  Mdther^n,  including  the  carriage 
back  of  the  empty  pAlki,  Rs.  8  ;  but  at 
night,  Rs.  8. 6  4s.  For  a  p&lki  or  tonjon 
for  a  day  on  the  hill,  Rs.  3^.    Three 
hours  are  reckoned  for  a  half  day,  and 
the  charge  is  R.  1. 12  a. ;  for  2  hrs.  the 
charge  is  R.  1. 8  ds.  and  for  1  hr.  R.  1 . 1  a. 
A  pony  between  Ndrel  and  M&therdn 
costs  Rs.  2,  and  the  same  for  a  day  on 
the  hilL    A  kuU  between  NArel  and 
Mdtherdn  costs  Bis,  A  pony  for  a  ser- 
vant between  N4rel  and  Mdtherdn,  or 
for  a  day  on  the  hill,  costs  R.  1.  4  As, 
One  of  the  first  points  to  visit  is  Alex- 
andra Point,  which  is  8100  ft.  or  about 
IJ  m.  from  the  church  to  the  N.E. 
The  view  is  very  beautiful,  resembling 
those  from  Sydney  and  Elphinstone 
Points    at    Mahdbaleshwar.     To    the 
right  of  the  traveller  as  he  looks  down 
from  Alexandra  Point  will  be  seen  the 
old  road  to  Chauk,  by  which  Hugh 
Poyntz  Malet  ascended  when  he  dis- 
covered M&ther&n  in  1850.   There  is  a 
thick  belt  of  primeval  forest  half  way 
up  the  mountain  through  which  the  road 
passes.    This  old  road  is  most  difficult 
and  steep.    Chauk  is  a  stiflingly  hot 
village  about  14  m.  N.  of  Panwell,  on  the 
road  to  PunA,  and  about  5  m.  S.S.W.  of 
Alexandra  Point.    About  1  j  m.  to  the 
left  the  traveller  will   see    Gharbat 
Point,  from  which  a  long  narrow  ridge 
runs  tapering  down  into  the  low  coun- 
try, and  this  ridge  bounds  the  view  in 
that  direction.    The  next  day  should 
be  spent  in  a  visit  to  Panorama  Point, 
which  is  to  the  N.  W.  of  the  hotel.  The 
distance  is  21,600  ft.  or  a  little  over  4 
m.  The  road  leads  through  a  thick  jun- 
gle of  beautiful  trees,  in  the  branches 
of  which,  about  8  or  10  ft.  from  the 
ground,   will  be   observed    globular 
masses  like  fungi  about  1  ft.  in  diame- 
ter with  leafy  projections.    These  are 
the  nests  of  black  ants,  which  bite  ve- 
nomously, and  their  nests  are  conse- 
quently seldom  disturbed.  About  J  m. 
from  Panorama  Point  the  road  comes 
to  a  point  parallel  with  a  place  called 
Porcupine  Point.    Here  the  traveller 
may,  if  he  pleases,  dismount,  as  there 
is  a  precipice  to  the  left  of  1000  ft. 
At  100  yds.  from  its  termination  the 
road  goes  quite  round  the  brow  of  the 


Sect.  11. 


jRoute  1. — MdtJierdn. 


165 


peak,  and  here  there  is  a  truly  beauti- 
ful panoramic  view  of  the  country 
from  which  the  point  gets  its  name.  The 
traveller  will  have  to  his  left  Hart 
Point  and  Porcupine  Point,  the  latter 
called  from  the  number  of  porcupines 
which  are  found  there.  Far  in  the  dis- 
tance is  Prabal  Point,  where  there  is  a 
fort  of  the  same  name,  which  signifies 
"  Mighty."  Between  M4ther4n  and 
Prabal  the  mountain  sinks  down 
abruptly  to  the  plain,  forming  a  huge 
chasm.  Below  and  in  a  line  with 
Panorama  Point  is  the  Bhdo  Mallin 
(or  B&W&  Malang)  Range,  10  m. 
long,  with  strange  cylindrical  or 
bottle-shaped  peaks.  Captain  George 
Mackenzie,  of  the  Queen's  Royal  regt., 
in  his  Series  of  Pen  Sketches  of  the 
scenery  in  the  Presidency  of  Bombay, 
has  given  views  of  Chauk,  Pi'abal,  and 
the  Bh4o  Mallin  Range.*  The  huts  of 
NArel  village  lie  directly  below,  and 
beyond  them,  due  N.  is  the  curving 
line  of  the  G.  I.  P.  Ry. ;  thus  Ndrel  is 
seen  to  be  S.  of  the  railway,  and  Md- 
therdn  S.  of  Ndrel.  M&therdn  is  28  m. 
due  E.  of  the  Fort  of  Bombay,  and 
Ndrel  is  30)  m.  £.  of  Mazagdon  and 
9  m.  N.N.E.  of  Chauk,  which  again  is 
4  m.  S.  of  Koldba  Lighthouse.  In  the 
evening  a  ride  may  be  taken  to  the 
new  Band  or  embankment,  which  is 
about  IJ  m.  N.  of  the  hotel.  It  is  of 
very  hard  blue  stone,  which  is  quarried 
on  the  spot.  The  embankment  is  100  ft. 
long  and  6  ft.  broad  at  top.  There  are 
other  points  which  may  be  visited  in 
the  hills,  but  none  equal  to  those  al- 
ready mentioned.  A  whole  day  may 
be  well  spent,  or  even  2  days,  in  visit- 
ing Prabal.  The  traveller  will  start 
from  Louisa  Point ;  this  point  over- 
looks a  majestic  cliff,  whence,  in  the 
rainy  season,  descends  a  cataract  100 
ft.  in  width,  which  bounds  into  the 

*  Bh&o  Hallln  has  its  name  from  a  Mu^am- 
madan  saint,  who  chose  it  for  his  residence. 
On  the  summit  are  the  remains  of  a  fort,  to 
which  the  only  means  of  access  was  a  flight  of 
narrow  steps  cut,  or  rather  notched,  in  the 
rock,  with  a  miserable,  shaky  wooden  banis- 
ter, quite  insecure.  This  frightftil  ascent  of 
200  ft.,  perpendicular,  at  the  top  of  a  moun- 
tain, wfa«re  a  gust  might  sweep  the  climber  in 
a  moment  to  destruction,  was  destroyed  by 
Captain  Dickinson,  about  60  years  ago,  by 
order  of  Government. 


valley  below  by  a  single  leap  of  1000 
ft.  Here  at  times  the  wind  is  so  strong 
and  gusty,  that  the  cataract  seems  to 
struggle  against  it  in  dubious  conflict, 
and  the  water  with  difficulty  seems  to 
force  its  way  through  the  troubled  air. 
Hence  descend  H  m.  to  a  Thikilr  vil- 
lage on  the  middle  plateau.  Here 
guides  must  be  procured.  A  descent 
will  then  be  made  to  the  low  country 
by  a  deep  valley  or  ravine  shaped  like 
a  V  ;  after  2  m.  a  watercourse  will  be 
reached,  and  after  that  several  spurs 
of  the  mountain  must  be  crossed  about 
100  ft.  high,  and  so  steep  as  to  require 
great  care  in  crossing  them.  They 
taper  up  to  summits  which  are  only  a 
few  feet  wide.  You  then  come  to  an- 
other middle  ground  which  is  very 
steep  and  1600  ft.  high  ;  traces  of 
tigers  will  be  seen  here.  This  plateau 
is  13:^  m.  from  MAtherAn,  and  must  be 
crossed  in  a  S.  direction  for  1 J  m.  to  a 
watercourse  which  runs  at  right  angles 
to  the  first  watercourse.  You  then  as- 
cend 2  m.  to  Prabal  plateau,  from 
which  precipitous  rocks  rise  to  from 
600  to  1000  ft.  Prabal  Fort  is  2400  ft. 
above  the  sea,  but  the  highest  part  of 
the  mountain  on  which  it  is  situated 
is  4000  ft.  From  the  fort  there  is  a 
fine  view  of  the  Cathedral  Rock  near 
BhAo  Mallin.  At  a  mile  from  Prabal 
Fort  is  a  tank  cut  in  the  solid  rock, 
10  ft.  deep,  30  ft.  long,  and  15  broad. 
There  arc  other  forts  and  buildings, 
and  the  locality  has  been  very  little 
explored.  If  the  traveller  has  time  to 
stop  a  few  days,  he  would  be  sure  to 
have  sport  with  tigers  and  panthers. 


166     JRoiUe  2,— Bombay  to  Tlidnd,  Kalydn,  and  Amamdth.    Sect.  II. 


ROUTE  2. 

BOMBAY  TO   THANA,  KALTAn,  AND 
AMAENATH. 

TTulnd. — It  will  be  seen  from  the  Time 
Table  given  in  the  preceding  route 
that  ThAnA  is  20f  m.  from  Bombay, 
and  starting  by  the  train  which  leaves 
Bykallah  at  6.2  A.M.  the  traveller  will 
reach  Thdnd  at  7.15  A.M.  The  town 
itself  presents  little  attraction  to  the 
tourist.  The  railway  to  it  was  first 
opened  on  the  16th  of  April,  1853.  In 
1320  A.D..  4  Christian  companions  of 
the  Italian  friar,  Odoricus,  here  suf- 
fered martyrdom.  In  April,  1737,  it 
was  taken  from  the  Portuguese  by  the 
Mard^has  under  the  first  B4jl  RAo 
PeahwA,  after  a  gallant  defence.  At 
this  time  the  country  round  ThAn4 
was  highly  cultivated,  and  the  travel- 
ler's eye  (see  Anderson's  "Western 
India ")  rested  at  every  half  mile  on 
elegant  mansions,  2  of  which  deserve 
special  mention  :  one,  the  property  of 
John  de  Melos,  was  3  m.  from  Thdnd  ; 
it  stood  on  a  sloping  eminence,  deco- 
rated with  terraced  walks  and  gardens, 
and  terminating  at  the  water  side  with 
a  banqueting-house,  which  was  ap- 
proached by  a  flight  of  stone  steps.  A 
mile  further  was  Grebondel,  the  pro- 
perty of  Martin  Alphonso,  said  to  be 
"the  richest  Don  on  this  side  Goa." 
Above  rose  his  fortified  mansion 
and  a  church  of  stately  architecture. 
This  prosperity  was  ruined  by  the 
Mar4tha  irruption  and  occupation 
of  the  island  of  SA^hti  or  Salsette, 
of  which  they  retained  possession 
till  1774.  In  that  year  (see  Grant 
Duff's  "History  of  the  MarAthas," 
vol.  ii.  p.  276)  the  Portuguese  sent 
a  formidable  armament  from  Eu- 
rope, for  the  avowed  purpose  of  reco- 
vering their  lost  possessions.  This 
circumstance  becoming  known  to  the 
Government  of  Bombay,  Mr.  William 
Hornby,  the  Governor,  determined  to 
anticipate  their  enterprise,  and  seize 
upon  the  island  for  the  English.  In 
the  beginning  of  December  a  force  of 
620  Europeans,  1000  Sipahts,  and  200 


gun  laskars,  was  prepared  under  Gene- 
ral Robert  Gordon  for  the  reduction  of 
ThAnA.  The  batteries  opened  on  the 
26th  of  December,  and  on  the  night  of 
the  27th  an  attempt  to  storm  was  re- 
pulsed, with  the  loss  of  100  Europeans 
killed  and  wounded  ;  but  next  even- 
ing a  second  assault  was  more  suc- 
cessful, when  almost  all  the  garrison 
was  put  to  the  sword.  The  3rd  day 
of  the  siege  was  marked  by  the  loss  of 
Commodore  J.  Watson,  the  manner  of 
whose  death  was  most  singular.  A. 
cannon  shot  struck  the  ground  close  to 
him  and  drove  the  particles  into  his 
body.  On  March  6th,  the  PeshwA 
RaghubA,  by  the  treaty  of  Wasal  (Bas- 
sln)  ceded  the  island  of  SAshti  (Sal- 
sette) in  perpetuity.  By  the  conven- 
tion of  Wargdbn,  concluded  in  January, 
1779,  this  acquisition  with  all  others 
was  to  be  restored  to  the  Mar&thas, 
but  Mr.  Hornby  disavowed  the  treaty, 
and  determined  at  all  risks  to  resist  the 
cession.  Whether  ThdnA  was  ever  really 
given  up  does  not  appear  ;  but  if  so,  it 
was  recovered  the  next  year,  when 
General  Goddard  captured  Bassin.  In 
1816,  Trimbakji  D4ngUa,  the  cele- 
brated minister  of  Bdjl  Il&o,  the  last 
PeshwA,  effected  his  escape  from  the 
fort  of  Th&nA,  though  guarded  by  a 
strong  body  of  European  soldiers.  The 
difficulties  of  this  escape  were  greatly 
exaggerated  all  over  the  Mar^t^  coun- 
try, and  it  was  compared  to  that  of 
Shivaji  from  the  power  of  Aurangzlb. 
The  principal  agent  in  this  exploit  was 
the  Mar&tha  horse-keeper  in  the  ser- 
vice of  one  of  the  English  officers  of 
the  garrison,  who,  passing  and  re-pass- 
ing Trimbakjf  s  cell,  as  if  to  exercise 
his  master's  horse,  sang  the  informa- 
tion he  wished  to  convey  in  a  careless 
manner,  which  disarmed  suspicion. 
Heber,*  who  had  seen  Trimbakji  im- 
prisoned in  the  fort  of  ChunAr,  was 
much  interested  in  this  escape,  and 
speaks  of  it  thus — 

"  The  groom's  singing  was  made  up 
of  verses  like  the  following  : — 

Behind  the  bash  the  bowmen  hide, 

The  horse  beneath  the  tree, 
Where  shall  I  find  a  knight  will  ride 

The  Jangle  paths  with  me  ? 


Vol.  ii.  p.  8. 


i 


Sect.  II. 


Houte  2. — Kalydn, 


167 


There  are  five-and-fifty  coursers  there. 

And  four-and-flfty  men ; 
When  the  fifty-fifth  shall  mount  his  steed, 

The  Deckan  thrives  d^m. 

This  might  have  been  a  stratagem  of 
he  Scottish  border,  so  complete  a 
imilarity  of  character  and  incident 
oes  a  resemblance  of  habit  and  cir- 
jumstance  produce  among  mankind." 
The  same  writer  comments  on  the 
*  neglected  and  uncivilized  state  of 
Salsette  *'  after  it  had  been  so  long  in 
;he  hands  of  the  English.  Heber 
ds  that  Thdnd  is  chiefly  inhabited 
y  Roman  Catholic  Christians,  either 
converted  Hindtis  or  Portuguese,  v^ho 
have  become  as  black  as  &e  natives 
and  assume  all  their  habits  ;  he  also 
describes  the  place  as  neat  and  flourish- 
ing, and  famous  for  its  breed  of  hogs, 
and  the  manner  in  v^hich  the  Portu- 
guese inhabitants  cure  bacon.  The 
church,  v^hich  he  describes  as  small, 
but  extremely  elegant  and  convenient, 
was  being  built  when  he  arrived,  and 
on  July  the  10th,  1825,  it  was  conse- 
crated by  him.  The  neighbourhood 
was,  from  the  time  of  the  Bishop's 
visit  till  1844,  notorious  for  its  rob- 
beries ;  but  rigorous  measures  being 
then  taken,  these  disorders  were  sup- 
pressed. Shortly  before  that  date,  the 
Knglish  judge  having  incautiously  en- 
tered yntYi  too  few  attendants  among 
he  large  number  of  prisoners  confined 
the  jail  there,  was  seized,  and  was 
thin  a  hair's  breadth  of  being  exe- 
crted  by  them.  The  rope  was  already 
roS^d  his  neck  when  help  arrived.  The 
f  Thdni  is  now  a  jail ;  the  wall 
ft.  high ;  it  has  contained  850 
perhaps,  but  in  1876  there  were  only 
608,  «  whom  73  were  women,  who  re- 
ceive^o  instruction  except  in  weaving. 
After  the  age  of  45  they  are  not  sent 
to  the  Andamans,  and  a  woman  above 
that  age  in  order  to  go  to  her  son  con- 
fessed to  a  crime  which  she  had  not 
committed,  and  was  much  distressed  to 
find  that  she  would  not  be  sent  there. 
In  the  centre  are  the  remains  of  BAjl 
Bdo's  office,  which  is  to  be  removed,  in 
order  that  a  centrjil  tower  may  be 
built. 

The  23rd  milestone  from  Bombay  is 
close  to  the  Collector's  office  at  Th&nd, 


and  the  Yih&r  Lak^  is  5^  m.  off,  so 
that  if  the  traveller  chooses,  he  may 
visit  that  lake  from  this  town.  A  good 
view  is  obtained  from  the  church, 
which  is  ascended  by  69  steps,  and  is 
J  m.  W.  of  the  fort,  and  about  the 
same  distance  from  the  Collector's 
house.  On  the  E.  side  of  the  church  is 
a  garden,  well  kept,  and  on  the  W.  the 
cemetery.  There  are  one  or  two  rather 
old  tombs  in  the  cemetery,  as,  for  in- 
stance, that  of  John  Halsey,  chief  of 
Scdsette,  who  died  March  3rd,  1785 ; 
Gregory  Page,  chief  of  Salsette,  who 
died  in  November,  1794,  is  also  buried 
here,  as  is  Stephen  Babington,  who 
died  from  injuries  received  at  a  fire  at 
Wasauli,  a  neighbouring  viUage.  His 
monument  in  Bombay  Cathedral  has 
been  mentioned,  the  statue  being  by 
Chantrey. 

Kaly&i^,  33J  m.  from  Bombay,  This 
is  a  very  ancient  town,  and  in  early 
times,  no  doubt,  was  the  capital  of  an 
extensive  province.  There  is  good  rea- 
son to  think  that  a  Christian  Bishop 
resided  at  Kalydn  In  the  beginning  of 
the  6th  century  a.d.  Thus  when  Cos- 
mos Indicopleustes  sailed  down  theW. 
coast  of  India,  he  found  at  "  Male, 
where  the  pepper  grows,  a  regulaiiy 
ordained  clergy,  and  at  Kalhana,  a 
Persian  bishop. '  When  the  Mu^am- 
madan  power  extended  itself  over  the 
Dakhan,  the  province  of  Ealy&ni  fell 
to  All^madnagar,  but  was  ceded  by  that 
state  to  BijEpiir  in  1636,  and  being 
divided  into  two,  the  N.  part  extend- 
ing from  Bhiwadi  to  N^athdnah,  was 
placed  under  a  new  Governor,  who  re- 
sided at  Ealydn.  In  1648,  Abbaji 
Sondeo,  a  Brdhman  general  under  Shi- 
vaji,  surprised  Kalydn,  and  was  ap- 
pointed by  Shivaji  §AbahdAr  of  the 
province.  In  1780,  the  Mard^has  hav- 
ing cut  off  the  supplies  from  Bombay 
and  Salsette,  wMch  were  usually 
brought  to  those  places  from  the 
mainland,  and  were  so  necessary 
to  the  inhabitants  of  Bombay,  the 
Government  of  that  place  determined 
to  occupy  the  Koiikan  opposite  Thdn4 
as  far  as  the  Gh&ts.  Accordingly, 
several  posts  were  seized,  and  Kalydn 
amongst  them  ;  and  here  Captain 
Richard  Campbell  was  placed  with  a 


168    Eoute  2. — Bombay  to  Thdnd,  Kalydn,  arid  Amamdth,    Sect.  II. 


garrison.  N4n4  Farnayls  forthwith  as- 
sembled a  large  force  to  recover  Eal- 
j&a,  on  which  he  set  a  high  value,  and 
his  first  operations  were  very  success- 
ful. He  attacked  the  English  ad- 
vanced post  at  the  Gh^t^,  consisting 
of  4  European  officers,  2  companies  of 
Sip&hls,  and  some  European  artillery- 
men with  3  guns,  captured  the  guns, 
and  killed  or  made  prisoners  the  whole 
detachment.  He  tnen  compelled  En- 
sign Fyf e,  the  only  surviving  officer, 
to  write  to  Captain  Campl^ll  that, 
unless  he  surrendered,  he  would  put 
all  his  prisoners,  26  in  number,  to 
death,  storm  Kalydn,  and  put  all  the 
garrison  to  the  sword.  To  this  Camp- 
bell replied  (see  Grant  Duff,  vol.  i. 
pp.  139,  141,  and  vol.  ii.  p.  414)  that, 
"  the  Ndnd  was  welcome  to  the  town 
if  he  could  take  it,"  and,  after  a  spi- 
rited defence,  was  relieved  by  Colonel 
Hartley,  on  the  24th  of  May,  just  as 
the  Mar&thas  were  about  to  storm. 
The  remains  of  buildings  round  Kal- 
j&a  are  very  extensive,  and  Fryer, 
who  visited  the  place  in  1673,  "  gazed 
with  astonishment  on  ruins  of  stately 
fabrics,  and  many  traces  of  departed 
magnificence." 

It  is  especially  deserving  of  notice 
that  the  inscriptions  at  K&nhari,  which 
are  marked  XIV.  and  XV.  by  Dr. 
Stevenson  in  his  paper  in  the  Bombay 
Asiatic  Society's  Journal  for  July,  1853, 
establish  the  fact  that  Chdnakya,  the 
famous  preceptor  and  prime  minister 
of  Chandra-gupta  or  Sandrocottus,  was 
a  native  of  Ksdydn.  He  is  called  in 
the  inscriptions  Dimila,  which  signi- 
fies Malabarian.  The  XV.  inscription 
runs  thus : — **  To  the  Perfect  One.  To 
D4mila,  inhabitant  of  Kalydn,  famed 
throughout  the  world,  and  purified, 
the  religious  assignation  of  a  cave  and 
cistern  in  the  Kanha  Hill."  It  is 
shown  by  Wilford  in  "  Asiatic  Re- 
searches," vol.  ix.,  that  ChAnakya 
finished  his  life  as  a  penitent  or  reli- 
gious recluse,  and,  being  a  native  of 
Kalydn,  he  probably  retired  to  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  K^nhari  caves. 
It  may  be  fairly  conjectured  that  one 
of  his  descendants,  becoming  a  convert 
ot  Buddhism,  devoted  his  property  to 
the  excavation  of  a  monument  to  his 


great  progenitor,  and  hence  the  in- 
scriptions. Several  other  inscriptions 
will  be  found  in  Dr.  Stevenson's  paper, 
commemorating  the  names  of  natives 
of  Kaly^n.  Thus  the  first  Prikiit  in- 
scription is  by  Samiddbha,  a  goldsmith 
of  Kalydn,  and  the  fifth  is  by  Ri$hi- 
hala  of  the  same  city.  Dr.  Stevenson 
infers  from  the  appearance  of  the  let- 
ters, that  the  15th  inscription  was  en- 
graved shortly  after  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Christian  era. 

Further  testimony  to  the  ancient 
splendour  of  Ealydn  is  found  in  the 
Katan  Mdld,  or  *'  Garland  of  Jewels," 
in  which  the  Brdhman  Kji^hnajl  cele- 
brates the  glories  of  the  Solankhl 
princes.  The  scene  is  Ealydn,  where 
R4j4  Bhuwar,  the  Solankhl,  reigns,  and 
the  time  is  the  year  of  Vlkram  752, 
A.D.  696.*  "  The  capital  city,  KalyAn, 
is  filled  with  the  spoils  of  conquered 
foes,  with  camels,  horses,  cars,  ele- 
phants. Jewellers,  cloth-makers,  cha- 
riot builders,  makers  of  ornamental 
vessels,  reside  there,  and  the  walls  of 
the  houses  are  covered  with  coloured 
pictures.  Physicians  and  professors  of 
the  mechanical  arts  abound,  as  well  as 
those  of  music,  and  schools  are  pro- 
vided for  public  education.  It  is  for 
the  sole  purpose  of  comparing  the  ca- 
pital city  of  Ceylon  with  Kalydn,  that 
the  sun  remains  half  the  year  in  the 
north,  and  half  in  the  south." 

Amarndthy  ov  Ambarndthy  "  Immor- 
tal Lord,"  is  a  village  of  about  300  in- 
habitants, which  gives  name  to  the 
district  in  which  the  town  of  Ealydn 
is  situated.  The  temple  of  Ambamdth 
is  in  a  pretty  valley  f  less  than  a  m.  E. 
of  the  village  of  the  same  name,  and 
4^  m.  S.E.  of  Kalydn.  It  stands  on 
the  edge  of  the  little  jdver  WadhwAn, 
which,  rising  near  the  base  of  the  Ma- 
langad  or  Bdwd  Malang  mountain 
(cafied  by  others  BhAo  Mallin),  fiows 
N.  into  the  UlAs,  near  Ealydn.  That 
strangely  peaked  hill  rises  very  near, 
and  every  furrow  of  it  is  distinct, 
whUe  its  summit  seems  as  thin  as  a 
wedge.  There  is  no  written  or  tradi- 
tional history  of  the  temple.    At  a 

*  "RAsMilfifc"  vol.i.  p.  26. 
t  See  the  "Indian  Antiquary"   for  1878 
vol.  iv.  p.  316. 


Sect.  II. 


lioute  2. — Amamdth, 


169 


meeting  of  the  Bombay  Asiatic  Society 
in  1850,  Dr.  J.  Wilson  said  that  his 
attention  had  been  called  to  it  by  Mr. 
J.  S.  Law,  C.S.,  to  whom  its  existence 
had  been  reported  by  Vishnu  Shdstri, 
its  first  discoverer.    Dr.  Wilson  said 
it  was  decidedly  a  Shaivite  temple  (see 
Journal    Bombay  As.    Soc,  vol.    iii. 
pt.  2,  p.  349).    The  temple  is  87J  ft. 
long  from  E.  to  W.,  and  68  ft.  from  N., 
to  B.    In  a  niche  on  the  N.  side  of  the 
adytum  is  a  Trimurti,  or  "  three-headed 
Shiva."    The  figure,  from  its  multi- 
plex and  fictitious  heads  and  skeleton 
legs,  is  as  deformed  as  can  be  imagined. 
It  is  an  object  of  considerable  interest 
as  a  specimen  of  genuine  Hindii  archi- 
tecture.   The  acting-superintendent  of 
the  School  of  Art  at  Bombay,  with  a 
head-moulder  and  draughtsman,  and  8 
assistants,  visited  Ambarnath  on  the 
14th  of  November,  1868.    They  pro- 
duced 24  drawings,  36  photographs, 
and  76  moulds,  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  10,714, 
and  a  further  sum  was  required  to  com- 
plete the  drawings,  copies  of  which  will 
be  found  in  the  "  Indian  Antiquary." 
The  temple  faces  W.,  but  the  Mandap 
or  Hall  in  front  of  the  shrine  has  doors 
to  the  N.  and  S.    Each  door  has  a 
porch  approached  by  4  or  6  steps,  and 
supported  by  4  nearly  square  pillars, 
of  which  2  are  attached  to  the  wall. 
These  are  most  elegant  in  their  pro- 
portion and  design.    The  roofs  of  the 
porticoes  between  the  lintels  are  co- 
vered by  carved  slabs  with  beautiful 
designs,  in  which  birds  and  the  heads 
of  the  lion  of  the  south  are  introduced. 
The  door  from  the  portico  into  the 
temple  is  richly  carved.     The  body  of 
the  temple  is  224  ft.  sq.,  with  a  lobby 
inside  each  door  lOJ  ft.  wide  and  5^ 
deep.  The  roof  of  the  hall  is  supported 
by  4  elaborately  carved  columns  nearly 
square  at  base  but  changing  to  octa- 
gons at  about  1  third  of  the  height. 
The  capitals  are  circular  and  under 
square  abaci,  which  are  surmounted  by 
square  dwarf  columns,  ending  in  the 
usual  bracket  capitals  of   the  older 
Hindii  works.    So  rich  and  varied  is 
the  sculpture  on  these  pillars,  that  no 
description  could  give  an   adequate 
idea  of  it.    The  peSment  of  the  door- 
way leading  into  the  Vimdnah  is  orna- 


mented above  with  elephants  and 
lions,  and  in  the  centre  with  figures  of 
iShiva,  ascetics,  &c. ;  the  jambs  have  a 
neat  pilaster  and  3  figures  below,  the 
central  one  having  a  big  cap  and  4 
arms  and  holding  up  a  skull.  By  the 
door  at  the  E.  end  of  the  hall  one  de- 
scends 9  steps  into  the  shrine,  which 
is  13i  ft.  sq.  Very  few  fragments  of 
the  original  surface  of  the  wall  are 
left  The  spire  has  been  ruined,  and 
the  light  comes  in  from  the  roof.  The 
interior  of  the  shrine  shows  how  care- 
fully the  long  stones  of  dark  basalt 
were  jointed  and  bedded,  mortar  not 
being  in  use  among  the  Hindiis  until 
the  Mutiammadan  conquest.  Like  all 
Hindii  temples  of  the  N.  style  the  out- 
side of  the  building  is  a  series  of  pro- 
jecting comers.  The  base  is  a  series  of 
projecting  and  receding  members,  one 
of  the  upper  ones  representing  a  string 
of  curious  homed  and  bat-like  faces  ; 
then  comes  a  band  with  elephants' 
heads  and  small  human  figures  ;  then 
comes  a  band  with  half -goat,  half -bat- 
like faces ;  then  a  deeper  course  with 
innumerable  human  figures.  A  curious 
belt  of  beautiful  carving  runs  up  each 
face  of  the  Vimdnah.  On  the  inside 
of  the  lintel  over  the  N.  door  of  the 
Mandap  an  inscription  was  found  in  6 
lines  with  characters  of  the  IXth  cen- 
tury, which  have  been  translated  by 
Dr.  Bhdu  DAji  (see  Jour.  Bomb.  As. 
Soc.,  vol.  ix.  p.  220).  This  inscription 
gives  the  date  of  the  building  of  the 
temple  as  Samwat  782=A.D.  860,  in 
the  reign  of  Mah4mandal6shvara  Shri 
Mahavftnirdjadwa. 


170 


HotUe  3. — Bombay  to  KJiaiuMld  and  Kdrli,       Sect.  II. 


1 


ROUTE   3. 

BOMBAY  TO   KHAKDIlI  AND  KABLi. 

Xlianddld.  —  This  pretty  station  is 
77  m.  from  Bombay.  After  Badldptlir, 
42  m.,  the  scenery  becomes  pictnresqae. 
At  Karjat,  62  m.  the  engine  is  changed 
for  one  much  more  powerful  to  ascend' 
the  Bohr  Gh4t.*  The  GhA^  begins  1  m. 
from  Karjat.  The  ascent  is  1  in  42, 
and  to  prevent  destruction  in  case  of 
the  couplings  snapping,  there  are  such 
powerful  breaks  that  a  descending 
train  could  be  soon  stopped,  with  sur- 
plus power  to  spare.  The  ascent  of 
the  Ghdt  to  Lanaull  is  17  m.  by  rail, 
and  about  15  m.  as  the  crow  flies.  It 
is  a  succession  of  short  tunnels  and 
open  spaces,  with  beautiful  views  of 
green  valleys  and  rocky  wooded  moun- 
tain sides,  down  which  in  the  rains 
innumerable  waterfalls  descend.  After 
ascending  about  1000  ft.  the  Flag  Staff 
and  T.  B.  at  EhaQd414  are  seen  far  up 
on  the  left,  and  on  the  right  the  level 
valley  from  Panwell  to  Eamtipiill.  This 
is  a  large  and  very  pretty  village,  with 
a  fine  tank  and  t^ple  to  Mahddeo, 
built  by  the  celebrated  Mar^t^a  Minis- 
ter, Ndn4Farnavls,  whose  real  name  was 
Baidjl  Jan&Tdhan  Bhdnu,  and  who  was 
a  Konkanl  Brdhman  of  the  Chitpdwan 
tribe,  a  tribe  which  gave  rulers  to  the 
Mardtha  empire  in  the  Peshwds,  and 
not  improbably  produced  the  celetaited 
Cbdnakya.  KampiUi  is  23^  m.  from 
Panwell.  The  scenery  is  beautiful.  At 
the  back  of  Ndnd's  Pagoda,  the  Gh&t 
rises  perpendicularly  and  seems  to  over- 
hang it ;  over  the  lake  spreads  a  mag- 
nificent .banyan  tree,  and  near  it  is  a 
grove  of  mango  trees. 

Kampiill  is  not  200  ft.  above  the 
sea,  while  the  Government  hangldy  at 
Khanddld,  the  lowest  point  on  the  table- 
land reached  by  the  railway,  is  .1 800. 
At  Lanaull,  the  GhAt  is  2037  ft.  above 

*  Several  derivations  have  been  given  for 
this  word  :  first,  from  the  word  Bor,  Zizyphus 
Jujiiiba ;  second,  Dnimmond  (Illustrations  of 
Gram.)  derives  it  from  the  Bhor  River,  but 
gives  no  etymology  for  the  river's  name. 
There  is  also  Bhor, "dawn,"  which  might  refer 
to  sunrise  over  the  mountain. 


the  sea,  and  is  naturally  an  abrupt  and 
volcanic  scarp,  which  is  the  general 
character  of  tne  SahyAdri  Range.  The 
heights  of  the  Kasiir,  the  M&ej,  and 
the  Tal  GhAts,  are  2149  ft.,  2062  ft. 
and  1912  ft.  respectively.  The  im- 
portance of  the  Bhor  and  the  Tal  Gh&t 
may  be  understood  from  the  feet  that, 
along  a  range  of  220  miles  of  the  Sa- 
hy^ri  Mountains,  there  are  no  passes 
for  wheel  traffic  from  Bombay  to  the 
interior  of  the  country,  but  these  two. 
The  many  so-called  GhA,^  are  merely 
precipitous  footpaths  for  natives,  or 
steep,  winding,  rugged  tracks  for  pack- 
bullocks.  The  Pun&  and  Calcutta 
road  crosses  the  Bhor  Gh&ty  ftnd  the 
Agra  road  the  Tal  Ghd^.  The  present 
road  over  the  Bhor  Ghdt  was  con- 
structed 25  years  ago,  is  three  miles 
long,  has  in  that  distance  about  40 
well  defined  turns,  besides  curvatures, 
and  leads  to  a  point  150  ft.  higher  than 
the  Railway  arrives  at.  The  first  in- 
cline for  the  G.  I.  Peninsular  Railway 
over  this  Gh&t  was  laid  in  1852,  and 
at  its  base  crossed  some  low  ground 
on  the  left  of  the  Ulasa  valley,  near 
the  village  of  P&dasdarl,and  proceeded 
along  the  N.  flank  of  the  spur,  which 
projects  from  the  main  escarpment 
near  Ehanddld.  It  ascended  this  moan- 
tain  side,  crossing  several  spurs  of  the 
Songirl  Hill,  above  the  village  of 
Newali,  and  rose  along  the  upper  edge 
of  a  basaltic  dyke,  above  the  village  of 
Bhlr  to  the  Khind,  or  Pass,  called 
Mhau  ki  Mali.  It  then  curved  through 
the  Khamnl  Hill,  and  reached  a  na- 
tural terrace  near  the  hamlet  of  Tlid- 
ki!irw&d&.  Thence  it  ran  for  two  miles 
to  Gambhlmith,  where  it  crossed  two 
ravines,  and  ascended  to  a  height 
called  N&th  k&  Doiigar,  and,  passing  a 
deep  chasm,  entered  upon  a  long  level 
depression  in  the  crest  of  the  ridge. 
From  this  an  inclined  plain  of  1  in  20, 
and  1  mile  and  |  long  for  stationary 
engines,  was  laid  along  the  east  of  the 
Shibi  Hill,  passing  under  the  mail  road 
below  the  old  temple,  and  up  the  mural 
precipice  of  the  main  GhAt  to  its  crest 
on  the  rice  ground,  to  the  N.  of  Sir 
Jamshldjl's  hangld.  Thence  the  line 
passed  by  a  tunnel  under  the  said 
ground  to  the  rice  fields  on  the  S.  of 


Sect.  II. 


Houte  3. — KhanddldL 


171 


the  Khand^d  Tank,  whence  it  turned 
into  its  proper  direction,  and  crossing 
the  mail  road  about  half  a  mile  above 
Khand41d,  ran  to  the  summit  of  the 
incline  near  the  village  of  Tungarli. 
Its  total  length  was  13^  miles  ;  its  rise 
was  1796  feet ;  and  its  estimated  cost 
£483,900.  The  difficulties  in  this  plan 
induced  Lord  Dalhousie,  in  1853,  to 
call  for  further  investigation,  and  this 
led  to  the  examination  by  Mr.  Berkley, 
the  Chief  Engineer,  of  the  Easilir,  Saoll, 
Kuraunda,  S^wa,  W&gi,  Sawasnl, 
Kaunl,  Bhun!ip,  Gdrdolet,  Pimpri, 
Kumbha,  and  Tiptdti  Gh&fs,  none  of 
which  were  found  so  eligible  as  the  Bhor 
Gh&t.  It  was  proved,  for  example,  that 
the  Kasiir  Ghat,  on  the  Biver  Andhru, 
with  1728  feet  to  be  ascended,  would 
require  a  gradient  of  I  in  33  instead  of 
I  in  40,  as  at  the  Bbor  Gh^ti  ^^^  ^c, 
in  other  respects,  greatly  more  difficult. 
A  new  incline  up  the  Bhor  GhA^  was 
now  adopted,  and  as  the  works  in  pro- 
gress along  it  are  the  most  stupendous 
of  the  kind  in  the  world,  they  deserve  a 
somewhat  detailed  notice  here.  For 
the  first  four  miles  from  Pddasdari  to 
Mhau  kl  Mali,  the  route  was  entirely 
changed.  It  now  skirted  the  foot  of 
the  spur,  and  turned  its  S.W.  angle 
below  Songirl  Hill  to  it«  8.  flank,  up 
which  it  ascends  to  Mhau  ki  Mali.  By 
this  the  gradient  was  reduced  from  1 
in  35  to  1  in  50  and  1  in  40.  From 
Khamni  Hill  to  the  Ehind,  the  course 
was  very  slightly  altered,  but  from  that 
point  it  was  entirely  changed.  This 
was  accomplished  by  adhering  to  the 
side  of  the  great  ravine  below  Khan- 
dAlA,  by  sweeping  round  the  W.  slope 
of  Shlbl  Hill,  and  by  perforating  by  a 
long  tunnel  the  lofty  projection  on 
which  Mr.  Adamson's  house  now  stands. 
Emerging  from  this  tunnel,  the  altered 
incUne  ascends  the  precipitous  escarp- 
ment on  the  left  margin  of  the  great 
Khanddl4  Ravine.  It  rises  to  a  new 
summit  near  the  village  and  beautiful 
wood  of  Lanaull.  ,  Thus  the  stationary 
engine  plane  was  dispensed  with,  but 
the  works  in  the  upper  portion  were 
much  increased.  In  1854-5,  improve- 
ments were  introduced.  A  reversing 
station  was  then  carried  down  across 
the  mail  road  to  the  hill  opposite  to 


Toll  House,  and  thence  ascended  along 
the  Battery  Hill,  recrossed  the  mail 
road  a  second  time,  traversed  the  head 
of  the  large  ravine  under  the  mountain 
called  "  the  Duke's  Nose,"  entered  the 
tunnel,  through  the  same  hill  as  before, 
swept  round  the  side  of  a  lateral  ravine 
through  Khandald  village,  and  bisect- 
ing the  Tank,  struck  nearly  into  the 
originaJ  line.  The  incline,  as  it  is  now 
constructed,  is  15  miles  68  chains 
long  ;  the  level  of  its  base  is  196  feet 
above  high  water  mark  in  Bombay, 
and  of  its  summit  2027  feet,  so  that 
the  total  elevation  surmounted  in  one 
lift  is  1831  feet.  Its  avei'age  gradient 
is  1  in  48. 

The  total  length  of  tunneling  is 
2535  yards.  Short  additional  tunnels 
will  probably  be  substituted  for  the 
deepest  parts  of  some  of  the  cuttings. 
There  are  eight  viaducts,  of  which  the 
dimensions  are  given  in  the  following 
list : — 

Viaduct  Yds.  long.  Ft  high. 

No.  1,  eight  50  ft.  arches  .    168  127 

2,  six      50        „        .  .     128  95 

S,  four    50        „  .85  74 

4,  four    50        „        .  .      85  94 

5,  eight  50        „  .168  139 

6,  six      40        „        .  ,    101  85 

7,  four   80        „  .52  45 
8 101  56 

The  total  quantity  of  cuttings 
amounts  to  1 ,623,102  cubic  yards.  The 
largest  cuttings  contain  respectively : — 


IIS.OOO 

cuhic  yards 

72,000 

1* 

96,000 

ti 

77,000 

it 

75,000 

tt 

The  greatest  depth  of  cutting  is  80 
feet.  The  embankments  amount  to 
1,849,934  cubic  yards.  The  heaviest 
embankments  contain,  respectively, — 

159,000  cubic  yards. 
128,000  „ 

189,000  „ 

268,000  „ 

125,000  „ 

209,000  „ 

Their  maximum  height  is  74  ft. 
There  are  18  bridges  of  various 
spans,  from  7  to  30  ft.,  and  58  culverts 
from  2  to  6  ft.  span.  The  estimated 
cost  of  this  incline  was  £597,222,  or 
£41,188  a  mile,  and  its  completion  was 


172 


JRoiUe  3. — Bombay  to  Khanddld  and  Kdrlu         Sect.  II. 


contracted  for  in  five  years  from  the 
date  of  commencement,  which  expired 
in  February,  1861. 


A  comparison  between  the  Bhor  Qt\ik% 
and  the  two  most  remarkable  mountain 
inclines  in  Europe  is  given  below : — 


Name  of  Incline. 

Length. 

Total 
Ascent. 

Average 
Gradient 

Mazlmnm 
Qradient. 

Sharpest  Cnrves. 

Total 
length  of 
Tunneling 

Miles. 

Feet  1 

Miles. 

Giovi  Incline  . 

6 

889 

linStf 

Iin29 

20  chains  radius. 

2.55 

Semmering  Incline. 

Ascent  from  Fayerback 

to  Semmering 

13} 

1325 

lin47 

lin40 

/SO  curves  of  10) 
J  chains    radius,  f 

2.66 

Descent  from  Semmering 

J  and   38   curves  ( 

to  Mtlrzzaschlag     .    . 

8i 

705 

linSO 

lin50 

(ofl4C.  R.         ; 
(l  of  15,  and  2) 

Bhob  Gha't  Incline 

^H 

1831 

lin48 

linsr 

•<  of     20     chains  v 
radius.                 } 

1.44 

The  Giovi  incline  is  upon  the  Turin 
and  Genoa  Kail  way,  and  commences 
7}  miles  from  Ctenoa,  at  a  point  295  ft. 
above  the  level  of  the  Mediterranean, 
and  ascends  the  Apennines. 

The  Semmering  incline  is  upon  the 
Vienna  and  Trieste  Railway,  and  crosses 
the  Noric  Alps  at  the  Pass  of  that 
name.  It  is  replete  with  extensive  and 
extraordinary  works.  The  preliminary 
operations  and  study  of  this  incline 
occupied  from  1842  to  1848,  a  period 
of  six  years ;  it  was  opened  in  May, 
1854,  its  construction  having  taken 
five  and  a  half  years.  Upon  the  Bhor 
Ghdt,  about  four  years  were  spent  in 
preliminaries,  and  the  works  were 
completed  in  five  years  from  the  date 
of  their  commencement. 

The  beautiful  scenery  of  the  moun- 
tains, and  the  remarkable  character  of 
the  incline,  make  the  passage  of  the 
Bhor  Gh&t  one  of  the  most  remarkable 
stages  in  Indian  travel.  In  conse- 
quence of  the  reversing  station,  one 
portion  of  the  incline  is  nearly  parallel 
to  and  much  above  the  other,  both 
being,  as  it  were,  terraced  1400  ft. 
directly  over  the  Konkan.  In  some 
parts  the  line  is  one  half  on  rock 
benching,  while  the  other  half  consists 
of  a  very  lofty  embankment,  some- 
times retained  by  a  wall  of  masonry. 
In  other  places,  on  account  of  the 
enormous  height,  embankment  is  im- 
possible, and  while  half  the  width  of 
the  railway  is  on  rock  benching,  the 
other  half  rests  on   vaulted   arches. 


The  viaduct  that  crosses  the  Mhau  ki 
Mall  Khind  is  163  ft.  high  above  the 
footing,  and  consists  of  eight  semi- 
circular arches  of  50  ft.  span.  On  the 
whole  the  traveller  will  here  find  much 
to  astonish  and  delight  him. 

At  1350  ft.  above  the  sea  the  train 
halts  for  10  minutes  at  the  reversing 
station  ;  goods  trains  halt  20  min. ;  the 
halt  in  both  cases  being  for  the  engine 
to  go  to  the  other  end. 

KhanddlA.  —  This  beautiful  village 
has  for  more  than  20  years  been  a 
favourite  retreat  for  the  wealthy  inha- 
bitants of  Bombay  from  the  distressing 
heat  of  the  summer  months.  It  pre- 
sents so  many  attractions  to  the  tourist 
and  tiie  sportsman  that  as  many  days 
as  can  be  spared  may  well  be  given  to 
it.  The  village  itself  is  large,  and, 
now  that  the  railway  is  open,  must 
extend  rapidly.  The  second  bangld 
reached  is  one  on  the  left  of  the  road, 
built  by  Greneral  Dickenson,  of  the 
Bombay  Engineers,  who  did  much  to 
make  the  place  known,  and  to  improve 
the  roads.  The  site  of  this  bangld  is 
well  chosen.  It  overlooks  a  tremen- 
dous ravine,  the  sheer  depth  of  which 
is  in  great  part  concealed  by  luxuriant 
trees.  At  the  bottom  winds  a  small 
silvery  stream.  This  ravine  harbours 
many  wild  beasts,  and  at  night  tigers, 
leopards,  and  bears  ascend  the  steep 
sides,  and  are  often  seen  even  under 
the  vrindows  of  the  bangl&s.  The 
natives,  when  they  get  sight  of  them, 
raise  wild  shouts  to  scare  them  away  ; 


Sect.  II. 


Baute  3.— The  Waterfall— Kdrlt 


173 


and  these  cries,  echoing  among  the 
hills,  and  a  knowledge  of  the  purpose 
for  which  they  are  raised,  have  a  not 
very  encouraging  effect  on  the  lonely 
wayfarer.  About  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
from  this  stands  the  traveller's  bangla, 
also  on  the  edge  of  the  ravine  ;  and 
on  the  right  is  a  large  tank,  adjoining 
which  is  the  bangld  of  Sir  Jamshidji 
JijibhAl.  Leading  past  this,  to  the 
East,  is  a  road  to  a  magnificent  hill 
called  the  Duke's  Nose,  whence  is  a 
fine  view  over  the  Konkan,  similar  to 
those  at  Mdther^,  already  described. 
Beyond  the  tank  is  the  village  of 
Khanddld ;  and  stiU  further  on  the 
Kdrli  road  is  the  beautiful  wood  of 
Lanauli,  where  wild  boar  and  othey 
game  may  be  found.  A  gentleman 
riding  in  this  direction  some  years 
ago  came  upon  a  party  of  seven  large 
wolves,  who,  however,  did  not  attack 
or  pursue  him. 

The  Tr«^^//aZZ.  —  Distant  from  the 
traveller's  bangld  about  half  a  mile  on 
the  opposite  side  of  the  ravine,  is  a 
much  admired  waterfall.  To  reach  it 
it  is  necessary  to  go  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  in  order  to  get  round  the  head 
of  a  watercourse.  In  doing  this  the 
site  of  a  bangld  is  passed,  once  the 
residence  of  Mountstuart  Elphinstone, 
Governor  of  Bombay.  The  foundation 
alone  remains.  In  the  monsoon  the 
distant  view  of  the  Fall  from  the  top 
of  the  GhAt  is  very  fine.  There  are 
then  two  cataracts,  divided  into  upper 
and  lower  by  a  short  interval.  The 
upper  cataract  has  a  sheer  fall  of  300  ft. 

The  European  burial  ground  is 
beside  the  tank,  and  is  rather  thickly 
tenanted.  Here  is  buried  Mr.  Graham, 
who  was  the  principal  founder  of  the 
Botanical  Garden  at  Bombay,  and 
whose  researches  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  EhanddU  Gh^t  were  marked 
with  much  success. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  present  cen- 
tury, the  road  to  EhanddU  was  very 
steep  and  difficult,  and  infested  vTith 
wild  beasts.  Up  this  road  the  Duke 
of  Wellington  got  his  reinforcements 
and  supplies  when  marching  on  Fund. 
At  Lanauli,  79J  m.  from  Bombay, 
20  min.  are  allowed  for  dinner,  for 
which  the  charge  is  Rs.  2  without 


drinkables.  Here  is  the  G.  I.  P.  Rail- 
way Company's  School  and  Church, 
and  from  this  place  or  from  Ehandala 
the  tall  precipice  called  the  Duke's 
Nose,  which  is  about  4  m.  off,  may 
be  visited.  The  ascent  is  by  the  S. 
shoulder,  and  is  very  steep. 

K&rli,* — The  traveller's  next  halting 
place  must  be  Edrli,  where  is  a  tra- 
veller's bangl4  and  a  barrack  for  200 
men,  v^th  a  small  village  to  the  right, 
hid  among  trees.  The  celebrated  caves 
are  on  a  UU  about  two  miles  to  the  N. 
of  the  bangld. 

The  following  is  from  Mr.  Fergusson's 
description  of  the  KArli  cave  f: — "  The 
great  cave  of  Kdrll  is,  without  excep- 
tion, the  largest  and  finest  chaitya 
cave  in  India,  and  was  excavated  at  a 
time  when  the  style  was  in  its  greatest 
purity,  and  is  fortunately  the  best 
preserved.  Its  interior  dimensions 
are  124  ft.  3  in.  in  total  length,  81  ft. 

3  in.  length  of  nave.  Its  breadth  from 
wall  to  wall  is  45  ft.  6  in.,  while  the 
width  of  the  central  aisle  is  25  ft.  7 
in.  The  height  is  only  46  ft.  from  the 
floor  to  the  apex.  The  same  writer  says, 
"  The  building  resembles  an  early  Chris- 
tian church  in  its  arrangements,  while 
all  the  dimensions  are  similar  to  those 
of  the  choir  of  Norwich  Cathedral." 
The  nave  is  separated  from  the  side  aisles 
by  15  columns  with  octagonal  shafts  on 
each  side,  of  good  design  and  workman- 
ship. On  the  abacus  which  crowns  the 
capital  of  each  of  these  are  two  kneeling 
elephants,  and  on  each  elephant  are 
two  seated  figures,  generally  a  male  and 
female,  with  their  arms  over  each 
other's  shoulders ;  but  sometimes  two 
female  figures  in  the  same  attitude. 
The  sculpture  of  these  is  very  good, 
and  the  effect  particularly  rich  and 
pleasing.  Behind  the  altar  are  7  plain 
octagonal  piers  without  sculpture, 
making  thus  37  pillars  altogether,  ex- 
clusive of  the  Lion-pillar  in  front, 
which  is  16-sided,  and  is  crowned  with 

4  lions  with  their  hinder  parts  joined. 
The  chaitya  is  plain  and  very  similar 
to  that  in  the  large  cave  at  Ajayanti 


*  Mr.    Burgess  writes  KarlS  and  KArle  (see 
Cave  Temples  of  India,"  pp.  218,  219). 
t  "  Roek-cut  Temples  ol  India,"  page  27. 


174 


JRoute  3. — Boinhay  to  Khanddld  and  Kdrli,         Sect  II. 


(Ajiinta),  but  here,  fortunately,  a  part 
of  the  wooden  umbrella  which  sur- 
mounted it  remains.  The  wooden  ribs 
of  the  roof,  too,  remain  nearly  entire, 
proving  beyond  doubt  that  the  roof  is 
not  a  copy  of  a  masonry  arch  ;  and 
the  framed  screen,  filling  up  a  portion 
of  the  great  arch  in  front,  lie  the 
centering  of  the  arch  of  a  bridge  (which 
it  much  resembles),  still  retains  the 
place  in  which  it  was  originally  placed. 
At  some  distance  in  advance  of  the 
arched  front  of  this  cave  is  placed  a 
second  screen,  which  exists  only  here 
and  at  the  great  cave  at  Salsette, 
though  it  might  have  existed  in  front 
of  the  oldest  chaitya  caves  at  Ajayanti 
(Ajunta).  It  consists  of  two  plam  oc- 
tagonal columns  with  pilasters.  Over 
these  is  a  deep  plain  mass  of  wall,  oc- 
cupying the  place  of  an  entablature, 
and  over  this  again  a  superstructure 
of  four  dwarf  pillars.  Except  the 
lower  piers,  the  whole  of  this  has  been 
covered  with  wooden  ornaments  ;  and, 
by  a  careful  examination  and  measure- 
ment of  the  various  mortices  and  foot- 
ings, it  might  still  be  possible  to  make 
out  the  greater  part  of  the  design.  It 
appears,  however,  to  have  consisted 
of  a  broad  balcony  in  front  of  the 

Elain  wall,  supported  by  bold  wooden 
rackets  from  the  two  piers,  and  either 
roofed  or  having  a  second  balcony 
above  it.  No  part  of  the  wood,  how- 
ever, exists  now,  either  here  or  at 
Salsette.  It  is  more  than  probable, 
however,  that  this  was  the  music  gal- 
lery or  Na^dra  E^^nah,  which  we  still 
find  existing  in  front  of  almost  all 
Jain  temples,  down  even  to  the  present 
day.  Whether  the  space  between  this 
outer  and  the  inner  screen  was  roofed 
over  or  not  is  extremely  difficult  to 
decide.  To  judge  from  the  mortices 
at  Salsette,  the  space  there  would  seem 
to  have  had  a  roof ;  but  here  the  evi- 
dence is  by  no  means  so  distinct, 
though  there  is  certainly  nothing  to 
contradict  the  supposition.  There  are 
no  traces  of  painting  in  this  cave, 
though  the  inner  wall  has  been  plas- 
tered, and  may  have  been  painted; 
but  the  cave  is  inhabited,  and  the  con- 
tinued smoke  of  cookings  fires  has  so 
blackened  its  walls  that  it  is  impos- 


sible to  decide  the  question.  Its  inha- 
bitants ate  Shivites,  and  the  cave  is 
considered  a  temple  dedicated  to  Shiva, 
the  Dahgopa  performing  the  part  of  a 
gigantic  lingam,  which  it  resembles  a 
g(X)d  deal.  The  outer  porch  is  52  ft. 
wide  and  16  deep.  Here  originally  the 
fronts  of  3  elephants  in  each  end  wall 
supported  a  frieze  ornamented  with  the 
rail,  but  at  both  ends  this  2nd  rail  has 
been  cut  away  to  introduce  figures. 
Above  was  a  thick  quadrantal  mould- 
ing, and  then  a  rail  with  small  fa9ades  of 
temples,  and  pairs  of  figures  like  those 
at  Kudd  45  m.  S.  of  Bombay,  for 
which  see  "  Cave  Temples  of  India,*' 
p.  207.  The  figures  are  a  man,  a 
woman,  and  a  dwarf. 

"  It  would  be  of  great  importance  if 
the  age  of  this  cave  could  be  positively 
fixed ;  but  though  that  cannot  quite  be 
done,  it  is  probably  antecedent  to  the 
Christian  era  ;  and  at  the  same  time  it 
cannot  possibly  have  been  excavated 
more  than  two  hundred  years  before 
that  era.  From  the  Silasthamba  (pil- 
lar) on  the  left  of  the  entrance,  Colonel 
Sykes  copied  an  inscription,  which  Mr. 
Mnsep  deciphered  in  the  sixth  volume 
of  the  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society. 
It  merely  says, '  This  lion  pillar  is  the 
gift  of  Ajmitra  Ukas,  the  son  of  Saha 
Ravisabhoti  ; '  the  character  Prinsep 
thinks  that  of  the  first  or  second  cen- 
tury B.C.  From  its  position  and  im- 
port, the  inscription  appears  to  bo 
integral,  and  the  column  is  certainly  a 
part  of  the  original  design." 

According  to  a  letter  from  Dr.  Bird 
to  Mr.  Fergusson,  one  inscription  at 
Kdrli  is  "  of  the  20th  year  of  Datthama 
Hara,  otherwise  called  Dattagamini, 
king  of  Ceylon,  B.C.  163."  Mr.  Fer- 
gusson did  not  see  this  inscription  ; 
and  could  not  tell  therefore  whether  it 
is  integral  or  not,  nor  in  what  cha- 
racter it  is  written ;  but  thinks  that 
unless  other  circumstances  confirm  the 
identity,  dependence  ought  not  to  be 
placed  upon  the  nominal  similarity  of 
a  king  at  so  great  a  distance.  In  his 
work  on  "  The  Caves  of  Western  India," 
Dr.  Bird  makes  no  mention  of  this 
inscription.  Dr.  Stevenson  (Bombay 
Asiatic  Society's  Journal,  vol.  5)  gives 
70  B.C.  as  the  date  of  the  great  cave 


Sect.  IT. 


Emite  3. — Kdrli, 


175 


temple  at  Kdrlen  *  executed  according  ;  above  date  to  be  at  all  near  the  truth, 
to  this  writer  by  the  Emperor  Devab- 
hiiti,  under  the  care  of  Xeaocrates 
(DhanukAkatA  or  Dhenukakati).  The 
same  authority  says  that  in  326  A.D. 
the  village  of  Karanja  on  the  Gh&ts 
was  made  over  to  the  monks  at  K4rlen 
by  the  two  great  military  commanders, 
who  in  the  struggles  between  the  regal 
Satraps  and  Magadh  emperors,  had 
most  likely  wrested  the  adjacent  ter- 
ritory from  the  former,  and  resigned 
it  to  the  latter.  About  the  same  time 
the  Buddha  on  the  left  of  the  entrance, 
where  these  inscriptions  are  found, 
was  probably  executed.  Dr.  Steven- 
son adds  that  in  A.D.  342  the  monastery 
cave  at  E&rlen  was  excavated  by  a 
mendicant  devotee.  But  Mr.  Thomas 
(««  Prinsep  Papers,"  vol.  ii.  p.  254) 
doubts  the  accuracy  of  these  dates.f 

"  In  disposition  and  size,  and  also 
in  detail  as  far  as  similarity  can  be 
traced  between  a  cave  entirely  covered 
with  stucco  and  painted,  and  one  which 
either  never  had,  or  has  lost  both  these 
ornaments,  this  cave,"  says  Mr.  Fer- 
gusson,  "is  so  similar  to  the  two  at 
Ajanta,  which  I  had  before  placed 
about  this  age,  and  on  the  front  of  it 
there  is  also  the  reeded  ornament, 
which  is  so  common  at  Ehandagiri, 
and  only  exists  there,  and  in  the  oldest 
caves  at  Ajanta ;  that  from  all  these 
circumstances  I  am  inclined  to  think 
the  above  date,  163  B.C.  is  at  least  ex- 
tremely probable,  though  by  no  means 
as  a  date  to  be  implicitly  relied  upon," 
"  It  is  to  this  cave  more  especially," 
says  the  same  writer, "  that  the  remark 

applies  that  I  made  (p.  6)  that  the 

chaitya  caves  seem  at  once  to  have 

sprung  to  perfection  ;  for  whether  we 

adopt  the  Mahawanso  for  our  guide, 

or  Ashoka's  inscriptions,  it'  is  evident 

that  this  country,  under  the  name  of 

Haharatthan  in  the  former,  and  Pite- 

nika  in  the  other,  is  one  of  the  uncon- 
verted countries  to  which  missionaries 

were  sent  in  the  tenth  year  of  Ashoka's 

reign ;  and  if,  therefore,  we  assume  the 

*  This  is  the  form  of  8i)elliiig  Kirli  adopted 
always  by  Dr.  Stevenson. 

t  Mr.  Burgess  ("  Cave  Temples  of  India," 
p.  2SS),  says :  "  We  shall  probably  not  be  far 
wrong  in  placing  the  excavation  of  these  caves 
uutenor  to  the  Uhnstian  era." 


a  century  had  scarcely  elapsed  between 
the  conversion  of  the  country  and  the 
execution  of  this  splendid  monument. 
There  is  nothing  in  the  Vihdras  here 
or   elsewhere,   which  I  have   placed 
about  the  same  date,  that  might  not 
have  been  elaborated  from  a  natural 
cavern  in  that  period ;  but  there  is  a 
complication  of  design  in  this  that  quite 
forbids  the  supposition  ;  and  it  must 
either  be  brought  down  to  a  much  more 
modern  epoch,  or  it  must  be  admitted 
to  be  a  copy  of  a  structural  building ; 
and  even  then  but  half  the  difficulty  is 
got  over.    Was  that  structural  building 
a  temple  of  the  Brihmans  or  Buddh- 
ists?   was  it   designed   or   invented 
since  the  death  of  Sakya  Sinha?   or 
did  it  belong  to  a  former  religion  ?  and 
lastly,  if  we  are  correct  in  supposing 
cave-digging  to  have  commenced  only 
subsequent   to  Ashoka's  reign,  why, 
while  the  vih^ras  were  still  so  small 
and  so  insignificant,  was  so  great  a 
work  undertaken  in  the  rock  1 

"It  would  be  a  subject  of  curious 
inquiry  to  know  whether  the  wood 
work  now  existing  in  this  cave  is  that 
originally  put  up  or  not.    Accustomed 
as  I  had  long  been  to  the  rapid  de- 
struction  of   everything    wooden   in 
India,  I  was  half  inclined  to  be  angry 
when  the  idea  first  suggested  itself  to 
me  ;  but  a  calmer  survey  of  the  matter 
has  convinced  me  that  it  is.    Certain 
it  is  that  it  is  the  original  design,  for 
we  find  it  repeated  in  stone  in  all  the 
niches  of  the  front,  and  there  is  no 
appearance  of  change  or  alteration  in 
any  part  of  the  roof.    Every  part  of  it 
is  the  same  as  is  seen  so  often  repeated 
in  stone  in  other  and  more  modem 
caves,  and  it  must,  therefore,  have  been 
put  up  by  the  Buddhists  before  they 
were  expelled ;  and  if  we  allow  that 
it  has  existed  800  or  1000  years,  which 
it  certainly  has,  there  is  not  much 
greater  improbability  in   its  having 
existed  near  2000  years,  as  I  believe  to 
be  the  case.    As  far  as  I  could  ascer- 
tain the  wood  is  teak.     Though  ex- 
posed to  the  atmosphere,  it  is  pro- 
tected from  the  rain,  and  has  no  strain 
upon  it  but  its  own  weight,  as  it  does 
not  support  the  roof,  though  it  appears 


176 


Eoute  3. — Bombay  to  KJutnddld  and  Kdrh, 


Sect.  II. 


to  do  so ;  and  the  rock  seems  to  have 
defied  the  industry  of  the  white  ants." 

Mr.  Fergnsson  appends  to  his  notice 
of  this  "  decidedly  the  finest  chaitya 
cave  in  India,"  a  general  description 
of  the  arrangement  of  such  caves.  He 
observes  that  the  disposition  of  parts 
is  exactly  the  same  as  those  of  the 
choir  of  a  Gothic  round,  or  polygonal 
apse  cathedral.  Across  the  front  there 
is  always  a  screen  with  a  gallery  over 
it,  occupying  the  place  of  the  rood-loft, 
on  which  we  now  place  our  organs. 
In  this  there  are  3  doors ;  one,  the 
largest,  opening  to  the  nave,  and  one 
to  each  of  the  side  aisles.  Over  the 
screen  the  whole  front  of  the  cave  is 
open  to  the  air,  being  one  vast  win- 
dow, stilted  so  as  to  be  more  than  a 
semicircle  in  height,  or,  generally,  of 
a  horse-shoe  form.  The  whole  light 
falls  on  the  dahgopa,  which  is  exactly 
opposite,  in  the  place  of  the  altar, 
while  the  colonnade  around  and  behind 
is  less  perfectly  lit,  the  pillars  being 
veiy  close  together.  To  a  person 
standing  near  the  door  there  appeared 
nothing  behind  the  dahgopa  but  "  il- 
limitable gloom."  The  writer  above- 
mentioned  thinks  that  a  votary  was 
never  admitted  beyond  the  colonnade 
under  the  front,  -the  rest  of  the  temple 
being  devoted  to  the  priests  and  the 
ceremonies,  as  in  China,  and  in  Catho- 
lic churches,  and  he  therefore  never 
could  see  whence  the  light  came,  and 
stood  in  comparative  shade  himself,  so 
that  the  effect  was  greatly  heightened. 
To  the  description  above  given  it  is 
only  requisite  to  add  that  the  hill  in 
which  the  caves  are  is  very  steep,  and 
about  600  ft.  high  from  the  plain.  A 
huge  round  cliff  like  a  tower  shuts  in 
the  view  in  one  direction.  The  guides 
call  the  male  and  female  figures  in  the 
portico,  hairdgiSy  or  devotees.  The 
figure  on  the  dahgopa  they  call  Dhar- 
ma  Bdj&,  the  Hindii  Minos. 

Besides  the  great  cave  at  Kdrll, 
there  are  a  number  of  vihdras,  hut 
small  and  very  insignificant  compared 
with  it ;  and  this,  Mr.  Fergusson 
thinks,  is  a  proof  of  their  antiquity. 
For  at  first  the  vihdras  were  mere 
cells,  where,  as  Fa-hian  says,  "  the  Ar- 
hats  sat  to  meditate,"  and  as  the  reli- 


gion was  corrupted,  became  magnifi- 
cent halls  and  temples.  Such  are  the 
vihdras  at  Ajayantl.  The  principal 
vihdra  at  E&rli  is  3  tiers  in  height. 
They  are  plain  halls  with  cells,  but 
without  any  internal  colonnades,  and 
the  upper  one  alone  possesses  a  veran- 
dah. The  lower  fronts  have  been 
swept  away  by  great  masses  of  rock 
which  have  rolled  from  above.  Near 
this  is  a  small  temple  to  Bhav&ni,  with 
the  figure  of  a  tortoise  in  front  of  the 
murti,  or  "  image,"  which  is  that  of  a 
moon-faced  female  with  huge  eyes. 
There  is  a  small  village  at  the  foot  of 
the  hUl,  in  which  the  caves  arej  caUed 
Ekvlra,  and  from  this  the  great  cave 
is  sometimes  called  the  Cave  of  Ekvfra. 

Besides  the  caves,  the  traveller, 
while  at  Earli,  may  also  visit  the  hill 
forts  of  Logarh  and  'Isdptir  (see  Grant 
Duff,  pp.  13,  14),  which  are  at  an 
elevation  of  1200  ft.  above  the  plain, 
with  a  sheer  scarp  of  200  ft.  Logarh 
was  taken  by  Malik  Ahmad  from  the 
Mardthas  in  1485  A.D.,  and  by  Shivaji 
in  1648,  and  again  by  the  same  chief  in 
1670.  It  was  here  that  the  widow  qt 
NAnd  Famavls  took  refuge  from  the 
time  of  Amfit  Rdo's  coming  to  Fund 
on  the  12th  November,  1802,  to  March 
15th,  1804,  when  General  Wellesley, 
according  to  the  proposal  of  Dhondd 
BalaJ  Kil'ad^,  of  Loga^h,  guaranteed 
to  her  her  safety,  and  an  annual  pen- 
sion of  12,000  rupees.  Loga^h  was 
twice  taken  by  the  English  with  little 
difficulty. 

Caves  of  Bhdjcb  and  Bedsd, — Bhdj4 
is  a  village  2  m.  S.  of  Kdrll,  and  Beds4 
is  5^  m.  E.  of  Bhdjd.  A  full  account 
of  tiiese  places  will  be  found  in  "  Cave 
Temples  of  India,"  pp.  223,  228.  The 
Bhdjd  Cave  dates  from  200  B.C.  There 
are  18  excavations,  and  No.  12  is  one 
of  the  most  interesting  in  India. 
Bedsd  dates  a  little  later  than  Bhdjd. 

In  the  Journal  of  the  Bombay  Asiat. 
Soc.  for  May,  1844,  Art.  vi.,  some  ac- 
count is  given  of  these  caves  by  Mr. 
Westergaard,  who  writes  to  Dr.  Bird 
as  follows  :  "  I  have  just  returned  from 
a  visit  to  the  caves  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  E4rl{,  and  I  am  led  to  suppose 
that  the  minor  caves  at  Bedsd  and  Bhdjd 
might    possibly   have  escaped    your 


Sect.  II» 


Horde  4. — Kdrli  to  Fund. 


177 


notice.  I  take  the  liberty  to  send  yon 
a  short  description  with  copies  of  the 
few  inscriptions  there ;  hoping  that 
you  will  not  refuse  this  small  contri- 
bution to  your  most  important  and  in- 
teresting work  on  the  Caves  of  West- 
ern India.  The  caves  at  Bedsa  are 
situated  about  6  m.  S.W.  from  War- 
g^n.  The  plan  of  the  temple  resem- 
bles K&rll,  but  is  neither  of  so  great 
extent,  nor  so  well  executed,  and  ap- 
pears more  modem.  It  contains  a 
dahgop  ;  and  its  roof,  which  is  ribbed 
and  supported  by  26  octagonal  pillars 
10  ft.  high,  seems  to  have  been  covered 
with  paintings,  which  are  now,  how- 
ever, 80  indistinct  that  nothing  can  be 
made  out  of  them.  There  are  4  pillars 
about  25  ft.  high  in  front,  surmounted 
by  a  group  of  horses,  bulls,  and  ele- 
phants. The  first  pillar  supports  a 
horse  and  a  bull,  with  a  male  and 
female  rider  ;  the  next,  3  elephants 
and  1  horse,  2  of  the  elephants  having 
a  male  and  female  rider ;  the  3rd,  3 
horses  and  1  elephant,  a  male  and  fe- 
male rider  being  placed  on  2  of  the 
horses  ;  and  the  4th  pillar  is  sur- 
mounted by  2  horses  bearing  a  male 
and  female  rider.  The  hall  of  instruc- 
tion, which  is  of  an  oval  shape,  has  a 
vaulted  roof,  and  is  situated  close  to 
the  temple.  It  contains  11  small  cells, 
and  over  the  door  of  one  of  them 
there  is  an  indistinct  and  partly  de- 
faced inscription,  which  will  be  imme- 
diately noticed. 

<*  The  caves  of  Bhdji  are  situated  3 
m.  S.B.  from  the  village  of  KArli.  The 
principal  temple  contains  a  dahgop, 
but  no  sculptures,  and  has  its  roof  sup- 
ported by  27  plain  pillars.  Outside 
there  is  a  group  executed  in  has  reliefs 
now  much  defaced.  On  both  sides  of 
the  chapel  the  hill  has  been  excavated 
into  two  stories,  corresponding  with 
the  height  of  the  temple,  and  contain- 
ing the  usual  ludls  of  instruction,  with 
cells.  But  the  most  curious  of  the 
sculptures  is  a  collection  of  14  dahgops, 
5  of  which  are  inside  and  the  others 
outside  the  cave.  On  the  first  of  the 
latter  there  is  an  inscription.  The 
group  of  horses,  bulls,  and  elephants, 
on  the  4  pillars  in  front  of  the  arched 
cave    at    Qedsd   resembles  what  we 

IBombay—lSSO,] 


find  on  the  Indo-Mithraic  coins  of 
the  N.,  and  is  evidence,  were  no  other 
proofs  procurable,  that  such  belongs 
to  the  worship  of  the  sun. 

*'  The  first  inscription  from  the  BedsA 
cave,  described  as  executed  over  the 
door  of  a  small  cell,  may  be  translated 
— 'By  an  ascetic  of  N&shika,  resembling 
the  purified  Saint  (Buddha),  the  pri* 
mssval  heavenly  great  one.' 

"The  second  inscription  from  the 
same  caves,  said  to  be  over  a  well, 
may  be  translated — '  A  righteous  gift 
of  a  small  offering  to  the  moving  power 
(body),  the  intellectual  principle,  the 
cherishing  material  body,  the  offspring 
of  Manu,  the  precious  jewel,  the  su- 
preme heavenly  one  here." 

**  The  inscription  on  the  first  of  the 
9  dahgopas  outside  the  cave,  may  be 
translated — *  The  resting-places  of  th^ 
preserver  dwelling  in  the  elements.* 
The  next  inscription  from  the  Bh&jd 
caves  is  said  to  be  over  a  well,  and 
may  be  translated  —  *The  righteous 
gift  of  a  symbol  and  vehicle  of  the  pu- 
rified Saka  SaJka,  the  resting-place  of 
the  giver.'  The  last  inscription  which 
is  given  is  not  quite  so  distinct  as  the 
others.  It  may  be  translated — *  A  gift 
to  the  vehicle  of  Bdddha  (the  perfect 
one),  the[Sugata  (Buddha)  eternally 
gone.' " 


ROUTE  4. 

kAeli  to  punA. 

Wargdon,—l&igh.t  m.  to  the  N.B. 
of  Taleg&on,  which  is  98  m.  from 
Bombay,  is  the  very  large  and  flour- 
ishing village  of  Wai^don,  celebrated 
for  the  defeat  of  a  British  force 
under  Lieut.-Col.  Cockbum,  on  the 
12th  and  13th  of  January,  1779,  and 
for  a  disgraceful  convention  concluded 

IT 


178 


JRoiUe  4. — £arli  to  Fund, 


Sect.  II. 


there  by  Mr.  Camac  with  the  Mard- 
thas.  The  history  of  the  affair  is  briefly 
thus :  The  Governor  of  Bombay,  Mr. 
Hornby,  had  agreed  with  the  Ex- 
Feshw4  Raghon^th  B4o  to  place  him 
at  PaD4  (Qrant  Duff's  "^Uar^has," 
vol.  ii.  p.  363)  as  regent,  and  sent  a  force 
of  3900  men,  of  whom  591  were  Euro- 
peans, to  carry  out  the  agreement. 
With  this  little  army  went  a  trium- 
virate of  2  civil  officers  and  Col.  Eger- 
ton  to  direct  operations.  One  of  the 
civilians,  Mr.  Mostyn,  was  sent  back 
sick,  and  died  on  the  1st  of  Jan.  at 
Bombay,  without  ever  attending  the 
committiee.  Mr.  Camac,  as  president 
with  the  casting  vote,  had  now  the  full 
power.  The  force  advanced  from  Pan- 
well  to  EhanddU,  where  Lieut.-Col. 
Cay  was  killed  by  a  rocket,  the  ene- 
my's advanced  guard  having  com- 
menced an  attack  as  soon  as  the  troops 
surmounted  the  Ghdt.  At  K4rli,  Cap- 
tain Btewart,  a  most  gallant  officer, 
who,  by  his  conspicuous  courage  on 
many  occasions,  had  won  from  the 
Mardthas  the  soubriquet  of  Stewart 
PhAkr6,  or  Stewart  the  Hero,  was 
killed  by  a  cannon  ball.  The  Mard- 
tha  main  army,  which  was  commanded 
by  N^n&  Famavis  and  Mahiddji  Sind- 
hia,  Hari  Pant  Pharke,  and  Tukoji 
Holkar,  advanced  to  Taleg^n,  but 
retired  on  the  advance  of  the  British, 
having  first  destroyed  the  village.  Col. 
Egerton  now  resigned  the  command 
to  Lieut. -Col.  Cockbum,  and  shortly 
after,  Mr.  Camac  becoming  alarmed, 
proposed  to  retreat.  On  the  night  of 
the  11th  of  January  the  heavy  guns 
were  thrown  into  a  tank,  a  quantity  of 
stores  were  burned,  and  the  retreat 
commenced.  At  2  a.m.  the  Mard^has 
began  an  attack,  plundered  part  of  the 
baggage,  and  shortly  after  completely 
surrounded  the  army.  The  fiercest 
onset  was  made  upon  the  rear-guard, 
which,  but  for  the  heroism  of  its  com- 
mander. Captain  James  Hartley,  would 
have  been  cut  to  pieces.  Animated  by 
his  harangues,  the  Sipdhis  repulsed  the 
enemy  till  10  A.M.,  when  Col.  Cock- 
bom  sent  peremptory  orders  to  retreat 
— orders  which  would  have  been  fatal 
had  they  been  obeyed.  But  they  were 
disregarded,   and   the   troops   main- 


tained the  contest  until  a  favourable 
opportunity  presented  itself  of  falling 
l>ack  on  Wargdon.  The  total  loss  on 
this  day  was  352,  among  whom  were 
15  European  officers,  killed  and 
wounded.  Col.  Cockbum  now  declared 
that  further  retreat  was  impracti- 
cable, and  that  the  army  was  at  the 
mercy  of  the  Mardthas ;  and  this  pu- 
sillanimous conduct  was  vainly  com- 
bated by  the  gallant  Hartley.  Mr. 
Camac  sent  Mr.  Holmes  to  make  terms 
with  the  enemy,  and  was  not  ashamed 
afterwards  to  declare  that  he  granted 
the  powers  to  that  gentleman,  under  a 
mental  reservation  that  they  were  of 
no  validity.  The  terms  agi^eed  upon 
were  that  everything  should  be  restored 
to  the  Mard^has  as  held  by  them  in 
1773  ;  that  the  committee  should  send 
an  order  to  the  Bengal  column,  ad- 
vancing to  their  support,  to  halt ;  that 
the  English  share  of  Bhardch  should 
be  given  to  Sindhia  ;  and  41,000  rs.  to 
his  servants.  However,  as  soon  as  the 
committee  were  safe  down  the  Ghdts, 
they  broke  faith,  by  countermanding 
the  order  to  the  Bengal  troops,  though 
the  Mardthas  held  2  hostages,  Mr.  Far- 
mer and  Lt.  Stewart,  for  the  due  per- 
formance of  the  treaty.  For  this  dis- 
graceful convention  and  retreat  Col. 
Egerton,  Col.  Cockbum,  and  Mr.  Car- 
nac  were  dismissed  the  service.  It 
was  at  Wargdoii  that  Captain  Vaugh- 
an  of  the  15th  Madras  N.  I.  and  his 
brother,  a  cadet,  were  intercepted  by 
the  Mardthas  after  the  battle  of  Khir- 
ki,  and,  having  been  ^'  driven  forward 
in  the  most  insulting  manner  "  *  to  Ta- 
legdon,  were  there  craelly  hanged  on 
a  tree  on  the  Pund  side  of  the  road. 

Ckinc?m-adf*^  Chinchore." — This  vil- 
lage is  109  m.  from  Bombay,  where  re- 
sides a  Brdhman  who  is  worshipped 
as  an  incarnate  god.  The  village  has 
a  picturesque  appearance  from  the 
river  side.t  Above  the  handsome  flight 
of  stone  steps  which  leads  to  the  river 
Miild,  are  many  fine  trees,  but  the 
temple  is  low  and  devoid  of  ornament. 
LordValentia  has  given  an  account 
of  his  visit  to  this  place  in  1804,  and 
Mrs.  Grahame  of  hers  on  December 

*  BUcker's  "  Mardtha  War,"  p.  71,  ed.  1821. 
t  "  Chow-Chow,"  vol  L  p.  292. 


Sect.  II. 


Route  4. — Khirkt 


179 


19th,  1809,*  when  she  saw  the  boy 
who  was  then  Deo  or  god,  *'not  anyway 
distinguished  from  other  children,  but 
by  an  anxious  wildness  of  the  eyes, 
said  to  be  occasioned  by  the  quantity 
of  opium  which  he  is  daily  made  to 
swallow."  Lady  Falkhmd  in  1848 
▼isited  the  place,  but  did  not  see  the 
god,  who  was  out  on  a  tour.  An  ac- 
count of  the  origin  of  this  ^*  exti*aordi- 
nary  imposture  "  is  given  by  Col.  Sykes 
in  vol.  iii.  ^'  Trans.  Lit.  Soc.  of  Bom- 
bay," art.  iv.  p.  64.  About  two  cen- 
turies and  a  half  ago  a  poor  couple 
obtained  the  promise  of  a  son  to  soothe 
their  declining  years,  from  Gai^pati, 
the  Hindii  god  of  wisdom.  The  boy 
was  named  MorobA,  in  honour  of  the 
god,  this  being  one  of  his  titles. 
Shortly  after  ^  birth  the  parents 
moved  to  Pippalg^A,  about  4  m.  from 
Ohinchwad,  where  they  died  ;  and 
Morobd  then  came  to  T&ti!ir  close  to 
Ghinchwad,  and  spent  22  years  in 
prayer  and  pilgrimage.  At  the  end 
of  this  time  he  restor^  a  blind  girl  to 
sight,  and  Shivaji,  whose  career  was 
then  commencing,  was  induced  by  the 
fame  of  this  miracle  to  seek  a  cure  for 
a  disorder  of  his  eyes  from  the  new 
saint.  The  cure  was  effected,  and 
Morobd's  name  became  widely  cele- 
brated. He  then  quitted  Tdtdr,  and 
took  up  his  residence  in  a  jungle  which 
then  covered  the  site  of  Chinchwad. 
Here  Ganpati  appeared  to  him,  and 
promised  him  as  a  reward  for  his  piety 
to  be  incarnate  in  him  and  his  de- 
scendants for  seven  generations.  Va- 
rious miraculous  circumstances  fol- 
lowed, such  as  the  emerging  of  a 
sacred  conical  stone  from  the  earth 
close  to  Morobi,  and  ended  in  his  be- 
ing revered  as  a 'god.  After  a  long 
career  he  buried  himself  alive  in  a  sit- 
ting posture,  with  a  holy  book  in  his 
hand,  and  with  a  strict  command  that 
his  resting  place  should  never  be  dis- 
turbed. Morob4  was  succeeded  by  his 
son  Chintdman  Deo,  in  attestation  of 
whose  divinity  a  second  conical  stone 
emerged  from  the  earth.  He  had  8 
wives  and  8  sons,  and  was  succeeded 
by  Ndriyaoi  Deo,  whose  fame  having 


«  If 


Joamal  of  Residence  in  India,"  jf.  70. 


reached  Dilli,  the  Emperor  'Alamglr, 
to  test  his  godship,  sent  him  as  an 
offering  a  piece  of  cow's  flesh  wrapped 
up  in  many  cloths.  On  being  opened, 
after  Ndrdyan  bad  sprinkled  it  with 
holy  water,  it  was  found  changed  to  a 
bouquet  of  jessamine  flowers  ;  and 
'Alamg^  was  so  pleased  with  the  mi- 
racle that  he  presented  8  villages  in 
perpetuity  to  the  god  for  his  support. 
To  Ndrdyan  succeeded  Chintdtnan 
Deo  II. ;  to  him  Dharmadhar,  and  to 
him  Chintiman  Deo  III.,  who  was  fol- 
lowed by  Ndr4y  an  U.  This  last  brought 
down  a  curse  upon  the  family  by  open- 
ing the  grave  of  Morobd,  who  impre- 
cated childlessness  upon  the  intruder ; 
and,  in  consequence,  Dharmadhar,  the 
son  of  N&rdyan  IL ,  died  without  issue. 
The  Brdhmans,  however,  were  deter- 
mined to  keep  alive  the  deceit,  and 
adopted  for  the  god  a  distant  relative 
named  Sdkhdri ;  and  as  long  as  the 
contributions  of  votaries  supply  the 
means  of  giving  monthly  dinners  to 
select  parties,  and  annual  entertain- 
ments to  unlimited  numbers,  as  is  now 
the  case,  the  imposture  will  flourish. 

Xliirki  (Kirkee). — The  next  place  tq 
stop  at  is  Khifkl,  115  J  m.from  Bombay, 
and  only  3}  m.  from  Fund.  The  word 
Khirki  signifles  ^'a  window,"  but  also 
a  sally-port.  It  is  interesting  as  being 
the  scene  of  a  splendid  victory  over 
Bdji  Rdo,  the  last  Peshwd.  On  the  Ist 
of  November,  1817,  the  dispositions  of 
that  prince  had  become  so  threaten- 
ing, that  Mr.  Elphinstonc,  then  Besi- 
dent  at  Fund,  determined  to  remove 
the  troops  from  the  cantonment  of 
that  place  to  Khij*kl,  where,  on  the  5th, 
they  took  up  a  good  |X)sition  to  the 
east  of  an  eminence,  on  which  stands 
the  village  of  Khiykl,  and  where  the 
stores  and  ammunition  were  stationed, 
under  the  protection  of  the  battalion 
companies  of  the  2nd  battalion  of  the 
6th  Begiment.  In  the  rear  of  the 
troops  was  the  river  Muld,  and  from 
the  S.  and  W.  advanced  the  masses  of 
the  Peshwd's  army,  amounting  to  8000 
foot,  18,000  horse,  and  14  guns,*  be- 
sides a  reserve  of  5000  horse  and  2000 
foot  with  the  Peshwd,  at  the  sacred 

*  Grant  Duff,  voL  iii.  p.  427. 

n2 


180 


Houte  4. — Karli  to  Fund. 


Sect.  II.- 


hill  of  P^bati.  The  cantonments  at 
Puni  and  the  Residency  at  the  San- 
pram,  on  the  site  of  which  now  stands 
the  Judicial  Commissioner's  office,  had 
been  plundered  and  burnt  on  the  1st, 
as  soon  as  the  English  troops  quitted 
them.  One  regiment  of  Major  Ford's 
brigade  was  at  DApdri,  and  the  total 
Rtrength  of  the  English,  even  when 
ihat  joined,  was,  according  to  Grant 
Duff,  but  2800  rank  and  file,  of  which 
800  were  Europeans.  Colonel  Burr,  a 
good  and  gallant  officer,  but  almost 
disabled  by  paralysis,  commanded  this 
little  army,  and  formed  them,  with  the 
Bombay  European  regiment,  a  detach- 
ment of  H.M.  65th,  Sie  Resident's  es- 
cort, and  part  of  the  2nd  battalion  of 
the  6tii  N.  L,  in  the  centre  ;  on  the 
right  flank,  the  2nd  battalion  of  the 
1st  K.  I. ;  and  on  the  left  the  1st  bat- 
talion of  the  7th  N.  I.  Gokl&  com- 
manded the  Peshwd's  army,  and  its 
advance  is  compared  by  Grant  Duff, 
who  was  an  eye-witness,  to  the  rush- 
ing tide  called  the  Bhor  in  the  Gulf  of 
Khambdyat.  It  swept  all  before  it, 
tramplii^  down  the  hedges,  and  fields 
of  standing  corn  which  then  covered 
the  plain.  Colonel  Burr  was  now  in- 
formed that  Major  Ford  was  advanc- 
ing with  his  regiment,  the  PeshwA's 
own,  from  DApdrl  on  the  W.,  to  join 
him ;  and  in  order  to  facilitate  the 
junction,  he  moved  the  main  force  to 
a  position  about  a  mile  in  advance, 
and  to  the  S.W.  of  the  village  of 
Khirki.  The  Mardtha  leaders  had  been 
tampering  for  some  time  with  the  re- 
pfiment  that  was  moving  from  Ddpiirl, 
and  they  fully  expected  it  would  come 
over,  as  it  was  paid  by  the  Peshwd. 
A  strong  body  of  horse,  therefore, 
under  Moro  Dikshat,  the  prime  minis- 
ter of  the  PeshwA,  advanced  about  4 
P.M.  upon  the  Ddpilirl  battalion,  but 
Major  Ford,  throwing  back  his  right 
wing,  opened  a  heavy  fire  upon  the 
Mar&t^as,  both  of  musketry  and  from 
3  small  guns  commanded  by  Captain 
Thew.  A  good  many  Mardthas  fell, 
and  among  them  Moro  Dikshat,  who 
was  struck  by  a  cannon  shot  in  the 
mouth.  It  is  remarkable  that  this 
chief,  who  was  an  excellent  man  and 
a&dthfnl  servant  of  his  prince,  had 


several  times  endeavoured  to  persuade 
Major  Ford  of  the  hopeless  nature  of 
the  contest  for  the  British  ;  and,  find- 
ing that  officer  determined  to  side  with 
his  countrymen,  had  asked  for  and  ob- 
tained a  promise  of  protection  to  his 
family  in  case  he  should  fall,  engaging 
to  do  the  same  for  Major  Ford's  family 
in  case  the  Peshw4  triumphed.  It  need 
scarcely  be  added  thatMajor  Ford  faith- 
folly  performed  his  agreement  to  the 
children  of  the  gallant  Mardthd  leader. 
In  the  meantime,  Gokld  had  organised 
an  attack  on  the  left  flank  of  the  Eng- 
lish main  force,  and  this  was  led  by  a 
regular  battalion  commanded  by  a 
Portuguese  named  De  Pento ;  and, 
after  his  discomfiture,  a  select  body  of 
6000  horse,  with  the  Jari  PatkA,  or 
golden  pennon,  flying  at  their  head, 
charged  the  7th  N.I.  as  they  were 
pursuing  De  Pento's  men.  Gokld's 
horse  was  wounded  in  this  charge,  and 
his  advance  was  stopped ;  but  there 
were  other  gallant  leaders,  such  as 
NAni  Pant  Apt6  and  Mahadeo  RAo 
Rdstia  ;  and  it  was  well  for  the  Sipd- 
hls  that  a  swamp  in  their  front  checked 
the  charge  of  the  Mardthas,  whose 
horsemen  rolled  headlong  over  one 
another  in  the  deep  slough.  As  it  was, 
some  cut  their  way  tlm>ugh  the  Si- 
pAhi  battalion ;  but,  instead  of  tom- 
mg  back,  when  they  might  have  de- 
stroyed the  regiment,  they  rode  off  to 
plunder  the  village  of  Khirki,  whence 
they  were  repulsed  by  a  fire  of  grape. 
After  this  charge,  the  MarA^has  drew 
off  with  a  total  loss  of  about  500  men, 
while  that  of  the  English  was  but  86. 
On  the  13th,  General  Smith's  army 
arrived  from  Sinir,  and  the  PeshwA, 
after  a  slight  resistance,  put  his  army 
in  full  retreat.  The  most  remarkable 
point  in  the  battle  of  Ehirkl  is,  per- 
haps, the  extraordinary  steadiness  of 
Major  Ford's  regiment  under  great 
temptation.  In  it  were  upwards  of  70 
Mai&thas,  yet  not  a  man  deserted  on 
the  day  of  battle,  though  promised 
vast  sums  to  join  their  countrymen. 
After  the  action,  the  Marathas,  but 
only  the  Mardthas,  joined  the  enemy, 
and  many  of  them  being  subsequently 
captured,  their  culpability,  such  as  it 
was,  was  very  properly  ignored,  and 


Sect.  II. 


Route  4. — KhirJcu 


181 


■they  were  set  free.  A  further  proof  of 
the  fidelity  of  this  corps  to  its  officers 
must  not  be  overlooked.  On  crossing 
the  river  from  Dapiirl  it  waa  found 
impossible  to  get  the  guns  to  move,  as 
the  bullocks  could  not  draw  them  out 
of  the  bed  of  the  stream.  Captain 
Thew,  commanding  the  guns,  an- 
nounced this  to  Captain  Lodwick,  the 
brigade  major,  who  immediately  or- 
dered the  light  battalion  to  t^e  the 
drag  ropes  and  extricate  the  guns. 
The  Sipdhis,  though  men  of  the  highest 
caste,  obeyed  this  order  with  the  ut- 
most alacrity,  much  to  the  surprise  of 
the  artillery  officer,  who  fully  expected 
them  to  mutiny.  Upon  the  whole,  it 
must  be  admitted  that  the  Ddpiiri 
regiment  decided  the  fate  of  the  day. 
The  officers  with  it  were  Major  Ford, 
conomanding  ;  Capt.  afterwards  Gene- 
ral Lodwick,  brigade  major ;  Lieut, 
afterwards  Colonel  Sykes,  adjutant ; 
and  Captain  Thew,  commanding  the 
guns. 

The  railway  station  at  Khijrkl  is  881 
yds.  N.W.  of  the  church,  and  the 
church  is  625  yds.  N.W.  of  the  Artil- 
lery  Mess,  which  has  the  barracks  of 
the  soldiers  close  by  to  the  N.  Ehirki 
is  in  fact  the  head-quarters  of  the  Ar- 
tillery. 800  yds.  to  the  N.E.  of  the  bar- 
racks is  the  Small  Arms  Ammunition 
Factory,  the  enclosure  of  which  is  about 
600  yds.  sq.  At  220  yds.  to  the  N.E.  of 
the  Factory  are  the  Powder  Works, 
the  enclosure  of  which  is  820  yds.  long 
from  N.  to  S.  and  410  from  B.  to  W. 
The  existence  of  this  great  store  of 
powder  so  near  the  barracks  of  the  Ar- 
tillery is  a  serious  matter,  for  it  is  said 
that  if  an  explosion  took  place,  not 
a  building  would  be  left  standing  in 
Khirki  ;  still  the  traveller  may  like  to 
visit  the  Factory  and  the  Works,  and 
if  so,  he  must  obtain  permission  from 
the  Commandant  of  the  Artillery. 
Christ  Church,  Khirkl,  which  is  in  the 
Artillery  lines,  was  consecrated  by 
Bishop  Carr,  in  1841,  and  has  seats  for 
600  persons.  It  is  150  ft.  long  from 
E.  toW.,  and  75  ft.  broad  at  the  chan- 
cel. There  is  a  brass  let  into  the  floor 
in  front  of  the  W,  entrance,  and  over 
it  are  2  Colours.  On  the  brass  is  in- 
scribed ; — 


In  Commemoration  of  the  Past  History  of 
The  23bd  Regiment  Bombay  Native  Light 

hWANTBY, 

The  above  Coloors  are,  by  permission, 

Placed  in  this  Chiu*ch. 

1870. 

There  is  another  handsome  brass  in 
front  of  the  reading-desk,  to  the  me- 
mory of  Captain  Arthur  Carey,  of  the 
R.  H.  A.  This  church  is  remarkable  for 
the  handsome  tablets  erected  by  regi- 
ments to  officers  and  men  of  their 
corps,  who  died  during  service  in  In- 
dia. Thus  there  is  a  tablet  to  3  officers 
of  the  4th  Queen's  Own  Light  Dra- 
goons, who  died  in  Sindh  in  the  Afghan 
campaign  of  1838,  and  one  to  30  offi- 
cers of  the  14th  King^s  Light  Dra- 
goons, who  died  between  1841  and 
1869,  26  of  whom  were  killed  in  ac- 
tion ;  and  another  to  90  non-commis- 
sioned officers  of  the  same  regiment, 
who  died  or  were  killed  during  the 
same  time.  Of  these,  3  were  killed  in 
action  at  Rdmnagar.  There  are  2  other 
tablets  to  officers  of  the  same  regiment , 
in  which,  strangely  enough,  the  names 
are  differently  spelt.  At  120  yds.  to 
the  N.E.  of  the  Artillery  Mess  is  St. 
Vincent  de  Paul's  Roman  Catholic 
Chapel,  as  it  is  called  in  the  maps,  but 
which  was  the  Protestant  Church  un- 
til Government  gave  it  over  to  the 
Catholics.  It  is  107^  ft.  long  and  42  ft. 
3  in.  broad.  One  of  the  most  interest- 
ing spots  at  Khifkl  is  Holkar's  bridge 
over  the  Muld  river,  a  stream  which 
surrounds  Khi]:ki  to  the  S.E.  and  N. 
The  river  is  200  yds.  broad  at  this  spot. 
On  the  right-hand  side  as  you  go  to 
Pun4  from  Ehirki  is  an  old  English 
cemetery,  and,  on  the  left  of  the  road, 
about  300  yds.  to  the  N,  is  the  New 
Burial  Ground.  After  crossing  the 
Mul4,  the  road  passes  on  the  right,  the 
tomb  of  Kha&de  R&o  Holkar,  and  on 
the  left  are  the  Sappers  and  Miners' 
Lines,  and  to  the  S.  the  Dakhan  Col- 
lege. In  this  vicinity  the  Jamshldji 
Band  and  the  Fitzgerald  Bridge  may 
be  visited.  The  Band  is  thrown  across 
the  Muld  river,  and  on  the  S.  side  of 
it  are  pretty  gardens,  in  which  the  band 
plays.  In  the  New  Burial  Ground,  as 
yet  there  are  scarcely  any  tombs.  In 
the  Old  Cemetery  there  are  not  many 
tombSy  though  ^eat  nun^bers  o|  Eng- 


182 


EoiUe  4. — Karli  to  Fund, 


Sect.  IT. 


lishmen  have  been  buried  there  without 
any  record ;  but  some  inscriptions  show 
the  ravages  of  cholera  in  1865.  There 
are  also  the  tombs  of  seyeral  officers  of 
the  14th  Boyal  Hussars  and  18th  Hus- 
sars, 10th  Hussars,  and  olher  cavalry 
regiments,  and  that  of  Lieut.-Col.  Sus- 
sex Vane  Stephenson  of  the  Scots  Fusi- 
lier Guards,  erected  by  the  officers  of 
the  Staff  of  the  C.  C.  Col.  Stephenson 
died  of  cholera  in  1872. 

Ddpuri  (Dapoorie).  —  Before  leav- 
ing Khifkl,  a  visit  may  be  paid  to 
Ddpiiri.    The  road,  which  is  the  great 
road  to  Bombay,  leads  for  2  m.  to  the 
N.W.,  running  parallel  with  the  rail- 
way.   You  cross  the  MulA  river  by  a 
long  narrow  bridge,  and  see  on  your 
left  the  Fitzgerald   Bridge.     DdpAri 
was  for  years  the  residence  of   the 
governor,  but  is  now  in  a  wretched 
state  of  decay.    The  name  is  perhaps 
a  corruption  of   IndrApilr,  "City   of 
Indra,"  and  may  be  connected  with 
the  worship  of  the  God  at  Chinchwad. 
It  was  here  that  on  the  banks  of  the 
little   river  PdwanA,  "  pure  stream," 
a    tributary    of   the    Muld,    Captain, 
afterwards    Col.  Ford,   C.B.,  built    a 
handsome  residence,  and  expended  on 
it,  and  on  the  beautiful  gardens  sur- 
rounding it,    no    less    a    sum    than 
110,000  rs.    This  officer  had  long  been 
the  assistant  of  Sir  Barry  Close,  and 
was,  by  his  interest,  appointed  to  raise 
and  command  a  brigade  of  troops,  dis- 
ciplined after  the  English  fashion,  for 
the  PeshwA  Bdjl  Rdo.    This  was  in 
1812,  and  the  new  levies  were  can- 
toned at  DApiiri  till  1817,  when  they 
marched  to  the  aid  of  Colonel  Burr's 
army  at  the  battle  of  Ehirki,  and  took 
a  prominent  part  in  the  engagement. 
During  his  residence  at  DApSrl,  Major 
Ford  was  conspicuous  for  his  hospi- 
tality, his  house  being    open  to  all 
strangers,  and  his  table  maintained  in 
a  princely  style.    He  was   also  the 
liberal  supporter  of  all  charities,  and 
was  beloved  and    respected    by  the 
natives  as  much  as  any  European  who 
ever  visited  India.   It  was  the  declared 
intention  of  the  Peshwi  to  spare  Major 
Ford,  had  he  succeeded  at  the  battle  of 
Khiykl.    Some  time  after  that  victorj', 
hftvin^  fttt^ii^ed  his  Lt,-CQlpnelcy,  h^ 


was  attacked  with  fever  and  died  at 
Bombay.  His  beautiful  residence  at 
D&piM  was  purchased  by  Sir  J.  Mal- 
colm for  Government  for  the  paltry 
sum  of  10,000  rs.  Near  it  are  nowiJie 
Botanical  Gardens.  The  principal  ban- 
gle contains  some  fine  reception  rooms, 
and  one,  in  which  the  Government 
balls  so  amusingly  described  by  Lady 
Falkland  •  were  held,  is  upwards  of  80 
ft.  long  and  well  proportioned.  There 
are  besides  several  detached  banglds. 

PuJid.—ThiB  capital  of  the  Mardthas 
is  119  m.  from  Bombay,  and  lies  to 
the  S.W.  of  Khifkl.    PunA  has  a  pop. 
according  to  the  census  of   1872,  of 
90,436  persons,  and  there  is  generally 
a  large  force  cantoned  there,  consist- 
ing of  three  regiments  of    European 
infantry,  two  N.L,  and  one  of  light 
cavalry.    The  first  mention  we  have  of 
Pun&  is  in  the  Mardtha  annals  of  1599 
A.D.,  when  the  parganahs  of  Pund  and 
Stipa  were  made  over  to  Maldji  Bhoilislc 
(grandfather  of  Shivaji)  by  the  Nigam 
ShAhl  Government.  In  1750  it  became 
the  Mar&tba  capital  under  B&ldji  Bdji 
BAo.    In  1763  it  was  plundered  and 
destroyed   by  NigAm  'All,  with    the 
Mughul  army  of  QaidarAb&d  in  the 
Dakhan.  Here,  on  the  25th  of  October, 
Jeswant    B&o    Holkar   defeated   the 
combined  armies  of  the  PeshwA  and 
Sindhia,  and  captured  all  the  guns, 
baggage,  and  stores  of  the  latter.   The 
city    stands   in  a  somewhat  treeless 
plain  on  the  right  of  the  MiitA  river,  a 
little  before  it  joins  the  Muld.    At  its 
extreme  S.  limit  is  the  hill  of  PArbati, 
so  called  from  a  celebrated  temple  to 
the  goddess  DurgA  or  PArvatl.    A  few 
miles  to  the  E.  and  N.E.  are  the  hills 
which  lead  up  to  the  still  higher  table- 
land in  the  direction  of  S&tdrd.    The 
station  is  the  principal  one  under  the 
British  Government  in  the  Dakhan, 
and  is  justly  a  favourite  for  its  salu- 
brity and  pleasant  climate.    There  is 
an    aqueduct   built    by  one    of    the 
RAstias,  a  family  of  great  distinction 
amongst  the    Mar&thas.     There    are 
also  extensive  waterworks,  constructed 
by  Sir  Jamshidji  Jijibhdi,  which  cost 
upwards  of  £20,000.     Of  this  sum  the 

*  "  Chow-Chow,'*  vol.  i.  p.  228, 


Sect  II. 


Route  4. — Fund, 


185 


Pdrsi   baronet   contributed    £17,500. 
Lady  FiUkland*  pronounces  the  view 
of  Fund  from  the  Sangam,  or  junction 
of  the  rivers  Muld  and  Miitd,  to  be 
*' perfectly   enchanting."     Supposing 
the  traveller  to  arrive  at  Puna  by  the 
railway,  he  will  find  the  Royal  Family 
Hotel  almost  touching  the  S.E.  side 
of  the  station.    The  PunA  Hotel,  at 
the   comer   of    Band    Gardens   and 
Lothian  Road,  is  about  800  yds.  further 
to  the  B.,  in  close  proximity  to  the 
Post-office   and   St.   Paul's    Church. 
The  Napier  Hotel  is  in  Arsenal  Road, 
and   is  400  yds.  farther  to  the  S.E. 
This  hotel  may  be   strongly  recom- 
mended.   There  is  a  very  good  Club 
at  Pnn^  to  which  strangers  are  ad- 
mitted.   It  is  between  the  Ordnance 
Lines  and  Wodehouse  Road,  and  is 
called  the  Club  of  W.  Indin.    Admis- 
sion is  by  ballot,  and  the  entrance  fee 
is  Rs.  200.    There  are  billiard  rooms 
and  a  good  racquet  court.    There  are 
also  a  few  apartments  which  are  let  to 
members  for   residence.      Supposing 
the  traveller  to  be  located  at  any  of 
these  hotels,  his  first  visit  may  be  to 
the  Council  Hall,  which  is  200  yds.  to 
the  N.  of  the  PunA  Hotel.    It  is  63  ft. 
long  and  20  broad,  and  is  hung  with 
pictures.    In  the  middle  of  the  left 
end  as  you  enter  is  a  f  nll-leng^h  por- 
trait of  Sir  B.  Frere,  with  one  of  KhAn 
Bah&dur    Padamil    Pestanji    on   his 
right.    Above  is  |ChAn  BahAdur  Nau- 
shirwAnjl.    Above  that  again  is  Lord 
Napier  of  Magdala,  and  on  his  left 
KhAn     Bahddur     Pestanji     SorAbjl. 
These    are  followed  by  portraits    of 
FrAmji  Patel,  the  Crown  Prince  of 
Travankor,   Sir    MangaldAs    NAthub- 
hAi,   Dr.    Bhau    D&jl,   the    RAjA   of 
Kochin,  Sir  S&lAr  Jang,  the  ThAkors 
of  Bhaunagar  and  Morvl,  and  at  the 
end  Ehand^  RAo  GAekwAd  and  Lady 
Frere.     Opposite  the  Council  Hall  is 
the  office  of  the  DaJih^in  Herald^  pub- 
lished three  times  a  week.    There  is 
one  other  paper,  the  Puna  Observer, 
published  every  other  day  alternately 
with  the  Dakhan  Herald,    The  office 
for  it  is  close  to  Treacher's  Store,  and 
the  PArsi  Fire  Temple.  The  next  visit 

*  "  dlow-Chow,"  vol.  I  p.  265. 


will  be  first  to  the  Sassoon  Hospital 
and  then  to  St.  Paul's  Church,  which 
is  200  yds.  S.W.  of  the  PunA  Hotel, 
and  is  plain  inside,  but  has  4  very 
handsome  stained  glass  windows  over 
the  Communion  Table.    It  was  conse- 
crated    by  Bishop  Harding  in  1867 
There  are  seats  for  230  persons.    The 
number  of  communicants  is  unusually 
large,  and  among  them  may  be  seen 
In£an  women  in  their  native  dresses. 
The  Sassoon  Hospital  is  at  tlie  end  of 
the   Arsenal    Road,    and   is   in   the 
English  Gothic  style.  There  is  accom- 
modation   for    150  patients.    It  was 
opened  in  the  year  1867.  Opposite  the 
hospital  are  the  Collector's  Kacheri,  the 
Government  Treasury,  and  the  Branch 
Bank  of  Bombay.    About  260  yds.  S. 
of  St.  Paul's  Church  is  the  Jews'  Syna- 
gogue.  It  is  a  red-brick  building  with 
a  tower  90  ft.  high.    It  is  90  ft.  9  in. 
long    from    the     entrance    to    the 
Sanctum,  which  is  semicircular,  and 
10  ft.    wide.    Here   is    a  handsome 
curtain  with  a   Bible  and   2  hands 
pointing  to  it.    The  hall  is  44  ft.  10  in. 
broad  and  stands  E.  and  W.    On  the 
left,  as  you  enter,  is  a  tablet  with  this 
inscription : — 

This  is  the  Oate  of  the  Lord, 

Into  which  the  Righteous  shall  enter, 

and 

This  Stone 

Is  set  as  a  Honnment  to  he  a  sign 

of  this 

House  of  Prayer, 

called 

The  Tent  of  David. 

The  foundation  of  which  was  laid 

on  the 

2nd  of  November,  1863, 

by  the  late 

DAVID   SASSOON,  ESQ., 

and  which  was  completed  under  we  auspices 

of  his  Sons. 

Consecrated,  29th  September,  1867. 

David  Sassoon*s  tomb  adjoins  the  sjma- 

gogue,  which  was  built  by  him.    The 

Mausoleum  is  16  ft.  7  in.  sq.  inside 

measure,  and  28  ft.  high.    On  the  W. 

side  is  a  Hebrew  inscription  and  the 

Sassoon  arms.    On  the  E.  side  is — 

Sacred  to  the  Memory  of 

DAVID    SASSOON, 

Bom  at  Baghdad, 

Heshwan,  6,  553: 

Died  at  Punii, 

Heshwan,  5,  625. 

May  his  soul  rest  in  peace. 


184 


Houte  4. — Karli  to  Fund, 


Sect.  ir. 


On  the  S.  and  N.  sides  are  long  He- 
brew inscriptions.  Close  here,  adjoin- 
ing, is  Treacher*B  shop,  where  all  stores 
can  be  pnichased« 

A  drive  of  1}  to  the  S.E.  will  take 
the  traveller  to  St.  Mary's  Chnrch,  and 
on  the  way  he  may  stop  at  the  Arsenal 
if  he  wonld  like  to  see  it,  which  is 
about  }  m.  from  St.  Paul's  Chnrch. 
St  Mary*B  Chnrch  is  118  ft  long  and 
85  ft.  1  in.  broad  at  the  chanceL    Here 
arebnried  many  officers  of  distinction, 
sach  as  CoL  Morris,  C.B.,  of  Balaklava 
celebrity,  who  died  1858,  Lieut  C.  A. 
Stuart,  of  the  Madras  Aimy,  who  fell 
mortally  wounded  28th  of  January, 
1858,  while  leading  the  men  of  the 
4th  Kij^to's  infantry  for  the  3rd  time 
against  a  body  of  insurgent  Bhils, 
strongly  posted  at  Mandwddd  Malle- 
g^n.      ^ere  are  tablets  also  to   5 
officers  of  the  27th  Bombay  K.I.  and  5 
officers  of  the  8th  Royal  regt.  of  Foot, 
also  to  Captain  Thomas  Ramon,  who 
died  Nov.  5th,  1816.    This  tablet  says, 
"  That  it  is  to  perpetuate  his  memory 
in  this  Christian  Temple,  designed  by 
his  genius  and  reared  by  his  hand  ; " 
but,  strange  to  say,  he  died  and  was 
buried  at  Mandeir  in  Eachh,  and  the 
tablet  was  intended  for  the  church  at 
Kaira,  of  which  he  was  the  architect. 
There  is  also  a  tablet  to  Lieut.  J.  W. 
M'Cormack,  of  H.M.'s  28th,  killed  at 
the  storming  of  Bet,  with  4  N.C.  officers 
and  8  men,  Oct  6th,  1859.    Another 
tablet  is  to  Major  Henry  C.  Teesdale, 
who  fell  in  front  of  the  Colours  of  the 
25th  regt.  N.I.,  when  commanding  it 
at  the  battle  of  Midnf,  on  the  17th 
of  February,  1843.    With  him  are  as- 
sociated the  names  of  Lieut  C.  Lodge, 
killed  in  action  at  Kotru  in  Eja(£h 
Gand&va,  on  the    Ist   of   December, 
1840  ;  of  Capt  C.  Rebenac  ;  of  Ensign 
Browne,  killed  by  accident  at  Karachi, 
and  of  18  other  officers  of  the  same 
regt,  one  of  whom,  Col.  Robertson, 
was  C.B.  and  A.D.C.  to  the  Queen. 
There  are  also  tablets  to  Lieut.  Mal- 
colm   G.   Shaw,    of   the   3rd    Light 
Cavalry,  who  died  of  sunstroke  at  the 
battle    of    Beawra,    and    to    Lieut. 
Augustus  Charles  Frankland,  who  was 
killed  in  Persia  at  the  battle  of  Khus- 
h^b,on  the  8th  of  February,  1857,  while 


gallantly  chaiging  the  enemy.     Re- 
mark  his    motto,    "Fnmke   Lande, 
Franke  Mynde,"  and  another  to  Cap- 
tains Seton  and  PeUe  and  81  K.C. 
officers  and  privates  of  the  1st  Bombay 
Fuslleers,  who    died   of   cholera    at 
EariUshi  in  a  very  brief  period ;  (also 
on  the  same  t^let)  to  Capt.  Rawlin- 
son,  Lieut  A.  P.  Hunt,  and  140  N.  C. 
officers  and  privates,  who  died  before 
the  return  of  the  regt.  to  its   Resi- 
dency ;  also  (on  the  same  tablet)  1st 
Lieut.  W.  A.  Anderson,  who  was  bar- 
barously murdered  at  Multdn,  and  to 
22   N.C.  officers  and  privates  killed 
during  that  siege.     In   this   church 
there  are  6  tall  round  pilli»s  and  2 
shorter,  faced  with  polished  chunam. 
There  are  also  2  sq.  pillars  on  which 
are  tablets.    The  Baptismal  Font  is  in 
the  S.W.  comer  of  the  church,  and  is 
surrounded  by  handsome  stained  glass 
windows.     St  Mary's  was  consecratctl 
by  Bishop  Heber  in    1825,  and  has 
seats  for  900   persons.     Close   to  the 
church  is  the  United  Service  Library, 
in  which  are  about  9000  volumes,  of 
which  800  are  biographical  works,  700 
hi8torical,rand  800  works  of  reference. 
The  monthly  subscription  is  4  rs.    To 
the  E.  of  St.  Mary's  Church  are  the 
General    Parade    Ground    and    Race 
Course,    the    latter    included    in  the 
former,  and  about  1  m.  long.      The 
races  are  generally  run  in  September, 
The  band-stand  is  at  the  S.W.  comer, 
and  close  to  it  are  the  Gymnasium,  St. 
Andrew's  Church,  and  the  Masonic 
Lodge,  and  to  the  N.  are  the  Ghorpiirl 
European  Barracks.    To  the  S.  are  the 
Wanawrl  Barracks.    While  in  this  di- 
rection, the  old  cemetery  in  East  Street 
may  be  visited,  it  not  being  far  from 
St  Paul's  Church.    This  cemetery  is 
not  well  kept.    Observe,  first,  a  hand- 
some stone  building  with  a  dome,  sup- 
ported by  6   pillars,  and  a  platform 
10  ft.  sq.    This  is  evidently  the  tomb 
of  some  one  of  importance,  but  there 
is  no  inscription.    From  7  other  tombs 
in  the  vicinity  the  tablets  have  been 
removed.    Here  is  the  tomb  of  Major 
John  Snodgrass,  of  the  16th  regt.  N.I., 
who  died  on  the  28th  of  Dec.,  1828. 
Having  been  arrested  for  malpractices 
in  his  department,   he  was  said  to 


Sect.  II. 


Eoute  4. — Fund, 


185 


have  shot  himself,  and  an  inquest 
wag  held  on  the  body  of  an  Euro- 
pean whose  head  was  too  much  shat- 
tered to  admit  of  recognition.  It 
has  beeii  strongly  assert^,  in  more 
than  one  quarter,  that  this  officer 
has  since  been  seen  in  Europe.  Here 
also  is  interi*ed  Maria  Jane  Jews- 
bury,  wife  of  the  Rev.  W.  K.  Flet- 
cher. She  died  Oct.  4th,  1833.  The 
epitaph  says,  "Endued  with  genius, 
her  name  lives  in  the  literature  of 
Britain," 

Another  day  may  be  spent  in 
visiting,  first  of  all  the  Sangam,  which 
has  already  been  referred  to.  Here  is 
the  confluence  of  the  Miitd  river 
flowing  from  the  S.  with  the  Mul& 
river  coming  from  the  N.W.  The 
Sangam  is  due  N.  of  the  old  city,  and 
is  reached  from  Ehirkl  by  the  Wel- 
leslej  Bridge,  which  is  482  ft.  long  and 
28}  ft.  broad.  It  crosses  the  IdMd 
river  just  S.  of  the  Sangam.  There  is 
the  following  inscription — "  The  ori- 
ginal wooden  structure  named  in 
honour  of  the  victories  obtained  in 
the  Dakhan  by  Major-General  Arthur 
Wellesley  (afterwards  F.M.  the  Duke 
of  Wellington,  K.G.),  constructed  by 
Captain  Kobert  Foster,  Bombay  Engi- 
neers, at  a  cost  of  Rs.  91,892,  and 
opened  in  1830  by  the  Honourable 
Major  -  General  Sir  John  Malcolm, 
G.C.B.,  Grovemor  of  Bombay,  having 
become  decayed  and  unsafe  for  traffic, 
was  removed,  and  the  present  bridge, 
designed  and  constructed  by  Colonel 
A.  U.  H.  Finch,  R.B.,  at  a  cost  of 
Bs.  110,932,  was  opened  to  the  public 
in  May,  1876  ;  His  Excellency  the 
Honourable  Sir  Philip  Wodehouse, 
K.O.B.,  Governor  and  President  in 
Council." 

On  the  right  hand,  going  to  Pund 
from  Kbi]*ki,  just  before  you  reach 
the  Wellesley  Bridge,  are  the  Pund 
Engineering  College  and  the  Judges' 
Chambers,  the  latter  a  long,  low  build- 
ing, quite  plain  inside.  Here  stood 
the  Presidency  of  the  British  Agent, 
Mountstuart  Elphinstone,  at  the  time 
of  the  rupture  with  the  last  Pesliwd, 
Bdji  R&o.  Mr.  Elphinstone  retired 
from  it  to  Khipkl  before  the  battle, 
and  the    Mar^thas    plundered    the  I 


building  anji  pulled  it  down.  The 
Indians  still  identify  this  spot  with 
the  Peshw&'s  rule,  and  say  Bdji  Rio's 
throne  was  here,  though  the  Peshw&'s 
actual  residence  was  in  the  Fort  of 
Pund.  The  Pund  Engineering  College 
is  to  the  W.  In  front  of  it,  but 
hidden  by  some  houses,  is  an  old 
cemetery,  the  very  existence  of  which 
had  been  lost  sight  of  by  the  Euro- 
peans at  Pun&.  It  is  enclosed  by  a 
ruinous  wall,  broken  considerably  in 
one  place,  the  whole  enclosure  being 
about  70  ft.  into  50  ft.  The  ground  is 
filthy,  and  of  all  the  21  tombs  en- 
closed there,  one  only  has  an  inscrip- 
tion. It  is  to  Mrs.  Caroline  Lodwick, 
who  died  Jan.  29th,  1819.  One  or 
two  of  the  tombs  are  very  large,  with 
domes  supported  by  pillars,  and  no 
doubt  belonged  to  persons  of  distinc- 
tion. At  the  W.  end  of  Wellesley 
Bridge  is  a  path  to  the  left,  which 
leads  dovm  to  a  pretty  garden  in  which 
there  are  several  temples.  The  first 
is  22  ft.  8  broad  at  base,  built  of  stones 
averaging  1  yd.  long  and  1  ft.  5  high, 
most  carefully  joined  together  without 
mortar.  There  are  stall's  to  the  top  of 
the  tower,  which  is  40  ft.  high.  The 
garden  is  filled  with  fruit  trees,  the 
produce  of  which  goes  to  some 
Oosains  who  do  not  live  on  the  spot. 
In  the  middle  of  the  garden  is  a  2nd 
temple,  nearly  as  broad  but  not  so 
high.  A  3rd  temple  at  the  end  of  the 
garden  was  built  by  Holkar,  who  de- 
stroyed %  old  temples  to  build  it.  All 
the  temples  are  to  Mah4deo,  and, 
though  small,  are  extremely  hand- 
some. At  300  yds.  from  the  Engi- 
neering College  is  Sir  Albert  Sassoon's 
house,  called  Garden  Reach.  It  was 
begun  by  Col.  Wilkins,  and  carried  on 
by  Mr.  Rustamjl  Jamshldji  JijibhAi, 
who  failed,  and  then  Sir  Albert  bought 
it.  It  was  built  between  1862  and 
1864,  and  cost  £80,000.  The  gardens 
are  beautiful  and  stretch  almost  to  the 
river :  15  gardeners  and  many  la- 
bourers are  employed  in  these  gardens, 
in  which,  besides  the  principal  house, 
are  detached  bangle  for  3  families. 
The  rooms  in  the  principal  house  are 
floored  with  marble.  The  floor  of  the 
ante-cbamber  to  the  dining-room  is 


186 


Boute  4. — Karli  to  Fund, 


Sect.  IL 


of  Carrara  marble,  and  that  of   the 
dining-room   is    of   Chinese  marble. 
The  dining-room  is    connected  with 
the  house  bj  a  long,  open  galloy,  and 
is  55  ft.  long  and  20  broad,  with  a 
verandah  10  ft.  broad  on  either  side. 
Beside  it  is  an  open  room,  the  sides  of 
which  are  of  carved  wood,  where  the 
family    dine    during   the     Feast    of 
Tabernacles.      Steps    lead   from    the 
dining-room  into  a  billiard-room  34  ft. 
long  and  21  broad.    You  ascend  to  the 
drawing-room  by  stairs,  and  here  is 
a  good  marble  bust  of  Garibaldi,  with 
copies  in  marble  of  the  best  Italian 
statues.    In  the  window  are  the  arms 
of  Rustamjl  Jijibh^i  in  stained  glass. 
The  drawing-room  is  50  ft.  long,  and 
has  a  vestibule,  forming  part  of   it, 
14  ft.  long,  so  that  the  total  length  is 
64  ft.,  and  at  either  end  is  a  terrace 
paved  with  marble  31  ft.  long  by  25 
broad.    The  ceiling  is  beautifully  de- 
corated by  Fund  artists,  in  imitation 
of  the  ceiling  of   the  ball-room    at 
Government    House,    called    Ganesh 
Xhind.    In  the  drawing-room  is  a  fine 
full-length  portrait  of  David  Sassoon, 
Sir  Albert's  father,  who  must  have 
been  strikingly  handsome.  A  fountain 
in  the  garden  cost  Rs.  40,000,  and  the 
water  tower,  which  is  125  ft.   high, 
cost  Bs.  100,000.    There  is  a  flag-staff 
tower  100  ft.  high.    Altogether  it  is  a 
noble   residence,  and    permission  to 
view  it  would  no  doubt  be  granted  on 
application.     From  this  a  drive  may 
be  taken  of  1}  m.  to  the  Jamshidjl 
Band  and  the  Fitzgerald  Bridge.    The 
Band  is  of  stone  thrown  across  the 
Mul&  river,  and  on  the  S.  side  of  it 
are  pretty  gardens  of  6  acres,  called 
the  Victoria  Gardens,  in  which  the 
band  plays,  and  many  Indian  ladies 
promenade.      There  are  2  flights  of 
steps,   1  of  13  and  1  of  11,  down  to 
the  water,  and  at  them  is  the  fol- 
lowing inscription : — 


The  Jamshldji  Band  Water-works, 

Cnnstructed  at  the  suggestion,  and  carried  out 

under  the  auspices  of 

Sir  Jamshidjl  JijibMi,  Knight, 

of  Bombay, 

Wlio  munificently  contributed  the  sum  of 

Rs.  173,050  towanls  the  undertaking, 

In  which  the  eminent  individual  whose  name 

it  bears  had  in  view  the  noble  and  philan* 


thropic  design  of  fbmtshing  the  inhabitant* 
of  I^n&, 
A  nerer-lkiling  supply  of  pure  water. 
The  work  was  commenoed  in  the  Christian 

year  1844, 
Corresponding   with  the  Shanshal  Tezd^ird 

Era  1214-15,  and 

Completed  in  1850,  under  the  superintendenco 

Of  Captain  Thomas,  of  the  Bombay 

Engineers. 

The  total  amount  of  expenses  incurred  on  this 

useful  and  charitable  undertaking  was 

Rs.  257,499» 

The  view  of  the  Fitzgerald  Bridge, 
with  its  27  arches,  from  the  Band  ;  of 
the  Cascade  at  the  Band,  which  has  a 
fall  of  about  8  ft.  ;  and  of  the  broad 
stream,  350  yds.  wide,  above  it,  on 
which  rowing  matches  take  place, 
chiefly  in  August,  starting  from  the 
Club  boat-house  on  the  Pnii4  side  of 
the  Band,  is  very  pretty. 

Hie  City,  during  the  flourishing  times 
of  the  Peshw&s,  probably  contained, 
inclusive  of  troops,  twice  as  many  in- 
habitants as  now.    For  a  native  town 
the  streets  are  wide,  and  some  of  the 
older  houses  are  substantial  buildings. 
It  is  divided  into  7  quarters,  named 
after  the  days  of  the  week.    In  the 
Shanwdr  qua^r,  or  Saturday  division, 
are  the  remains  of  the  Peshw4's  Castle, 
called  Ji!in4w&d&,  or  "old  palace,"  a 
large  enclosure  about  180  yds.  sq.     It 
was  built  by  the  grandfather  of  the 
last  Peshw4,  and  was  a  grand  building 
till  burned  down  to  the  first  stoiy  in 
1827.    Mrs.  Graham,  in  1809,  speaks 
of  it  as  surrounded  by  "  high,  thick 
walls,  with  four  large  towers  "  (Joum. 
p.  78),  there  being  but  one  entrance 
through  a  high  pointed  arch,  on  each 
side  of  which  is  a  tower.    The  massive 
walls  still  remain.      In  front  is  an 
open  space,  where  a  market  for  ve- 
getables is  held.    About  110  yds.  to 
the  N.  is  a  stone  bridge,  over  which  a 
road  leads  to  the  village  of  Bamburda 
and  the  Sangam.    The  doors  are  very 
large,  and  covered  with  iron  spikes. 
Above  the  gateway  is  a  small  bcdcony 
supported  on  pillars.    Here  is  the  ter- 
race from  which,  on  the  morning  of 
the  25th  October,  1795,*  the  young 
Peshwd,   Mhddu  R&o,  threw  himself, 
and  died  two  days  afterwards  of  the 

*  Grant  Duff,  vol.  iil,  p.  126. 


Sect.  11. 


Boute  4. — Fund — Fdrvati, 


187 


njuries  he  received  in  the  fall.  On 
the  22nd  he  had  shown  himself  to 
his  troops,  who  passed  before  him  in 
thousands,  a  sea  of  horsemen.  It 
was  the  festival  of  the  Dasahr^.  and 
en  this  occasion  that  national  fete  of 
the  Mardthas  was  conducted  with 
nnusnal  splendonr.  In  the  evening 
the  young  PeshwA  received  his  great 
chiefs,  and  the  ambassadors  of  foreign 
courts,  in  his  accustomed  manner ; 
but  the  restraints  imposed  upon  him 
by  his  minister,  Ndn4  Famavls,  had 
stung  him  to  the  quick,  and  he  was 
then  meditating  the  act  of  self-de- 
struction, which,  three  days  after,  he 
accomplished.  Here,  too,  on  the  80th 
of  August,  1773,  NArdyan  RAo,  at  the 
age  of  eighteen,  after  he  had  been 
but  nine  months  PeshwA,  was  savagely 
murdered,  by  Somar  Singh  and  Tra- 
liyA  Powar,  two  of  his  guard.  The 
unfortunate  youth  had  confined  his 
uncle,  RaghunAth  RAo,  in  an  apart- 
ment of  the  palace,  and  RaghunAth 
had  commissioned  these  two  assassins 
to  seize  the  young  PeshwA,  and  thus 
bring  about  his  own  release.  But  the 
vindictive  Anandi  BAl,  the  wife  of 
BaghunAth,  secretly  altered  the  word 
"  seize "  to  "  kill,"  and,  in  obedience 
to  the  mandate,  Somar  Sing  forced 
his  victim  even  &om  his  nucleus  arms, 
to  which  he  had  fled  for  refuge,  and 
stabbed  him,  killing  with  the  same 
blow  a  faithful  servant  who  had  cast 
himself  on  his  body. 

Not  far  from  this  castle  is  a  street 
in  which,  under  the  PeshwAs,  offenders 
were  executed  by  being  trampled  to 
death  by  elephants.  One  of  the  most 
memorable  of  these  executions,  on 
account  of  the  princely  rank  of  the 
sufferer,  was  that  of  Wittojl  Holkar, 
brother  of  that  Jeswant  RAo  Holkar 
who,  the  same  year,  won  the  battle  of 
PunA.  The  last  of  the  PeshwAs,  BAji 
BAo,  beheld  the  agonies  of  the  victim 
from  a  window  of  his  palace,  where, 
on  the  morning  of  the  1st  of  April, 
1800,  he  took  his  seat  with  his  favourite 
BAlaji  Kunjar,  in  order  to  glut  his 
eyes  with  the  revolting  sight.  In  the 
"  Wednesday "  quarter  of  the  city,  in 
the  WishrAm  BA^  to  the  S.,  is  another 
palace  called  the  BudhwAr,  or  "  Wed- 


nesday." Here  are  now  public  offices 
and  an  English  school  for  the  natives. 
This  school  has  been  amalgamated 
with  the  Sanskrit  CoUege,  which  was, 
in  1821,  established  for  the  study  of 
the  ancient  literature  of  the  country. 
This  also  has  been  injured  by  fiie.  Jn 
the  same  quai'ter  is  the  quondam  re- 
sidence of  NAnA  Farnavis,  a  shabby 
mansion  with  a  small  court-yard  and 
fountain,  and  many  small  dark  rooms 
and  dingy  passages.  On  the  outskirts 
of  the  town  is  a  very  large  Jain 
temple  with  Chinese-looking  orna- 
ments. "In  a  small  room,*  with  a 
ceiling,  walls,  and  pillars  painted  red 
and  green,  and  all  the  quaint  orna- 
ments carved  and  painted  the  same 
colour,  there  is  a  small  square  cage 
with  bars  in  which  are  two  marble 
elephants,  and  on  each  side  a  little 
white  marble  goat." 

PdrvatL — ^A  visit  to  PArvatl  is  in- 
dispensable. The  hill,  with  its  temples, 
is  situated  at  the  extreme  S.  of  the 
town,  and  the  road  to  Sinhgarh  passes 
a  little  to  the  N.  of  it.  On  the  way 
to  it,  at  no  great  distance,  is  the  little 
village  of  Bambiira,  where,  in  former 
times,  a  huge  gon  was  fired  every 
evening  as  a  MarAtha  Curfew,  to  warn 
honest  folk  to  keep  within  their  houses. 
On  one  occasion  several  BrAhmans, 
disregarding  this  warning,  remained 
out  till  late  and  were  locked  up  by  the 
police,  on  which  the  people  insisted  on 
the  superintendent  of  police  being 
given  up  to  them,  and  stoned  him  to 
death,  though  he  had  not  even  been 
informed  that  the  BrAhmans  had  been 
arrested  by  his  satellites.  The  HirA 
BAgh,  or  "  Diamond  Garden,"  is  also 
passed  on  the  road.  There  is  a  ceihe- 
tery  here,  very  well  kept  and  shaded 
with  trees.  Here  is  interred  the  cele- 
brated African  traveller,  Sir  William 
Comwallis  Harris,  Major  in  the  Bom- 
bay Engineers,  who  died  October  9th, 
1848.  He  was  the  author  of  "Wild 
Sports  in  the  West,"  and  the  "  High- 
lands of  Ethiopia."  In  the  Presby- 
terian cemetery,  which  adjoins  to  the 
E.,  are  2  very  handsome  monuments 
of  beautiful  polished  granite,  brought 

*  Lady  Falkland's  "  Chow-Chow,"  vol.  I 
p.  276. 


J88 


EotUe  4. — Karli  to  Fund. 


Sect.  II. 


from  Scotland  :  one  is  to  the  wife  of 
Thomas  Blaney ;  it  is  an  obelisk,  the 
shaft  of  which  is  11  ft.  high ;  the  other 
is  to  the  wife  of  Mr.  Jollej,  Harbour- 
master of  Bombay,  and  is  a  granite 
column  8  ft.  8  in.  high.  The  HlrA 
Bdgh,  with  its  lake  and  island,  and 
the  Villa  of  the  Peshwto,  Mosque,  and 
temples,  is  a  charming  place  for  a  pic- 
nic. Lord  Yalentia  mentions  it  in  his 
account  of  a  visit  to  the  Peshwd  in 
1804.  ThetempleatP^rvati  was  built 
by  the  Peshwd  B41aji  Bdji  R4o,  who 
reigned  from  1740  A.D.  to  June,  1761. 
He  never  recovered  the  shock  of  the 
fatal  Mar4tha  defeat  at  P4nipat.  "  He 
slowly  retraced  his  steps  towards  Pun4 
from  the  Nirbadd,  but  his  faculties 
were  much  impaired.  A  rapid  decay 
of  the  constitution  ensued,  and  he  ex- 
pired in  the  end  of  June  at  the  temple 
of  P&rvati,  a  conspicuous  building 
erected  by  him  in  the  S.  environs  of 
PunA."  (Grant  Duff,  vol.  ii.  p.  157.) 
The  temple  is  said  to  have  been  built 
in  honour  of  the  BAjd  of  SdtArA.  In 
order  ^o  reach  the  place  of  ascent, 
which  is  on  the  E.  side,  the  Khadak- 
wasla  canal  must  be  passed.  This 
canal  comes  from  the  great  reservoir 
10  m.  to  the  8.  of  Pund.  Here  the 
water  runs  from  the  top  of  an  aque- 
duct, which  forms  a  bridge  here,  under 
which  you  must  pass,  though  the 
ground  is  excessively  filthy  all  around. 
You  then  ascend  62  steps,  each  of 
which  has  a  long  slant  h^yond  it  of 
from  10  to  35  fit.,  and  this  brings 
you  to  a  flight  of  34  small  steps, 
which  lead  to  the  Court  of  the  temple. 
At  each  comer  of  this  court  are  smaller 
shrines  to  Surya,  *the  Sun,'  Vishnu, 
Eartikeya,  the  Hindii  Mars,  and  Dur- 
g&.  The  principal  temple  is  to  P^- 
vatl,  the  wife  of  Shiva,  so  called  from 
Parvat,  '*  a  mountain."  She  is  said  to 
be  the  daughter  of  the  Him&lya.  As- 
cending 16  narrow  steps  you  mount 
on  the  wall,  from  which  is  a  fine  and 
extensive  view  over  PunA  and  Khifki. 
From  the  bastion  on  which  you  sit  to 
the  ground  outside  is  41  ft.,  but  this 
ground  is  a  considerable  height  above 
the  plain.  The  view  ranges  over  PAr- 
vati  Tank  to  the  E.  by  N.,  and  PArvati 
village  S,  of  the  tank  over  the  HirA 


B^ij^h  to  St.  Mary's  Church  and  the 
Jews'  Synagogue  far  to  the  N.E.  A 
small  bangU  on  the  bank  of  the  tank 
is  noted  as  the  place  where  a  civilian 
shot  himself.  The  chief  Brdhman  at 
PArvati  speaks  English  quite  fluently. 
He  will  expect  a  donation  of  2  rs.  or 
so  for  the  bi^efit  of  the  temple,  and 
the  numerous  blind  persons  who  fre- 
quent the  hill  will  not  be  satisfied 
without  receiving  alms.  To  the  W.  of 
the  hill  is  a  ruined  palace  of  the  Pesh- 
wAs,  which  was  struck  by  lightning  in 
1817,  the  year  of  BAjl  RAo*s  overthrow 
by  the  British,  and  destroyed  as  a  re- 
sidence. In  the  temple,  it  should  be 
said,  is  a  silver  image  of  Shiva,  with 
images  of  P4rvati  and  Ganesh,  said  to 
be  of  gold,  seated  on  his  knees.  The 
temple  was  built  in  1749,  and  cost 
£100,000.  During  the  Diw&li  the 
temple  is  lighted  up  in  a  beautiful 
manner.  On  the  N.W.  side  is  a  pic- 
turesque Moorish -looking  window, 
whence  it  is  said  Bdji  B&o  watched 
the  defeat  of  his  troops  at  Ehi^kl.  At 
the  foot  of  the  hill  is  a  square  field, 
which,  in  the  time  of  the  Peshwds,  was 
inclosed  by  high  brick  walls.  Here  at 
the  end  of  the  rains,  about  the  time  of 
the  Dasahra,  gifts  in  money  were  pre- 
sented to  all  Brihmans.  In  order  to 
prevent  the  holy  men  from  receiving 
more  than  their  share,  they  were  passed 
into  this  inclosure,  at  the  gate  of  which 
stood  a  vast  cauldron  filled  with  red 
pigment.  Each  as  he  entered  was 
marked  with  this,  and  nothing  was 
given  tUl  all  had  gone  in.  They  were 
then  let  out  one  by  one,  and  3,  4,  or 
5  rs.  were  given  to  each.  On  one  occa- 
sion the  PeshwA  is  said  to  have  lavished 
away  £60,000  in  this  manner. 

Ganesh  Khin4» — Another  indispens- 
able and  pleasant  drive  is  to  the  Go- 
vernment House  at  Pund,  called  Ganesh 
Khind.  Khliid  6i°:nifies  a  cleft  or  nar- 
row  pass  between  hills,  and  Ganesh  is 
the  God  of  Wisdom  and  Son  of  Shiva. 
To  arrive  at  it  you  pass  along  a  road 
which  leads  from  the  city  across  the 
Miit^  and  enters  the  Ganesh  Khiiid 
road  S.  of  the  Engineer  College  and 
close  to  it.  The  house  is  to  the  N.W. 
of  Pdrvati,  stands  on  slightly  rising 
gronnd,  and  is  c^bont  3  m,  from  Fund 


Sect.  11. 


Route  4:,'^^Sikhaarh. 


189 


City,  which  is  shut  out  from  view  by 
hills,  though  PArvatl  is  very  distinctly 
seen.  At  present  the  grounds  sur- 
rounding the  house,  although  planted 
with  young  trees,  are  too  bare;  but 
some  years  hence,  when  the  trees  are 
grown,  the  approach  will  be  pretty 
enough.  The  house  looks  like  a  modem 
French  chateau.  There  is  a  tall  slim 
tower  80  ft.  high  and  a  facade  with  2 
porches,  which  do  not  correspond.  To 
describe  the  residence  in  a  single  line, 
it  is  an  English  gentleman's  country 
house  with  exceptionally  fine  recep- 
tion rooms.  The  lines  for  the  Body- 
guard are  within  the  grounds,  1  m. 
from  the  house  to  the  S.W.  There  is 
a  tank  also  in  the  same  direction  be- 
tween the  lines  and  the  house.  The 
rooms  on  the  ground-floor  are  as  fol- 
lows : — ^from  W.  to  E.  a  hall,  which  is 
entered  through  a  small  porch,  and 
which  leads  to  a  drawing-room  81  ft. 
from  W.  to  E.  and  30  ft.  from  S.  to  N. 
There  are  2  magnificent  chandeliers 
here,  and  a  gallery  for  the  orchestra. 
E.  of  the  hall  is  the  Darbdr  room, 
which  is  31  ft.  9  in.  from  W.  to  E., 
and  23  ft.  from  S.  to  N.  N.  of  this 
and  £.  of  the  drawing-room  is  a  flower 
gallery  or  garden  corridor  90  ft.  long 
from  W.  to  E.,  and  E.  of  the  darbdr 
room  is,  first  of  all,  a  dining-room  59 
ft.  from  W.  to  E.  by  29  ft.  from  S.  to  N. 
This  forms  the  W.  division  of  the 
house.  The  central  division  comes 
next,  and  is  entered  by  a  carriage 
porch  30  ft.  6  in.  from  W.  to  E.  and 
19  ft.  3  in.  from  N.  to  S.  By  this  a 
loggia  is  entered  17  ft.  8  in.  from  W. 
to  B.,  and  10  ft.  6  in.  from  S.  to  N. 
This  opens  into  a  cortile  27  ft.  8  in. 
from  W.  to  E.,  and  beyond  this  to  the 
N.  is  the  billiard-room,  with  a  pave- 
ment of  encaustic  tiles  and  lighted 
with  6  elegant  chandeliers.  Thus  sa- 
loon is  the  same  length  from  W.  to  E. 
as  the  cortile,  but  is  broader ;  beyond  it 
to  the  N.  are  several  small  rooms.  E. 
of  the  centre  division  is,  first  of  all, 
a  dark  room,  then  a  corridor  49  ft.  4  in. 
by  29  ft.  8  in.,  and  beyond  that  again 
to  the  E.  is  a  drawing-room  39  ft.  6  in. 
from  8.  to  N.  Above  are  the  bed- 
rooms, reached  by  a  very  handsome 
staircase,  the  woodwork  of  which  is 


very  beautiful.  Outside  the  building, 
to  the  N.,  are  the  stables  and  servants' 
rooms.  From  the  top  of  the  tower 
there  is  a  fine  view.  Khirki,  with  its 
powder- works,  and  the  Dakhan  College 
are  seen  to  the  N.,  and  Pdrvati  to  the 
S.E. 

SIGHTS   IN  THE    VICINITY  OF  PUNA. 

Sinhgarh. — This  is  a  place  very 
famous  in  Mar^t^a  annals,  and  very 
interesting  on  account  of  scenery  as 
well  as  historic  recollections.  It  is 
distant  from  Fund  about  12  m.  S.W. 
and  is  thus  described  by  Grant  Duff, 
voL  i.  p.  241,  where  he  speaks  of  its 
astonishing  capture  by  the  renowned 
Tdnajl  MAlusrd,  in  February,  1670  :— 
"  Sinhga^h  is  situated  on  the  E.  side  of 
the  great  Sahy  Mri  range,  near  the  point 
at  which  the  Purandar  Hills  branch 
off  into  the  Dakhan.  With  these  hills 
it  communicates  only  on  the  E.  and 
W.  by  very  high  narrow  ridges,  while 
on  the  S.  and  N.  it  has  the  appearance 
of  a  rugged  isolated  mountain,  with 
an  ascent  of  i  m.,  in  many  parts  nearly 
perpendicular.  After  arriving  at  this 
height  there  is  an  immense  craggy 
precipice  of  black  rock  upwards  of 
40  ft.  nigh,  and  surmounting  the  whole 
there  is  a  strong  stone  wall  with  towers. 
The  fort  is  of  a  triangular  shape,  its 
interior  upwards  of  2  m.  in  circum- 
ference, and  the  exterior  presents,  on 
all  sides,  the  stupendous  barrier  al- 
ready mentioned,  so  that,  except  by 
the  gates,  entrance  seems  impossible. 
From  the  summit,  when  the  atmos- 
phere is  clear,  is  seen  to  the  E.  the 
narrow  and  beautiful  valley  of  the 
Nird ;  to  the  N.  a  great  plain,  in  the 
forepart  of  which  Fund,  where  Shivaji 
passed  his  youth,  is  a  conspicuous  ob- 
ject. To  the  S.  and  W.  appear  bound- 
less masses  of  mountains  lost  in  the 
blue  clouds,  or  mingled  by  distance 
with  the  sky.  In  that  quarter  lies 
Raigarh,  from  which  place,  directed 
by  Tdnaji  Mdlusr^,  the  thousand  Md- 
walis,  prepared  for  the  attempt  on 
Sinhgafh,  set  out  by  different  paths, 
known  only  to  themselves,  which  led 
them  to  unite  near  the  fortress,  ac- 
cording to  the  words  of  the  Mardtha 


190 


HotUe  4. — Karli  to  Fund. 


Sect  11. 


MS.,  'on  the  9th  night  of  the  dark 
half  of  the  moon,  in  the  month  M4gh.' 
Tdnaji  divided  his  men ;  one  half  re- 
mained at  a  little  distance,  with  orders 
to  advance  if  necessary,  and  the  other 
'half  lodged  themselves  undiscovered 
at  the  foot  of  the  rock.  Choosing  a 
part  most  difficult  of  access,  as  being 
the  least  liable  to  discovery,  one  of 
their  number  mounted  the  rock  and 
made  fast  a  ladder  of  ropes,  by  which 
they  ascended  one  by  one  and  lay 
down  as  they  gained  the  inside. 
Scarce  300  had  entered  the  fort,  when 
somethiug  occasioned  an  alarm  among 
the  garrison  that  attracted  their  at- 
tention to  the  quarter  by  which  the 
M^walis  were  ascending.  A  man  ad- 
vanced to  ascertain  what  was  the 
matter.  A  deadly  arrow  from  a  bow- 
man silently  answered  his  inquiries ; 
but  a  noise  of  voices  and  a  running  to 
arms  induced  Tdnaji  to  push  forward, 
in  hopes  of  still  surprising  them.  The 
bowmen  plied  their  arrows  in  the  di- 
rection of  the  voices,  till  a  blaze  of 
blue  lights  and  a  number  of  torches 
kindled  by  the  garrison  showed  the 
B&jpiits  armed  or  arming,  and  dis- 
covered their  assailants.  A  desperate 
conflict  ensued.  The  Mdwa|ls,  though 
thus  prematurely  discovered,  and  op- 
posed by  very  superior  numbers,  were 
gaining  ground  when  Tdnajl  M41usr^ 
fell.  They  then  lost  confidence,  and 
were  running  to  the  place  where  they 
had  escaladed ;  but  by  that  time  the 
reserve,  led  by  Tanajl's  brother,  Su- 
lyaji,  had  entered.  On  learning  what 
}iad  happened,  Suryaji  rallied  the 
fugitives,  asked  '  Who  amongst  them 
would  leave  their  father's  (commanders) 
remains  to  be  tossed  into  a  pit  by 
Mah&rs?'  told  them  the  ropes  were 
destroyed,  and  now  was  the  time  to 
prove  themselves  Shivajl's  Mdwalfs. 
This  address,  the  loss  of  T&najl,  the 
;irrival  of  their  companions,  and  the 
presence  of  a  leader,  made  them  turn 
with  a  resolution  which  nothing  could 
withstand.  *HarlHar!  MahA  Deo  I' 
their  usual  ciy  on  desperate  onsets, 
resounded  as  they  closed,  and  they 
soon  found  themselves  in  possession  of 
the  fort.  Their  total  loss  was  esti- 
mated at  one-third  their  number,  or 


upwards  of  300  killed  or  disabled.  In 
the  morning  500  gallant  R4jpiits,  toge- 
ther with  their  commander,  were  found 
dead  or  wounded ;  a  few  had  con- 
cealed themselves  and  submitted ;  but 
several  hundreds  had  chosen  the  des- 
perate alternative  of  venturing  over 
the  rock,  and  many  were  dashed  to 
pieces  in  the  attempt.  The  precon- 
certed signal  of  success  was  setting  on 
fire  a  thatched  house  in  the  fort,  a 
joyful  intimation  to  Shivaji  ;  but  when 
he  heard  that  Tdnaji  M41usr6  was 
killed,  he  was  deeply  concerned,  and 
afterwards,  on  being  congratulated, 
mournfully  replied,  in  allusion  to  the 
name  he  had  given  the  fort,*  *  The  den 
is  taken,  but  the  lion  is  slain :  we  have 
gained  a  fort,  but  alas!  I  have  lost 
Tanaji  Mdlusrd.'  Shivaji,  though  he 
seldom  bestowed  pecuniary  gifts  on  the 
Mdwalis,  on  this  occasion  gave  every 
private  soldier  a  sUver  bracelet  or 
bangle,  and  proportionate  rewards  to 
the  officers."  The  surprising  character 
of  the  night  escalade  above  recorded 
will  be  appreciated  by  those  who  now 
ascend  peacefully  in  their  pdlkls,  and 
in  the  daytime.  The  ascent  is  in  part 
almost  perpendicular,  and  one  is  as- 
tonished that  the  pdlki  bearers  never 
slip  back  and  roU  down  into  the  plain. 
In  1665,  Shivaji  had  surrendered  Siuh- 
garh  to  Aurangzlb,  but  retook  it,  as 
described,  in  1670.  In  1701,  Aurang- 
zlb recovered  it ;  but  ShanJkarji  NA- 
rdyan  Sachiva  again  captured  it  in 
1705.*  On  the  1st  of  March,  1818,  it 
was  taken  by  the  English  without  loss. 
The  garrison,  1100  men,  of  whom  400 
were  Arabs,  capitulated,  after  being 
shelled  for  3  days,  in  which  time  1400 
shells  and  upwards  of  2000  shot  were 
fired  into  the  place.  Lady  Falkland  f 
notices  the  splendid  balsam  trees, 
which  completely  cover  the  sides  of 
the  path  that  leads  up  to  the  fort,  and 
are  many  of  them  nearly  10  ft.  high.  In 
the  old  ruined  gateways  hang  festoons 
of  leaves  apd  fiowers,  almost  touching 
the  traveller's  head  as  he  enters.  Being 
4162  ft.  above  the  sea,  Sinhgarh  is  a 

'^  It  was  originally  called  Kond&nah,  bat 
Shlvi^i  himself  changed  its  name  to  Siiihgaf  h. 
See  Grant  Dnff,  vol.  I  p.  134. 

t  "  Chow-Chow,"  vol  i.  p.  303. 


Sect.  IL 


Itoute  4. — Sihhgarh, 


191 


delightful  retreat  for  Europeans  from 
the  heat  of  the  plains.  The  air  is  cool 
and  the  views  beautiful.  Here,  for 
some  time,  was  confined,  in  a  wooden 
cage,  the  Brihman  Bdbji  Pant  GokU, 
the  murderer  of  the  Vaughans. 

It  will  be  desirable  to  leave  Fund 
very  early,  in  order  to  reach  Sinhgarh 
before  the  heat  becomes  excessive,  and 
to  start  as  early  as  4  a.m.  in  a  carriage 
which  Mr.  Framji  Ardasir,  mail  con- 
tractor, will  supply  according  to  rates, 
which  hereafter  will  be  given.     PAr- 
vatl  will  be  reached  in  half-an-hour, 
and  the  7th  milestone  on  the  Sinh- 
garb  road  will  be  reached  in  half-an- 
hour  more,  about  5  o'clock.    Near  this 
milestone  horses  will  be  changed,  and 
between  the  10th  and  11th  mile  the 
lake  of  Ehadakwasla  will  be  reached. 
The  word  signifies  "  stone  junction," 
from  Ehadak,  "a  rock,"  and  Wasla, 
"  a  junction."    This  place  is  not  8  m. 
as  the  crow  flies  from  Fund,  but  10^  m. 
by  the  road.    Here  a  stone  embank- 
ment has  been  thrown  across  a  stream, 
and  a  lake  has  been  formed,  which 
supplies  Pund  with  water.    The  em- 
bankment is  1  m.  long,  and  the  lake 
formed  by  it  is  from  10  to  12  ,or  13  m. 
long,  according  to  the    season.      At 
the  end  of  March  the  top  of  the  em- 
bankment is  30  ft.  above  the  water, 
but  during  the  rains  the  water  rises 
very   considerably.     There    is    some 
shooting  about  this  spot.    There  are 
2  canals  branching  off  from  the  lake, 
one  on  each  side,  for  irrigation ;  that 
on  the  N.  side  is  16  m.  long.    Before 
reaching  the   foot   of   the   Sinhgarh 
MountsSnthe  13th  milestone  is  passed, 
and  just  before  the  14th  the  carriage 
is  exchanged  for  a  chair,  in  which  the 
active  people  of  the  locality  will  carry 
the  traveller  to  the  summit  of   the 
motmtain.     After  300  yds.  the  ascent 
becomes  very  steep;  the  total  length 
of  the  ascent  is  2^  m. ;  a  much  easier 
route  being  now  taken  than  that  men- 
tioned by  Grant  Duff,  though  it  is 
quite  steep  enough  even  now.     The 
summit  of  Sinhga^h  is,  as  has  been 
said,  4162  ft.  above  the  sea ;  but  from 
this  must  be  deducted  1825  ft.,  the 
height  of  the  spot  where  you  begin  to 
mount  in  the  chair,  so  that  2337  ft.  is 


the    hejght    actually   ascended    from 
thence.  The  Kulls  who  carry  the  chair 
are  very  careless,  and  though   they 
stoutly    assert  that  they  never  fall, 
they  sometimes  stumble  so  badly  that 
the   traveller   incurs   risk    of    being 
pitched   over   the    precipice.     After 
reaching  the  scarp  of  the  hill,  you 
pass  through  8  gateways  into  the  fort, 
the  area  inside  being  about  40  acres. . 
There  are  several  bangles  on  this  pla- 
teau.   For  one  of  these,  according  to 
time  of  the  year  and  size  of  the  bangld, 
from  200  to  600  rs.  rent  a  month  will 
be  asked.    At  one  of  these  banglds  not 
far  from  the  gateway  are  stables  hewn 
out  of  the  solid  rock,  and  used  by  the 
Mar&tha  freebootew  in  Shivaji's  time. 
There  is  a  very  nice  banglA  with  a 
pretty  garden  belonging  to  Pestanjl 
Ehdn  Bah&dur.    The  air  is  cool  even 
in  the  hot  weather ;  but  the  chief  dis- 
tadvantage  is  the  isolation  in  a  narrow 
space,  for  the  sides  of  the  mountain 
are  too  steep  for  any  but  Mardtha 
mountaineers  to   descend  except   at 
the  one  path   by  which  the  fort  is 
entered.    About  \  m.  from  the  gate- 
way to  the  E.  is  a  temple  to  Rdm 
R4jd,  and  near  it  are  wells  and  a  tank 
hewn  out  of  the  solid  rock.   The  views 
over  the  low  country  are  charming. 
Almost  due  S.  is  seen  the  lake  of  Kha- 
dakwasl4;  and  to  the  S.E.,  about  7  m. 
as  the  crow  flies,  but  11  m.  by  the 
road,  is   the    mountain    and  fort  of 
Purandar.    This  mountain  is  rather 
lower    than    Sinhgayh,    the    highest 
point,  according  to  Grant  Duff  (vol.  i. 
p.  206),  being  only  1700  ft.  above  the 
plain,  and  therefore  more  than  600  ft. 
lower  than   Sinhgayh.    There  are  at 
Furandar  2  forts,  an  upper  and  lower, 
situated  more  than  300ft.  below  the  sum- 
mit. These  forts  are  protected  by  a  per- 
pendicular scjirp,  which  is  weakened 
rather  than  strengthened  by  curtains 
and  bastions  of  masonry.    In  1665, 
R&jA  Jay  Sing,    the  famous  Rdjpiit 
prince  and  general  of  Aurangzlb,  as- 
sisted by  the  Afghan  Diler  lOiAn.  be- 
sieged both  Sihhgarh  and  Furandar. 
Shivajl  was  then  under  superstitious 
apprehensions,  but  his  general,  Bdji 
Piirvoe  or  Frabhu,  a  DeshpAndya  of 
MhAr,  who  was  havalddr  of  the  fort 


192 


BotUe  4. — Karli  to  Fund, 


Sect.  II. 


of  Parandar,  maintained  his  post  with 
bravery  and  ability.  He  had  a  gar- 
rison under  him  of  the  heroic  M&walis 
and  Hetkaris,  and  he  disputed  every 
point  of  the  approaches;  at  last  the 
Afgh&ns  succeeded  in  shattering  the 
scarp  and  entered  the  lower  fort,  but 
were  driven  out  again  by  the  havalddr, 
who  pursued  the  Afghans,  until  Diler 
Khdn  pierced  the  gall^mt  B4ji  with  an 
arrow  and  killed  him  on  the  spot.  The 
Afghans  then  retook  the  fort,  but  were 
again  obliged  to  relinquish  it.  Diler 
Khiin  then  attacked  Budra  Ma^all,  a 
small  detached  fort  at  the  N.E.  angle 
of  Purandar,  which  commands  a  great 
part  of  its  works.  After  taking  this, 
Diler  brought  up  guns  to  breach  the 
upper  fort ;  and  after  firing  for  weeks 
reduced  the  garrison  to  such  a  state 
that  they  proposed  to  surrender.  How- 
ever in  July,  Shivaji  himself  arrived  in 
Jay  Sing's  camp,  and  concluded  a  con-, 
ventiou  with  him  by  which  he  sur- 
rendered 20  forts,  and  among  them 
Purandar  and  Sinhgarh.  In  1670, 
Shivaji  recaptured  Purandar  with  but 
little  difficulty,  probably  from  his  local 
knowledge,  it  having  been  one  of 
the  first  places  he  acquired  so  long 
before  as  1647.  In  1714,  Yesu  BAi, 
mother  of  the  Pant  Sachiva,  gave  up 
Purandar  to  Bdldji  Wi^wandth, 
founder  of  the  Peshwa  dynasty,  as 
a  place  of  refuge  for  his  family  then 
residing  in  S^swad.  On  the  same  pre- 
tence (Grant  Duff,  vol.  i.  p.  437),  BA- 
laji  obtained  a  grant  of  Purandar 
from  S4hu  Rdja  of  SAtdr4,  "  by  which 
concession  that  prince  forged  the  first 
link  in  the  chain  which  afterwards 
fettered  his  own  power,  and  reduced 
his  successors  to  empty  pageants  of 
Br4hman  policy."  On  the  1st  of 
March,  1776,  a  treaty  of  18  articles 
was  signed  at  Parandar  by  Col.  Upton, 
agent  for  Warren  Hastings,  and  by 
Ndn4  Famavls,  by  which  Salsette  was 
to  be  retained  by  the  English,  or  ex- 
changed for  territory  of  £30,000  annual 
revenue,  as  the  Govemor-Greneral 
might  decide ;  the  revenue  of  Bha- 
nich  was  ceded  to  the  English,  and 
£120,000  guaranteed  to  the  Bombay 
Government  in  payment  of  expenses 
incurred,  and  the  treaty  between  that 


Government  and  Raghubd  PeshwA  was 
formally  annulled.  On  the  14th  of 
March,  1818,  Purandar  was  attacked 
by  the  English  column  under  General 
Pritzla.  (Blacker'8"MardthaWar,"p. 
241.)  The  British  advanced  by  way 
of  Jijiiri,  and  at  S&swad  had  had  some 
little  trouble  in  capturing  a  strong 
stone  building,  in  which  200  Arabs 
Sindhls,  and  Hindustanis  had  shut 
themselves  up  with  some  small  guns  ; 
"the  walls  were  so  substantial  that 
6-pounders  were  found  incapable  of 
affecting  them.  18-pounders  were  then 
brought  up;  but  though  these  also 
appe^ired  to  nuike  as  little  impression 
on  the  walls,  they  had  sufficient  effect 
on  the  minds  of  the  garrison  to  induce 
their  surrender  at  discretion."  The 
British  at  once  opened  a  mortar  bat- 
tery on  Purandar,  and  on  the  15th, 
Wajragayh,  wrongly  called  Wuzwer 
Ghur  by  Blacker,  surrendered ;  and  as 
it  commanded  Purandar,  the  KiPaddr 
of  that  place  was  compelled  to  capi- 
tulate on  the  16th.*  Purandar  has 
been  used  as  a  convalescent  station, 
but  as  there  is  no  T.  B.  there,  it  will 
be  necessary  to  make  some  arrange- 
ment with  a  friend  before  visiting  the 
place.  The  sportsman  may  find  pan- 
thers in  the  hills,  and  deer  and  other 
game  in  the  neighbourhood. 

Chdkan. — This  place  is  15  m.  as  the 
crow  files  due  N.  of  Pund.  There  is  a 
very  fair  road  to  it,  though  the  ascent 
to  the  fort  itself  is  difficult.  It  is  thus 
described  by  Grant  Duff,  vol.  i.  p.  61 : 
— "  Chdkan  is  a  small  fort  18  m.  N.  of 
Pund.  It  is  nearly  square,  with  towers 
at  the  angles  and  centres  of  the  faces* 
It  has  a  good  diteh  about  30  ft.  wide 
and  16  ft.  deep,  but  wet  on  the  N.  side 
only.  The  walls  are  high,  the  parapet 
and  rampart  narrow,  and  the  towers 
confined.  There  is  but  one  entrance 
into  the  body  of  the  place,  through  5 
or  6  gateways;  and  there  is  a  mud 
outwork,  wluch  also  has  a  diteh,  I 
mention  it  particularly,  on  account  of 

*  All  the  adjacent  forts  stirrendered  in  the 
same  easy  way.  In  feet  the  only  one  which 
made  anything  like  a  defence  was  Wasola, 
where  Comets  Hunter  and  Morrison  were 
rescued,  haying  been  confined  for  many  weeks 
in  a  dark  dungeon,  where  they  had  never  be- 
held the  light  of  day* 


Sect.  IL 


Route  4 — Sdswad, 


193 


its  reputed  antiquity ;  for  although  it 
probably  is  the  first  built  by  Maliku't- 
tujjAr,  yet,  according  to  occurring 
Hindii  legends,  it  was  constructed  by 
an  Abyssian  Pdligdr,  inA.D.  1295.  As 
to  how  he  got  there  they  do  not  pre- 
tend to  account."  This  fort  was.  given 
to  Milaji  Bhonsl^,  grandfather  of  Shi- 
vajl,  in  1604,  by  the  Nizam  Shahi, 
King  of  Alt^madnagar.  In  1662  it  sur- 
rendered, after  a  siege  of  2  months, 
in  which  Shdistah  Kh^n,  Aurangzib's 
general,  lost  900  men;  but  it  was 
afterwards  restored  to  SMvaji.  In  1671 
it  was  taken  again  by  Djler  Khdn, 
with  less  difficulty.  In  1818  it  was 
easily  captured  by  the  British.  Over 
the  gates  are  3  inscriptions,  announc- 
ing the  successes  of  the  Mughuls. 
There  are  also  2  guns  inscribed  with 
Mardtha  Inscriptions. 

Sdswad  (Sassoor). — ^As  this  place  is 
only  5  m.  from  Purandar  to  the  N.  by 
E.,  and  as  a  good  road  leads  from  it 
to  Jijtiri,  which  is  only  8J  m.  to  the 
S.E.,  the  traveller  may  like  to  visit 
both  places.  The  road  from  Fund  to 
Saswad  is  lined  with  fine  mango  trees, 
.planted  by  the  Peshw^s.  Sdswad  is  a 
large  market  town  on  the  left  bank  of 
the  Eard  river.  An  old  palace  of  the 
Peshwas  beyond  the  town  and  across 
the  river,  which,  in  the  rainy  season, 
is  difficult  to  cross,  is  used  as  a  Kacheri 
or  collector's  office  and  traveller's 
bangle.  The  rooms  are  good,  but  low 
and  unfurnished,  so  that  it  would  be 
well  to  make  interest  with  the  civil 
officers  of  the  district  and  obtain  re- 
quisite articles,  such  as  a  bed,  table, 
and  chair ;  it  is  also  necessary  to  ask 
permission  to  stay  at  the  palace.  There 
is  fair  quail  shooting  to  be  had  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  this  town ;  but  for 
hog -hunting  the  sportsman  must  go  to 
Pdrgdon  or  to  Kdmg&on,  on  the  road 
from  Pun4  to  Sholdpiir,  in  the  adjoin- 
ing Bhim&tadi  district.  In  an  island  in 
the  river  as  you  cross  to  the  bangla 
are  some  temples  of  black  basalt.  The 
Peshwd's  palace  still  bears  marks  of 
the  English  shot.  At  this  place  the 
Amirs  of  Sindh  were  confined  for  some 
time.  Though  prisoners,  they  wei-e 
permitted  to  amuse  themselves  with 
their  favourite  pursuit,  shooting,  and 

[5om&ay— 1880.] 


the  hogs  in  the  vicinity  were  much 
reduced  in  numbers  by  their  battues. 

•/y wrt.--This  place  is  famous  for  a 
temple  of  a  considerable  size,  and  built 
in  a  picturesque  situation  on  the  sum- 
mit of  a  hill,  about  250  ft.  high.  The 
temple  was  built  by  Holkar,  about  2 
centuries  ago,  and  is  dedicated  to 
Khandobd  or  Ehanderdo,  an  incar- 
nation of  Shiva,  but  dimly  distin- 
guished from  Bhairava,  a  terrific  form 
of  the  above-named  deity.  The  whole 
of  the  ascent  of  the  hill  is  covered 
with  pillars  and  gateways  set  up  by 
various  votaries,  and  there  are  many 
stone  images  of  animals,  which  are 
also  the  record  of  vows.  The  huge 
drum  in  the  Jiakdr  khdnah  or  music 
room,  at  the  top,  is  heard  to  a  great 
distance  round,  and  has  a  remarkable 
effect  when,  breaking  the  stillness  of 
the  night,  it  arrests  the  traveller's  at- 
tention, and  he  beholds  a  huge  mass 
of  pillars  and  buildings  faintly  lit  up 
by  the  moon  or  the  light  of  torches. 
The  revenues  of  the  temple  are  appor- 
tioned thus  :* — the  Government  has 
the  offerings  of  2  months  and  18  days, 
being  the  Saturdays,  Sundays,  and 
Mondays  of  Ashwin ;  the  first  6  days 
of  Mdrgashir^h ;  and  the  whole  of 
Paush  and  Mdgh.  Of  the  remaining 
months,  the  offerings  of  one-half  are 
given  to  certain  Shudras  employed  in 
the  service  of  the  temple,  cialled  Gu- 
ravs;  and  the  other  half  realized  is 
apportioned  equally  between  the  Gar- 
gives  and  Virs^  Tare  and  cJiufe,  Gar- 
lands and  bracelets  are  also  offered  for 
the  Government  throughout  the  year. 
It  is  estimated  that  there  are  from  125 
to  150  girls  attached  to  the  temple, 
who  lead  an  infamous  life.  Of  these 
about  80  are  present  at  the  place,  and  the 
rest  are  scattered  through  the  villages 
within  20  m.  These  girls  are  formsdly 
married  to  the  god,  and  they  and  the 
male  servants  of  the  temple  are  con- 
tinually recruited  in  the  following 
way : — when  a  man  or  woman,  being 
childless,  is  anxious  for  offspring,  such 
a  person  vows  that  if  the  child  be 
granted  it  shall  be  devoted  to  the  god. 
Accordingly,  whether  male  or  female, 

*  "Oriental  Christian  Spectator," for  1837, 
p.  204. 


1D4 


SoiUe  5. — Fund  to  JIahdbaleshwar, 


Sect.  II. 


it  is,  on  its  birth,  made  over  to  tlie 
care  of  the  servants  of  the  temple,  and 
is  brought  up  in  habits  of  shameful 
profligacy.  Among  the  noticeable 
things  at  this  shrine  is  a  long  pole 
covered  with  red  and  blue  cloth,  and 
liaving  a  crown  of  peacock's  feathers 
at  the  end;  this  is  carried  round  on 
pilgrimage  to  other  shrines,  and  is,  as 
it  were,  the  banner  of  Xhandobd. 

Carriages  and  horses  are  obtainable 
at  PunA  of  Mr.  Framji  Ardaslr,  whose 
office  is  at  No.  28,  Civil  Lines,  Band 
Gardens  Road.  His  office  at  Mahdba- 
leshwar  is  opposite  the  Post  Office  ; 
and  at  Sdtdr^  Eolh&pur,  and  Belgdon 
his  offices  are  similarly  situated. 

TaJ)le  of  Mates,  inchtding  Tolls,  Kulis  and 
Ferries. 


From 

To 

a 

1  Tonga. 

III- 

1 

.2 

ingle 
Mail 

I 

en 

r.  a. 

02 

r.  a. 

s- 

r.    a. 

©^^5^ 

Pima. 

Mahdbalesh- 

2|'g'< 

war.    .    . 

47    0 

30  0 

10  0 

Phae 
cial 
b   in 
b. 

n 

S&tixi.     .    . 

47    0 

26  0 

10  0 

*y 

Kolh4p\\r    . 

104  12 

52  8' 20  0 

t^oS- 

ft 

Belgdon  .    . 

156  12 

78  8;30  0 

>» 

A^madna- 

gar  .    .    . 

52    8 

35  0 

10  0 

-,«"  tj 

Satdrd 

Mah&balesh- 

Hoc* 

war.    .    . 

26    0 

15  s;  7  0     »g" 

25  0  10  0     !?  * 

PiinA. 

Panchganni. 

42    0 

If  orders  are  cancelled  or  convey- 
ances not  taken  on  the  dates  fixed,  the 
parties  will  forfeit  half  fare.  The 
charge  per  mile  for  intermediate  sta- 
tions is,  for  a  seat  in  the  Mail  Tonga, 
2^  dnds,  and  for  a  special  tonga  8 
dnds,  and  for  a  phaeton  12  dnds.  The 
same,  or  but  little  more,  will  be 
charged  for  going  to  Sinhgarh,  or  to 
any  place  off  the  main  road.  The 
traveller  will  be  very  careful  to  re- 
member that  tolls  and  ferries  are  paid 
for  before  starting  in  the  lump  sum, 
as  attempts  are  often  made  by  the 
drivers  to  get  the  traveller  to  pay 
them,  under  pretence  of  not  having 
money  with  him.  The  phaetons  are 
far  more  comfoi*table  than  the  tongas, 
and  can  take  more  luggfige,  but  do  not 
go  so  fast. 


ROUTE  5. 

PUNA  TO  MAHABALESHWAB. 

The  stages  are  as  follows  : — 


1.  Puna  to  Kakrej 

2.  Kakrej  to  8indewa4i      .... 

3.  Sindewii4i  to  Wadwa  .... 

4.  WadwA  to  KafurwJl        .        .        .    . 

5.  Kafurwi  to  Shlrwal 

(The  T.  B.  at  SWrwal  is  on  the  left 

about  80  yds.  off  the  road.  It  is 
prettily  situated  near  the  Niiu 
river.) 

6.  Shirwal  to  Khandala     .        .        .    . 

7.  KhandalA  to  Kamdkshi 

8.  Kamakshi  to  Sirol         .        .        .    . 

9.  Sirol  to  Wii 

(T.  B.  at  W41,  close  to  the  river.) 

10.  Wdi  to  Panchganni        .... 
(T.  B.  at  Panchganni,  300  yds.  to  the 

left  of  road.) 

11.  Panchganni  to  the  Hotel  at  Mahd- 

baleshwar 


Miles 

I 

6 
6 
6 
6 


6 
6 
6 
6 

10 


12 


Total    .    .    77 

Kakrej  Ghat  is  3  m.  long,  with  a 
steep  pitch  on  the  left,  from  falling 
down  which  carriages  are  protected 
by  a  good  wall  3  ft.  high.  There  is  a 
police  station  at  the  top  of  this  Grhdt, 
not  far  from  which  you  enter  a  tunnel 
825  ft.  long.  There  is  a  toll  at  Ka- 
makshi of  4  dnds.  The  Ghdt  is  long, 
steep,  and  rocky,  with  a  precipice  on 
the  right.  Shirwal  village  formerly  be- 
longed to  the  Pant  Sacheo,  a  Mar^tha 
chief  of  high  rank.  The  55th  mile- 
stone is  close  to  Wdl,  and  the  ascent 
of  the  Ghat  commences  just  beyond 
this  milestone,  and  extends  about  8  m. 
Wdi  (Wye),  pop.  11,062.— This  is  one 
of  the  most  beautiful  rustic  towns  in 
the  Dakhan.  Lady  Falkland  says  of  it, 
with  justice :  *  "I  know  nowhere  a 
more  lovely  spot  than  Wdl,  and,  al- 
though 1  often  visited  it  during  my 
stay  in  India,  I  saw  new  beauties 
every  time.  Here  there  is  grand 
scenery,  as  well  as  pleasing,  quiet 
spots,  and  charming  bits.  The  view 
from  the  traveller's  bangli  is  per- 
fectly beautiful.  Behind  the  city  rise 
hills  of  all  the  shapes  which  are  pecu- 
liar to  the  mountains  in  the  Dakhan. 

*  "  Chow-Cbow,"  vol.  i.  p.  188. 


Sect.  II.     EoiUe  5. — Wdl — Bovi — Banyan-tree  of  Wair&tgarh,     195 


There  are  round,  peaked,  flat-topped 
hills  ;  some  cover»l  with  rocks,  look- 
ing, at  a  distance,  like  forts  and 
castles.  One  hill,  near  the  city,  rises 
very  abruptly,  and  has  a  hill-fort  on 
the  top.  ItiscaUedPdndugarh."  WAl 
is  situated  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Kp^hnd,  which  is  lined  with  beautiful 
pippai  and  mango  trees,  and  withhand- 
some  flights  of  stone  steps,  ornamented 
with  graceful  figures  of  lovely  Brdhman 
women,  for  which  this  place  is  re- 
nowned. The  traveller's  bangld  is  on 
the  side  nearest  to  the  Mahdbaleshwar 
Hills.  The  neai-est  temple  to  it,  and  the 
river  is  lined  with  beautiful  temples, 
is  dedicated  to  Ganpati ;  the  next  to 
Mahadeo ;  and  one  at  some  distance,  to 
Lak^hmi.  These  were  built  about  80 
years  ago,  by  the  father  of  B^U  ^dhib 
Bastia,  of  whom  Lady  Falkland 
speaks.'*'  They  are  exceedingly  ele- 
gant, and  form  the  great  beauty  of 
this  most  picturesque  spot.  The  man- 
dap  or  canopy  in  front  of  MahMeo's 
temple  is  very  light,  and  a  fine  speci- 
men of  carving  in  stone.  The  roof,  as 
also  that  of  Ganpati's  temple,  is  like  a 
pavement  reversed.  Stones  cut  into 
three  cubes  are  joined  at  the  comers, 
and  are  then  so  locked  that  each  locks 
into  six  others.  When  the  roof  is 
finished,  the  support,  which  is  gene- 
rally of  earth,  is  dug  out  from  the 
inside  of  the  temple,  and  from  below 
only  the  flat  under-surface  of  the 
lowest  cube  is  seen.  The  fortune  of 
the  Rdstias  was  much  impaired  by  the 
expenses  incurred  in  erecting  these 
temples,  and  by  their  munificence  to 
the  Brdhmans.  To  avoid  the  imputa- 
tion of  abandoning  a  generosity  which 
they  are  no  longer  able  to  sustain, 
they  have  discontinued  their  custom 
of  visiting  Wai,  except  at  very  gi-eat 
intervals.  They  have  an  excellent 
mansion  at  no  gi*eat  distance  from  the 
town,  called  the  Moti  BAgh,  or  "  Pearl 
garden."  The  road  thither  is  beauti- 
fully shaded  by  splendid  bambiis, 
mangos,  and  tamarinds.  The  house 
was  built  nearly  a  century  ago,  and  is 
a  good  specimen  of  the  Muhammadan 
style.     It  is  open  on  one  side  from 

*  "Chow-chow," p.  200. 


top  to  bottom,  and  shaded  by  huge 
curtains.  The  decorations  are  still 
fresh,  but  one  of  the  mirrors  has  been 
broken  by  a  monkey  which  got  in, 
"  and  imagined  he  beheld  an  opponent 
in  the  reflection  of  himself."  In  the 
garden  are  fountains  with  curious 
primitive  works,  which  are  now  sel- 
dom used.  Bdl4  Sdhib  commanded 
the  PeshwA's  horse  at  the  siege  of 
Shrirangpatnam  (Seringapatam).  At 
WAi  is  also  the  villa  of  the  widow 
of  NAnA  Famavls.  Lady  Falkland  * 
describes  her  as  very  old,  but  pos- 
sessing the  traces  of  great  beauty. 
When  Lord  Valentia  saw  her  in  1804, 
at  Panwell,  she  was  "  a  very  pretty 
girl-— fair,  round-faced,  with  beautiful 
eyes,  and  apparently  seventeen  years 
of  age."  t  She  possessed  a  portrait  of 
MahMeo  RAo  PeshwA,  and  of  his 
famous  minister  NAnA  Famavls,  and 
several  letters  from  the  Duke  of 
Wellington,  who,  in  1804,  obtained 
for  her  leave  to  settle  where  she  chose 
in  the  PeshwA's  dominions,  with  an 
annual  pension  of  14,000  rupees.  A 
life  of  NAnA,  written  by  himself,  and 
fuU  of  extraordinary  incidents,  was, 
at  the  request  of  Colonel  Lodwick, 
given  by  this  lady  to  an  official  at 
iSAtArA,  and  passed  into  the  hands  of 
the  late  General  Briggs. 

DortK — About  5  m.  from  WAI  is  the 
village  of  Dom,  where  is  a  very  hand- 
some temple,  in  the  middle  of  the 
court  of  which  is  a  gigantic  basin  of 
white  marble,  the  edges  carved  with 
lotus  leaves.  There  is  also  a  pillar 
about  5  ft.  high,  on  the  top  of  which 
are  the  five  heads  of  Shiva,  with 
cobras  twisting  round  them,  all  in 
white  marble. 

The  Banyan-tree  of  Wairdtgarh.-^ 
But  the  most  curious  thing  to  be  seen 
near  WAi  is  a  gigantic  tree,  at  the  foot 
of  a  mountain  called  WairAtgayh, 
about  8  m.  from  WAi.  The  exact  area 
shaded  by  it  is  three-quarters  of  an 
acre.  The  space  covered. is  a  very 
symmetrical  oval.  There  is  no  brash- 
wood  underneath,  nor  aught  to  im- 
pede the  view  save  the  stems  of  the 
shoots  from  the  parent  tree.    Lady 

*  Vol.  i.,  p.  203. 

t  "Voyages  and  Travels,"  p.  173. 

o  2 


196 


jRoute  5. — Fund  to  Mahdhcdeshwar. 


Sect.  II. 


Falkland  says,  "  The  shade  was  so  com- 
plete, I  could  sit  in  the  middle  of  the 
day  without  any  covering  on  my  head. 
The  tree  was  of  such  a  size,  that  sepa- 
rate picnic  parties  might  take  place 
under  it,  and  not  interfere  with  each 
other.  There  were  countless  arenues 
or  rather  aisles,  like  those  of  a  church, 
the  pale  grey  stiems  being  the  columns, 
which,  as  the  sun  fell  on  them,  glis- 
tened in  parts  like  silver ;  and  here 
and  there  were  little  recesses  like 
chapels,  where  the  roots  from  the 
boughs  formed  themselves  into  delicate 
clustering  pillars,  up  and  down  which 
little  squirrels  were  chasing  each 
other,  while  large  monkeys  were 
jumping  from  bough  to  bough,  the 
branches  cracking  and  creaking  as  if 
both  they  and  the  monkeys  would  fall 
on  my  head."  Wdi  is  a  spot  much 
famed  in  Hindd  legend.  Here,  ac- 
cording to  old  tradition,  the  Fundus 
spent  part  of  their  banishment,  and 
performed  many  wonderful  works. 
On  this  account,  as  because  of  its 
proximity  to  the  Kji^nA  river  so 
near  its  source,  W4i  is  viewed  as  a 
place  of  great  sanctity  ;  and  there  is  a 
college  of  Brdhmans  established  at  it, 
once  in  much  repute. 

PaTUihganniis  a  very  large  village 
with  many  bangUs  belonging  to  Euro- 
pean genUemen,  with  nice  plantations 
about  them.  In  fact,  many  gentlemen 
who  come  to  Mah^baleshwarf or  thehot 
weather  prefer  to  stop  at  Pdnchganni, 
where  the  view  is  very  beautiful.  The 
Ghdt  from  it  to  Fund  descends  at  a 
moderate  gradient,  but  has  a  precipice 
on  the  left  as  you  go  to  Bombay.  The 
worst  places,  however,  are  protected  by 
a  wall  2  ft.  6  high,  which,  it  is  said, 
has  saved  more  than  one  carriage 
from  going  over.  People  are  fond  of 
joking  about  descending  this  road  at 
night  at  the  rate  of  10  m.  an  hour, 
while  the  stertorous  breathing  of  the 
coachman  warns  you  that  he  is  fast 
asleep;  the  Ghdktt  however,  is  much 
less  dangerous  than  that  at  Simla. 
From  P^nchganni  the  road  descends  a 
little  for  I  of  a  m.  ;  the  country  round 
is  covered  with  low  jungle,  with 
patches  of  cultivation.  About  1  m. 
from  Mahdbaleshwar  village  the  lake 


made  by  the  Bdj&  of  Sdtard  is  passed 
on  the  right.  It  winds  in  a  pic- 
turesque way,  and  is  about  810  yds. 
long  from  N.E.  to  S.W.,  and  not  quite 
200  yds.  broad  at  broadest  There  is 
a  Sanatorium  at  Mahdbaleshwar  with 
8  set«  of  quarters.  Booms  for  one 
person  are  charged  at  the  rate  of 
Bs.  40  per  month. 

Hotels. — The  nearest  hotel  to  a 
traveller  coming  from  Sdt&r^  is 
called  Langholm  Lodge  and  Lang- 
holm House,  or  the  Mahdbaleshwar 
Hotel,  kept  by  Mr.  Doriibjl  Soribji. 
The  Fountain  Hall  Hotel,  kept  by  Mr. 
C.  Kddsji  (Cowasjee),  is  400  yds.  to 
the  S.W.  of  Mahdbaleshwar  Hotel, 
and  is  better  situated,  having  a  most 
beautiful  view  to  the  S.  to  Sassoon 
Point,  and  as  far  as  Babington  Point 
and  Makrangarh.  The  proprietor  of 
this  hotel  deserves  strong  recommen- 
dation for  his  extreme  civility  and 
attention.  The  charges  are  as  fol- 
lows : —  B.  A. 
Boaxd  and  lodging  for  a  lady  or  gentle- 
man. Meals  at  the  Table  d'hdte  at  a 
fixed  hour,  per  diem  .  .  .  .60 
At  separate  table,  extra  charge  per  diem  1  0 
Children  above  18  months  and  under  5 

years 18 

Above  5  years  and  under  12  .  .  .28 
Guests  invited  by  i)ersons  living  at  the 

hotel,  dinner 1  12 

Bed  for  ditto 18 

Breakfast  or  tiffin 10 

European  or  East  Indian  sen'ants,  male 
or  female,  i^er  diem  .       .        .18 

Accounts  are  settled  weekly.  When 
carriages  are  required,  notice  should 
be  given  the  day  previous.  Lodgers 
are  requested  to  lock  their  rooms  on 
going  out;  and  the  proprietor  will  not 
be  responsible  for  anything  missing 
unless  given  into  his  charge.  The  tra- 
veller will  remember  that  vegetables, 
particularly  potatoes,  are  remarkably 
good  at  Mahdbaleshwar.  He  will  also 
ask  for  strawberries,  which  are  sold  at 
from  8  to  12  dozen  for  the  rupee. 
The  village  of  Mahdbaleshwar  is  3  m. 
to  the  N.  of  Malcolm  Peth,  which  is  the 
centre  of  the  European  quarter,  and 
the  principal  station  on  the  hills.  It 
was  called  Malcolm  Peth  by  the 
Bij^  of  S&tdr^  in  honour  of  Sir  John 
Malcolm,  who  resided  much  on  these 
hills   when    Governor.     These   hills 


Sect.  II. 


Houte  5. — Hotels, 


197 


are  in  N.  lat.  17°  56',  E.  long.  73''  30'. 
The  extreme  length  to  which  the  hills 
extend  from  N.E.  to  S.W.  is  17  m., 
but  only  5  m.  [from  N.  to  S.  At  the 
N.  end  they  are  15  m.  broad,  and  at 
the  S.  end  8.  The  general  elevation 
is  4500  ft.  above  the  sea,  but  the 
Sindola  ridge  is  4700  ft.,  and  2300 
above  the  general  level  of  the  Dakhan 
plateau.  The  hills  are  only  25  m. 
due  E.  from  the  sea,  but  125  m.  from 
Bombay,  which  bears  N.  29*  W.  The 
principal  roads  communicating  with 
the  low  country  are,  1st,  that  from 
PunA,  which  has  been  already  de- 
scribed, and,  2nd,  that  from  S4tdr^, 
which  will  be  described  in  Route  17, 
and  also  that  to  NAgotna  and  Mhdr, 
which  ascends  the  W.  part  of  the 
hills.  From  Bombay  to  Ndgotna, 
which  is  on  the  Ambar  River,  in  the 
Koldba  CoUectorate,  is  40  m.,  and  from 
Ndgotna  to  the  hills  is  76  m.  From 
Bombay  to  Bankot  by  sea  is  70  m.,  and 
from  Bankot  to  Mhdr  up  the  Sdvitri 
river  is  30  m. ;  from  Mh&r  to  the  hills 
is  35  m.  Both  these  routes  are  hot  and 
feverish,  and  are  now  little  used.  No 
further  allusion  will  therefore  be 
•  made  to  them.  A  large  part  of  the 
surface  on  the  hills  is  indurated  iron- 
clay  or  laterite,  which  overlies  basalt 
and  other  members  of  the  secondary 
trap-formation.  The  Pterh  aquilina^ 
or  common  brake,  grows  very  plenti- 
fully on  the  hills,  as  do  the  willow, 
the  Eugenm  Jamhos  and  Gardenia 
montana.  There  are  a  few  oaks.  The 
Tetranthera  and  Cortilania  flower  in 
November,  also  the  Anjunl,  or  iron-» 
wood,  which  has  purple  flowers. 
There  are  30  species  of  ferns,  of 
which  the  principal  are  the  Acrosti' 
cJimn  atirenm,  the  Actiniopteris  ra- 
diata,  the  Adiantum,  Umdatum^  the 
Aitpidium  cochleatnm,  the  A^lenium 
ereetum  and  falcatvm^  the  Pteins 
lucida  and  qvadrianrita.  The  geo- 
graphical position  of  this  range  secures 
to  it  a  redundant  supply  of  moisture 
during  the  S.W.  monsoon,and  has  ren- 
dered it  a  fruitful  parent  of  rivers 
that  fertilize  the  Dakhan.  To  the  site 
of  the  temple  of  Mahddeo  at  Mahdba- 
leshwar  village  mentioned  above, 
Br^hmans  assign  the  honour  of  giving 


birth  to  the  KyishnA  (here  spoken  of 
as  female),  the  EoinA,  which  falls 
into  the  Kp^nA  at  Eardd,  the  Ten  A 
and  SAwitri  and  GAwitri,  which, 
falling  down  the  W.  face  of  the  Ghdt, 
unite  with  other  neighbouring  streams 
to  form  the  river  at  the  mouth  of 
which  stands  Bankot  or  Fort  Victoria. 
The  YenA  falls  into  the  Ep^nd  at 
MAholi  Sangam,  about  4  m.  to  the  £. 
of  SAtArA. 

The  real  sources  and  feeders  of  these 
rivers  are  of  course  to  be  sought  in  the 
numerous  ravines  and  rocky  dells 
that  intersect  the  table-land  of  the 
hills  in  various  directions,  and  in  most 
of  which  are  found  at  all  seasons 
streamlets  of  the  purest  water,  pur- 
suing their  devious  ways  through 
huge  rugged  blocks  that  obstruct  the 
passage.  Thus  a  supply  of  excellent 
water  is  everywhere  procurable,  though 
none  meets  the  eye  in  the  landscape 
but  that  of  the  lake  and  of  the  Yend, 
which,  in  its  gentle  winding  course 
towards  its  final  fall  into  the  Dakhan, 
forms  many  picturesque  little  cascades 
and  pools,  skirted  by  their  native 
willows.  The  annual  mean  tempera- 
ture of  Malcohn  Peth  is  65**  Fah.  For 
9  months,  from  June  to  February  in- 
clusive, so  equable  is  the  climate,  that 
the  mean  heat  of  any  month  does  not 
differ  4°,  and  for  more  than  half  the 
time  not  2°  from  the  annual  mean ; 
whilst  the  mean  of  the  hottest  month 
only  exceeds  it  by  7^°.  The  average 
daily  range  of  the  thermometer  in  the 
open  air  throughout  the  year  is  only 
8°,  and  in  a  house  but  4°  or  6°.  The 
season  for  visiting  the  hills  commences 
in  the  beginning  of  October,  the  time 
at  which  the  transition  from  the  low 
country  can  be  made  with  the  greatest 
advantage.  The  atmosphere  is  then 
still  very  moist,  but,  in  general,  clear 
and  fair  during  the  day,  with  gentle 
showers  in  the  evening.  By  these  and 
the  prevailing  light  E.  winds,  the  air 
is  delightfully  cooled,  the  mean  tem- 
perature ranging  below  66°,  with  a 
daily  variation  of  only  7°  in  the  open 
air  ;  yet  the  difference  of  temperature 
which  the  new  comer  experiences 
between  the  hills  and  low  country, 
though  equal  to  20*  at  noonday,   is 


198 


Eoiite  5, — Fund  to  Mahdbaleshwar. 


Sect.  11. 


even  less  striking  than  the  change 
from  the  sultry  closeness  below  to  the 
invigorating  freshness  of  the  mountain 
air.  November  brings  a  drier  and 
colder  climate,  a  more  uniformly 
clear  sky,  and  stronger  E.  winds,  and 
the  cold  season  extends  from  the 
middle  of  this  month  to  the  end  of 
February.  During  this  period  the 
weather  is  almost  always  clear, 
serene  and  fair,  with  gentle  winds, 
chiefly  from  the  E. ;  but,  as  the  sea- 
son advances,  increasingly  from  the 
"W.  and  N.W.,  constituting  a  faint  sea 
breeze.  The  mean  temperature  aver- 
ages 62  4°,  and  the  greatest  cold  in  the 
open  air  is  about  45^  Throughout 
the  day  the  temperature  is  mild  and 
genial,  with  somewhat  of  an  autiminal 
sharpness  in  the  nights  and  mornings. 
Hoar  frost  may  occasionally  be  seen 
in  situations  favourable  to  its  produc- 
tion. But  the  stillness  of  the  weather, 
and  the  nights  especially,  of  this  sea- 
son is  very  favourable  to  the  preserva- 
tion of  a  comfortable  temperature  with- 
in doors,  even  without  fires,  the  ther- 
mometer so  placed  ranging  between 
58°  and  66°.  A  fire-place  will  always 
be  found,  however,  a  desirable  ad- 
junct to  houses  at  the  hills.  The 
warm  season  commences  with  March, 
and  lasts  till  the  beginning  of  June. 
Its  mean  temperature  may  be  taken 
at  71°,  with  a  daily  range  of  9°.  The 
mean  of  the  hottest  month  is  less  than 
73°,  and  at  the  hottest  time  of  day 
but  76°.  Any  transient  feeling  of 
heat  is  soon  relieved  by  the  strong  sea 
breeze,  which  now  sets  in  daily,  and 
blows  fresh,  cool,  and  moist,  from  the 
N.W.,  increasing  in  strength  with  the 
heat  of  the  season.  From  the  end  of 
April  squalls  and  thunder-storms  are 
not  unusual ;  and  in  May  the  atmos- 
phere becomes  moist er,  and  clouds 
and  mist  hang  over  the  hills  in  the 
nights  and  mornings.  In  the  beginning 
of  June  the  monsoon  sets  steadily  in, 
and  to  this  period  visitors  may  in 
general  prolong  their  stay.  While 
the  S.W.  monsoon  prevails,  fog  and 
heavy  rain  envelope  this  exposed  face 
of  the  mountains ;  but  to  the  E.  the 
table-land  enjoys  a  less  trying  climate. 
The  winds  arc  high  and  stormy  in  the 


early  part  of  the  season,  but  gradu- 
ally almte  as  the  rains  cease  ;  and  in 
September  the  sky  begins  to  clear, 
and  calms  and  variable  winds,  with 
passing  showers,  usher  in  again  the 
desirable  weather  of  October.  The 
range  of  the  thermometer  during  the 
rains  does  not  exceed  2  J°  in  the  open 
air,  day  and  night ;  and  the  mean 
temperature  is  about  63^°.  The  total 
fall  of  rain  is  from  200  to  220  in. 
The  elevation  and  geographical  posi- 
tion of  this  table-land,  which  bestow 
on  it  so  delightful  a  climate,  place  it 
also  beyond  the  sphere  of  malaria. 
The  station,  accordingly,  is  entirely 
free  from  endemical  disease,  even 
during  the  excessive  and  continued 
moisture  of  the  rainy  season,  nor  are 
fevers  known  on  its  cessation,  or  at 
any  other  period.  No  case  of  cholera 
has  ever  occurred. 

The  discoverer  and  first  visitor  of 
the  Mah4baleshwar  Hills,  for  change 
of  climate,  was  the  late  General  P. 
Lodwick,  who,  being  stationed  with 
his  regiment  at  S4tdr4  during  the  hot 
season  of  1824,  determined  on  ex- 
ploring these  mountains.  He  was  the 
very  first  European  who  ever  set  foot 
on  the  since  celebrated  promontory  of 
Sydney  Point,  which  has  now  been 
officially  called  after  him.  He  made 
his  way,  with  a  walking-stick  in  his 
hand,  through  the  dense  and  tigerish 
jungle,  to  the  edge  of  that  gi-and  pre- 
cipice, without  any  encounter  with 
the  wild  beasts  that  then  infested 
the  place  in  numbers ;  but  a  day  or 
two  after  his  dog,  when  close  to  him, 
was  carried  ofE  by  a  panther.  To  him 
also  belongs  the  merit  of  first  bringing 
the  subject  before  the  public  through 
the  medium  of  the  newspapers.  He 
was  followed  by  the  late  General 
Briggs,  Besident  of  SAtdrd,  who  in 
1826  built  a  cottage,  and  prevailed  on 
the  BdjA  to  construct  an  excellent 
caniage-road  from  his  capital  to  the 
present  station.  Little  further  was 
done,  till  Sir  J.  Malcolm,  Governor  of 
Bombay,  zealously  took  up  the  matter, 
established  an  experimental  conva- 
lescent hospital  for  European  soldiers, 
and  by  his  personal  residence  at  the 
Hills  in  the  hot  season  of  X828,  at- 


Sect.  II. 


Houte  5. — Malcolm  Feth. 


199 


tracted  a  crowd  of  visitors.  In  the 
same  season,  Colonel  Robertson,  the 
successor  of  Colonel  Briggs,  built  a 
house  at  the  station.  In  November, 
1828,  Sir  J.  Malcolm  returned  to  the 
Hills,  bringing  with  him  Dr.  William- 
son, specially  appointed  to  the  duty  of 
reportiug  on  the  climate,  and  the  fit- 
ness of  the  locality  for  a  sanatorium, 
who  died  not  long  afterwards.  Sites 
were  now  selected  for  some  public 
buildings;  the  Governor's  residence 
on  Mount  Charlotte,  called  after 
Lady  Malcolm,  was  commenced  ;  and 
a  proclamation  was  soon  afterwards 
issued  by  the  Rdjd  of  SAtdrd,  inviting 
settlers  to  his  newly-founded  village 
of  Malcolm  Peth,  or  "  Malcolm-ville." 
His  Highness  also  uudertook  to  con- 
tinue the  high  road  onward  over  the 
hill  and  down  the  Rartondya  *  or  Ro- 
tunda Ghat  to  the  boundaiy  of  the 
British  territory  in  the  Konkan,  from 
which  point  the  Eoglish  Government 
agreed  to  construct  a  similar  road 
down  the  P6r  f  GhAt,  through  Mahir 
to  Disgdoii, '  the  most  convenient 
harbour  on  the  Bankot  river.  These 
works  were  completed  in  1830.  Next 
season  Pdrsl  shopkeepers  made  their 
appearance,  and  Government  em- 
ployed a  number  of  Chinese  convicts 
in  cultivating  an  extensive  garden, 
whence  supplies  of  the  finest  vegeta- 
bles, especially  potatoes,  were  speedily 
drawn.  The  convicts,  about  12  in 
number,  came  from  the  English  settle- 
ments to  the  E.,  and  after  working 
out  their  time  in  chains,  remained  at 
the  place,  married  and  improved  their 
condition,  with  the  proverbial  fru- 
gality and  industry  of  their  race.  A 
public  subscription  was  now  raised  to 
make  bridle  roads  to  the  most  pic- 
turesque points,  and  in  a  few  years 
the  station  reaiched  the  flourishing 
condition  in  which  it  now  is. 

The  old  road  from  Wdl,  now  disused, 
after surmountingthe Tai  Ghdt, enters 

*  The  orthography  of  this  word  is  uncer- 
tain. It  may,  perhaps,  be  an  English  word, 
but  no  dependence  whatever  can  be  placed  on 
Anglican  spelling  of  Indian  words.  If  a  Ma- 
rAt-ha  word,  it  may  be  used  with  reference  to 
the  steepness  of  the  ascent,  as  we  might  say  in 
English,  "Whimper  hill." 

t  /*«?•  signifies  "limit;"  jilsp  " beyond," 


a  valley  formed  by  heights  of  very 
varied  form,  among  which  the  most 
remarkable  are  the  striking*  crowned 
summit  of  Mount  Olympia  on  the 
right  hand,  and  the  bold  rocky  pro- 
montory of  Kate's  Point,  with  its 
natural  tunnel,  on  the  left.  Both 
these  heights  are  named  from  Sir  J. 
Malcolm's  daughters.  Kate's  Point 
commands  a  magnificent  view  of  the 
valley  of  Wdl,  and  is  about  8  miles 
from  Malcolm  Peth.  The  traveller 
now  comes  to  a  high  ridge,  and  cross- 
ing that,  enters  a  hollow,  the  scenery 
of  which  is  very  attractive.  The  road 
passes  for  some  distance  by  the  side 
of  the  YenA,  and,  crossing  that  river, 
enters  Amelia  Vale,  called  from 
another  daughter  of  Sir  J.  Malcolm. 
The  Falls  of  the  YenA  are  situate  in 
the  valley  of  that  name  on  the  left  of 
the  road  from  the  Tdi  Gh^t,  and  are 
reached  by  a  by-path  from  a  point  on 
the  SdtArdi  road  into  the  station.  The 
stream  is  here  precipitated  over  the 
face  of  a  steep  cliff  with  a  sheer 
descent  of  500  ft.,  unbroken  when 
the  torrent  is  swollen  by  rain,  but  or- 
dinarily divided  by  projecting  rocks 
about  one-third  of  the  way  down,  and 
scattered  below  into  thin  white  streaks 
and  spray,  which  are  often  circled  by 
rainbows  from  the  oblique  rays  of  the 
sun.  The  headlong  rush  and  roar  of 
the  falling  river ;  the  many  other 
streams  lining  with  silver  the  steep 
dark  sides  ef  the  chasm,  as  they 
hasten  to  join  the  foaming  torrent, 
which  far  below  is  dashing  on  through 
masses  of  rock ;  the  grandeur  of  the 
sceneiy,  now  wreathed  in  floating 
mists,  now  bright  in  sunshine— com- 
bine to  form  a  scene  of  the  most  ab- 
sorbing beauty.  From  this  point  the 
road  winds  along  the  top  of  the  cliff, 
crosses  the  river  (now  flowing  through 
overhanging  woods  and  rocks)  above 
the  waterfall,  ascends  to  a  sweetly- 
situated  village  on  the  opposite  bank, 
where  the  dog-rose  is  found  growing 
wild,  and  enters  a  closely-wooded 
avenue,  skirted  by  a  most  picturesque 
forest  dingle.  Thence  it  opens  on 
smooth  green  meadows,  and  luxuriant 
willows,  through  which  the  YenA  is 
again  seen  sluggishly  winding.    Thg 


205 


; 


Rotite  5. — Fund  to  MahdbaletJiwar, 


Sect.  II, 


first  expedition  the  traveller  should 
make  will  be  to  Elphinstone  Point  and 
Arthur's  Seat,  as  being  almost  the 
longest  and  certainly  the  most  in- 
teresting. On  the  right  of  the  road, 
and  on  the  way  to  Elphinstone  Point, 
is  the  ancient  village  of  Mah^balesh- 
war.  It  is  a  small  place,  but  of 
great  sanctity  in  the  eyes  of  the 
Hindi^,  as  being  the  spot  where  the 
Kp9hn&  and  four  other  rivers  have 
their  source.  There  are  several  tem- 
ples, one  very  old,  of  black  stone,  said 
to  have  been  built  by  a  Gauli  B^j^.* 
Another  built  by  the  same  chief,  and 
called  Koteshwar,  commands  a  grand 
view  over  the  W4I  valley.  The  prin- 
cipal temple,  however,  is  called  Mah4- 
baleshwar.  This  stands  close  under  a 
hill,  where  there  is  the  stone  image  of 
a  cow,  from  whose  mouth  the  five 
rivers  are  said  to  spring.  These  rivers 
fill  a  tank,  round  which  is  a  raised 
walk,  and  near  it  are  several  recesses, 
where  various  saints,  famous  in  Hindii 
legends,  are  supposed  to  have  their 
retreat.  No  European  is  allowed  to 
enter  this  holy  place.  At  the  temple 
they  show  a  bed,  which  the  priests 
assert  is  visited  by  the  god  Kfii^hna 
every  night.  At  a  certain  hour  they 
ring  a  bell,  and  then  the  deity,  though 
invisible  to  mortal  eye,  enters  the  bed 
and  rests  till  morning.  The  wretched 
garniture  and  stifling  atmosphere  of 
the  room,  however,]  dispel  all  classic 
recollections,  and  prevent  any  com- 
parisons with  the  superstitions  of  old 
Babylon  recorded  by  Herodotus.  The 
Hindii  legend  about  the  place  is  re- 
lated by  Lady  Falkland,f  and  is 
simply  that  two  demons,  named  Ante- 
ball  and  Mahdbali,  were  destroyed 
here  by  Mah^eo,  and  the  younger, 
Mah&baU,  obtained,  as  his  dying  re- 
quest, that  rivers  should  spring  from 
the  bodies  of  the  slain.  Tliree  of 
these  temples  were  rebuilt  about  a 
century  ago,  by  ParshurAm  NArdyan 
Angal,  a  wealthy  banker  of  Sdtdrd. 
The  sixth  temple,  called  Kudreshwar, 

*  The  Gaulis  are  herdsmen,  and  are  thought 
by  some  to  be  an  aboriginal  race.  An  account 
of  them  will  be  found  in  Lady  Falkland's 
"  Chow-chow,"  vol  1.  p.  164. 

t  "  Chow-Chow,"  vol,  i.  p.  169. 


was  built  about  75  years  ago  by 
AhalyA  BAi,  Bdni  of  Indiir. 

Elplmistone  Point  is  the  grandest 
of  all  the  precipitous  scarps  which 
front  the  low  country,    This  is  about 

2  m.  as  the  crow  flies,  but  4  by  the 
road,  to  the  E.  of  Mahdbaleshwar 
Temple.  There  is  a  sheer  descent  of 
above  2000  ft.,  though  not  so  steep  at 
the  summit  but  that  wild  bison  have 
been  seen  to  gallop  down  some  part. 
A  rock  rolled  from  the  top  thunders 
down  and  crashes  into  the  forests 
below  with  a  noise  and  commotion 
which  is  really  grand  to  witness,  and 
it  is  a  common  amusement  of  visitors 
to  throw  over  huge  masses.  The  view 
extends  to  the  mountains,  among 
which  is  the  hill-fort  of  Toma,  over 
an  apparently  uninhabited  jungle.  To 
the  right  of  the  Point  is  "Arthur's 
Seat,"  ahother  fine  view  which  must 
by  no  means  be  omitted.  It  has  its 
name  from  Mr.  Arthur  Malet,  C.S., 
who  first  built  a  house  here.  The 
distance  from  Malcolm  Peth  is  about 
10  miles. 

The  next  expedition  will  be  to 
Lodwick  Point,  visiting,  en  route, 
the  village  of  Malcolm  Peth,  the 
Library,  the  Church,  •  Sir  Sydney 
Beckwith's  Monument,  and  the  Ceme- 
tery. 

Malcolm  Pefh. — The  pop.  of  MahA- 
baleshwar  is  put  down  at  2759  persons, 
and  the  gross  municipal  income  is 
Bs.  15,226,  the  expenditure  being 
about  Bs.  120  more  than  the  income. 
The  taxation  per  head  being  Bs.  5 
8  dn&s  3  p.  (See  "  Census'of  Bombay 
Presidency  "  of  1872,  p.  284).  There 
are  some  tolerable  shops.  The  village 
and  adjoining  land,  to  the  extent  of 

3  sq.  m.  10  furlongs,  was  ceded  by 
the  Bdj&  of  Sdtdrd  on  the  16th  of  May, 
1827,  and  the  village  was  founded 
in  1828.  It  lies  E.  of  the  Foun- 
tain Hotel,  and  the  Library  is  to  the 
E.  by  N.,  with  the  mail-contractor's 
stables  to  the  E.  of  that  again.  The 
Church  and  the  Beckwith  Monument 
are  100  yds.  to  the  N.  There  is  a  good 
reading-room  at  the  Library,  the  sub- 
scription to  which  is  Bs.  5  per  month. 
In  the  Library  is  a  copy  of  the  "  Ma- 
h^baleshwar    Guide,"   with    a    map 


Sect.  II. 


Route  5. — Malcolm  Peth. 


201 


printed  at  the  Education  Society's 
Press,  Bykallah,  in  1876,  price  Rs.  1^. 
There  are  Badminton  grounds  here, 
open  to  subscribers.  Proceeding  to 
the  N.  from  the  Library,  and  turning 
to  the  right,  you  come  to  the  church, 
Christchurch.  It  stands  high,  and  is 
91  ft.  long  from  E.  to  W.  and  374 
broad  from  N.  to  S.  It  was  con- 
secrated by  Bishop  Carr,  in  1842,  and 
enlarged  in  1867.  It  can  seat  210 
persons  ;  there  are  no  tablets.  Turn- 
ing to  the  W.  about  60  yds.  you  come 
to  the  Beckwith  Monument.  It  is  a 
plain  obelisk,  about  30  ft.  high;  and 
was  erected  at  a  cost  of  Rs.  3000, 
which  was  obtained  by  public  sub- 
scription. Sir  Sydney  Beckwith  died 
here  in  1831,  while  C.-in-C.  The  sub- 
scribers put  up  an  inscription  which 
did  not  satisfy  Lady  Beckwith,  who 
sent  out  another  on  a  marble  tablet. 
Such,  however,  is  the  action  of  the 
weather  on  marble  in  India  that  this 
inscription  became  almost  illegible  in 
1843,  while  the  original  inscription 
remains  comparatively  uninjured.  Sir 
Sydney  was  amongst  the  renowned 
leaders  in  the  Peninsular  War,  and  has 
a  prouder  epitaph  in  the  narrative  of 
his  deeds  in  Napier's  "  History." 
Until  lately  Sydney  Point  was  called 
after  him.    The  inscriptions  are  : — 

No.  1  on  the  W.  face  : — 

Sacred 
To  the  memory  of 

Lieut.-Gen.  sir  T.  SYDNEY  BECKWITH, 

K.C.B.y 

Governor  and  Commander-in-chief  of  Bombay, 

And  Colonel  of  H.M.'s  Rifle  Brigade, 

Who  after  a  long  course  of 

Distinguished  Service, 

Expired  at  his  residence  on  these  Hills 

,     On  the  15th  day  of  January,  1831, 

Aged  60  years. 

Erected  by  a  small  circle  of  his  Friends 
In  testimony  of  their  admiration 

For  his  noble  character. 

And  to  perpetuate  the  name  of 

So  good  and  amiable  a  man. 

No.  2  on  the  E.  face : — 

This  tablet  is  placed 

By  Mary,  Lady  Beckwith, 

Daughter  of  the  late  Sir  William  Douglas, 

of  Kilhead,  Bart., 

As  a  Memorial 

Of  the  most  devoted  affection  for  her 

{.wnent^d  Husband, 


By  whose  sudden  death  she  has  been  deprived 

of  a  most  attached  partner  and  friend 

And  guide,  in  whom  combined  every  amiable 

quality  illustrated. in  the  Christian 

character,  *  *  *  and  the  intercourse  of 

domestic  life  has  endeared. 

A  loss 

Which  can  only  be  alleviated  by  the  hope  that 

looks  beyond  the  grave. 

The  Sympathy  of  friends  who 

Erected  this  Monument 

Has  kindly  permitted  a  sorrowing  widow 

To  add  her  heartfelt  tribute  to  theirs. 

The  writing  of  No.  1  is  much  oblite- 
rated and  blackened,  and  can  only  be 
read  with  the  greatest  di&culty  by 
help  of  an  opera  glass.  The  path  to 
the  obelisk  is  fvery  bad  and  stony. 
The  Cemetery  is  700  yds.  from  the 
obelisk,  to  the  S.E.,  on  the  left-hand 
side  of  the  road  as  you  go  to  Lodwick 
Point.  It  is  canopied  by  the  shade  of 
many  trees,  and  is  well  kept  and 
watered.  Here  is  buried  Lieut.  Hinde, 
of  the  4th  Dragoons,  who  was  killed 
on  these  Hills  by  a  bison  on  the  19th 
of  April,  1834.  He  was  a  fine  athletic 
man,  upwards  of  6  ft.  high,  but  was 
transfixed  by  the  horns  of  the  infuriated 
beast,  and  so  carried  for  some  distance. 
Here  also  is  interred  Dr.  James  Fraser 
Heddle,  sometime  Master  of  the  Mint 
at  Bombay.  He  was  a  man  of  great 
scientific  acquirements,  and  founder 
of  the  Bombay  Geogra;phical  Society. 
The  monument  of  Major  William 
Miller,  Judge  Advocate-General  of 
the  Bombay  Army,  may  also  be  re- 
marked. It  is  a  pillar  supporting  an 
urn  on  a  very  large  base.  He  died  on 
May  14th,  1836.  Another  distin- 
guished officer  buried  here  is  Captain 
Thomas  John  Newbold,  of  the  23rd 
Regiment  Madras  Army,  Assistant 
Hesident  at  Hdidardbad,  who  died 
May  29th,  1860.  From  the  Cemetery 
to  Lodwick  Point  is  2900ft.  due  E.  The 
road  descends  considerably  aU  the 
way.  At  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
before  reaching  the  monument  to 
General  Lodwick  the  carriage  stops, 
and  the  rest  of  the  way  must  be  done 
on  foot  or  on  a  pony.  The  column  is 
about  25  ft.  high  from  the  ground  to 
the  top  of  the  urn  which  surmounts 
the  pillar.  The  spot  comands  a  noble 
view  over  Pratdpgayh  to  the  W.  and 
Makrangafh  to  the  S.W.,  and  the  hills 


202 


Houte  5. — Fund  to  JfaJidbalesInvar, 


Sect  II. 


about  it.  The  bangld  and  offices  at 
the  foot  of  Pratdpgarb  are  clearly 
seen.  At  that  bangld  travellers  stop 
and  are  carried  up  in  chairs  to  the 
fort  of  PratApgarh,  the  ascent  being 
2  m.  This  bangld  from  Lodwick 
Point  is  12  m.  distant.  On  the  W. 
side  of  the  base  of  the  monument  is 
the  head  of  the  General,  sculptured  in 
alto-rilievo  in  white  marble,  pro- 
tected by  stout  tin  wire,  in  an  iron 
frame.  The  iron  has  rusted  and 
stained  the  face,  which  some  one  has 
scratched,  but  not  so  as  to  disfigure 
it.    On  the  S.  side  is  inscribed : — 

In  Memory  of 
GENERAL  PETER  LODWICK, 

Second  son  of 

John  Lodwick,  Esq.,  of  H.  Bhoebury,  Essex, 

Who  entered  the  Hon.  E.  I.  Co.'s  service  in 

1799, 

And  died  at  Bagnires  de  Bigorre,  France, 

August  28tli,  1873, 

Aged  90. 

Senior  Officer  of  U.M.'s.  forces  in  India. 

On  the  east  side  is  written: — 

In  1803  he  saw  service  as  a  subaltern 

In  connection  with  the  operations  of  tlie  army 

under  Sir  Arthur  Wellesley 

He  was  Brigade- Major  of  Colonel  Ford's 

subsidiary  force 

At  the  battle  of  Khirkl,  November  5th,  1817, 

When  2,800  British  troops  defeated  the 

Peshwd's  anny, 

And  was  present  at  the  taking  of  Purandhar, 

and  other  Hill  Forts. 

He  commanded  a  regiment  at  Kittiir  in  1824. 

He  subsequently  became  Town-Miyor  of 

Bombay, 

And  closed  his  career  in  India  as 

Resident  of  Sdtdrl 

The  first  European  who  set  foot  on  these  hills, 

He  made  known  the  salubrity  of  the  climate. 

And  led  to  the  establishment  of  the 

Mahdbaleshwar  Sanatorium, 

Thus  conferring  an  inestimable  benefit 

on  the 

Bombay  Presidency. 

On  the  N.  side  is  written  : — 

Tliis  Point, 

Now,  by  order  of  Government, 

Designated  Lodwick  Point  in  honour  of  his 

name, 

He  reached  alone  in  1827, 

After  hours  of  toil  through  the  dense  forests. 

Here,  thei  efore,  as  the  most  appropriate  spot, 

This  Monument  has,  with  the  permission  of 

Government, 

Been  erected  by  his  omIv  son, 

R.  W.  Lodwick,  of  H.M.'s.  Bombay  Ci\il 

Service, 

Accomitant-Geiiemi  of  Madras, 

Jii  15)74. 


A  few  yds.  to  the  N.  or  right  of  the 
column  is  a  path  which  leads  to  the 
precipice  at  the  Point,  whence  it  is 
seen  that  between  Lodwick  Point  and 
Elphinstone  Point  is  a  vast  glen,  down 
to  the  bottom  of  which  the  mountains 
descend  apparently  as  steeply  as  a 
wall.  There  is  a  path,  however,  a 
little  to  the  right  of  that  which  goes 
to  the  Point,  by  which  one  who  is  not 
troubled  with  giddiness  can  make  his 
way  down  to  a  village  (see  Darra)  in 
the  plain,  and  the  Indians  constantly 
ascend  and  descend  by  this  path, 
bringing  up  wood  and  grass.  The 
jungle  is  rather  thick  below,  and  ti- 
gers and  panthers  sometimes  hai'bour 
there.  A  panther  was  shot  some  time 
ago  at  the  bangld  nearest  to  the 
Point,  and  in  that  vicinity  is  a  small 
pool  where  the  print  of  the  feet 
of  wild  beasts  may  occasionally  be 
seen. 

Pratapgafh, — The  next  expedition 
should  be  to  Pratdpgaj'h,  and  there  is  no 
spot  which,  for  historic  recollections  or 
natural  beauty,  is  more  deserving  of  a 
visit.  The  road  presents  magnificent 
views  at  every  turn.  A  bold  rider 
might,  perhaps,  ride  the  whole  way 
into  the  fort,  but  the  entrance  is  very 
rugged  and  steep,  and  it  would  be, 
perhaps,  safer  and  more  convenient  to 
walk  or  to  be  carried  in  a  chair.  From 
the  walls  of  the  fort  are  seen  to  the 
S.E.  Lodwick  Point  and  Elphinstone 
Point,  and  the  Maiii  Mahal,  as  the 
Mahdbaleshwar  Hills  are  called  by 
the  natives.  Beyond  Elphinstone 
Point  towers  Raieshwar,  a  cluster 
of  black  and  abrupt  precipices  which 
no  human  foot  has  ever  trod.  To  the 
N.  rises  the  majestic  Torna  and  Baj- 
gafh,  and  in  the  far  distance  KaigaCrh. 
On  the  S.  is  Makrangaph,  or  Dhdbar, 
to  use  the  native  name.  On  the  W. 
the  creek  of  Mhdr  and  Polddpiir  are 
distinctly  visible.  In  the  fort  are  2 
temples  to  Bhawdni  and  Mahddeo, 
and  several  tanks  for  rain  water.  The 
old  tower  under  which  Shivaji,  in  Oct., 
1659,  buried  the  head  of  Afzal  Khan, 
the  Bijapiir  general,  is  crumbling  to 
decay,  and  is  overgrown  with  weeds. 
This  celebrated  exploit,  the  murder 
of  Afzal  Khdn,  laid  the  foundation  of 


Sect.  II. 


Houte  5. — Pratdpgarh, 


203 


Shivaji*B  greatness,  and  is  thus  ad- 
mirably described  by  Grant  Duff  *  : — 
"  Shivajl  provided  accommodation  for 
the  envoy  and  his  suite,  but  assigned 
a  place  for  the  Brdhman  at  some  dis- 
tance from  the  rest.  In  the  middle  of 
the  night  Shivajl  secretly  introduced 
himseS  to  Paiitoji  Goplndth.  He  ad- 
dressed him  as  a  Brahman,  his  supe- 
rior. He  represented  that  *  all  he  had 
done  was  for  the  sake  of  Hindi!is  and  the 
Hindti  faith  ;  that  he  was  called  on  by 
Bhawdnl  herself  to  protect  Brdhmans 
and  kine,  to  punish  the  violators  of 
their  temples  and  their  gods,  and  to 
resist  the  enemies  of  ther  religion  ; 
that  it  became  him  as  a  Brahman  to 
assist  in  what  was  already  declared  by 
the  deity  ;  and  that  here  amongst  his 
caste  and  countrymen  he  should  here- 
after live  in  comfort  and  affluence.' 
Shivajl  seconded  his  arguments  with 
presents,  and  a  solemn  promise  of 
bestowing  the  village  of  Hewra  in 
In'4m  on  him  and  his  posterity  for 
ever.  No  Brdhman  could  resist  such 
an  appeal,  seconded  by  such  tempta- 
tion. The  envoy  swore  fidelity  to 
Shivajl,  declared  he  was  his  for  ever, 
and  called  on  the  god  to  punish  him 
if  he  swerved  from  any  task  he  might 
impose.  They  accordingly  consulted 
on  the  fittest  means  for  averting 
the  present  danger.  The  Brdhman, 
fully  acquainted  with  Af^al  Khan's 
character,  suggested  the  practicability 
of  seducing  him  to  a  conference,  and 
Shivajl  at  once  determined  on  his 
scheme.  He  sent  for  a  confidential 
Brdhman,  already  mentioned,  Kfi^h- 
najl  Bhdskar,  informed  him  of  what 
had  just  passed,  and  of  the  resolu- 
tion which  he  had,  in  consequence, 
adopted.  After  fully  consulting  on 
the  subject,  they  separated  as  secretly 
as  they  had  met. 

"  Some  interviews  and  discussions 
having  taken  place,  merely  for  the 
purpose  of  masking  their  design,  Krish- 
najl  Bhdskar,  as  Shivajl's  vakil,  was 
despatched  with  Pantojl  Gopln^th,  to 
the  camp  of  Afzal  Khdn.  The  latter 
represented  Shivajl  as  in  great  alarm  ; 
but  if  his  fears  could  be  overcome  by 

■^  VqI.  i.  p.  IGO. 


the  personal  assurances  of  the  Khdn, 
he  was  convinced  that  he  might 
easily  be  prevailed  upon  to  give  him- 
self up.  With  a  blind  confidence, 
Afzal  Kh4n  trusted  himself  to  Pan- 
tojl's  guidance.  An  interview  was 
agreed  upon,  and  the  Bljaptir  troops 
with  great  labour  moved  to  Jdoll. 
Shivajl  prepared  aplacefor  themeeting 
below  the  fort  of  PratApgarh ;  he  cut 
down  the  jungle  and  cleared  a  road  for 
the  Khan's  approach ;  but  every  other 
avenue  to  the  place  was  carefully  closed. 
He  ordered  up  Moro  Pant  and  Netaji 
P^lkar  from  the  Konkan.  with  many 
thousands  of  the  Mdwall  infantry. 
He  communicated  his  whole  plan  to 
these  two,  and  to  Tdnajl  Mdlusr^. 
Netaji  was  stationed  in  the  thickets  a 
little  to  the  E.  of  the  fort,  where  it 
was  expected  that  a  part  of  the  Khdn*8 
retinue  would  advance,  and  Moro 
Trimmal,  with  the  old  and  tried  men, 
was  sent  to  conceal  himself  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  main  body  of 
the  Bljapiir  troops,  which  remained, 
as  had  been  agreed  upon,  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Jioll.  The  precon- 
certed signal  for  Netaji  was  the  blast 
of  a  horn,  and  the  distant  attack,  by 
Moro  Trimmal,  was  to  commence  on 
hearing  the  fire  of  five  guns  from 
Pratdpgarh,  which  were  also  to  an- 
nounce Shivajl's  safety.  1500  of  Afzal 
Khdn's  troops  accompanied  him  to 
within  a  few  hundred  yards  of  Pra- 
tdpgayh,  where,  for  fear  of  alarming 
Shivajl,  they  were,  at  Pantojl  Gopi- 
ndth's  suggestion,  desired  to  halt. 
Af^al  Khdn,  dressed  in  a  thin  muslin 
garment,  armed  only  with  his  sword, 
and  attended,  as  had  been  agreed,  by 
a  single  armed  follower,  advanced  in 
his  pdlkl  to  an  open  bangld  prepared 
for  the  occasion. 

"  Shivajl  had  made  preparations  for 
his  purpose,  not  as  if  conscious  that 
he  meditated  a  criminal  and  treacher- 
ous deed,  but  as  if  resolved  on  some 
meritorious,  though  desperate  action. 
Having  performed  his  ablutions  with 
much  earnestness,  he  laid  his  bead  at 
his  mother's  feet  and  besought  her 
blessing.  He  then  arose,  put  on  a 
steel  chain  cap  and  chain  armour 
under  his  turban  and  cotton  gown. 


204 


Boute  5. — Ptind  to  Malidbaleshwar, 


Sect.  II. 


concealed  a  crooked  dagger,  or  hicJiwd, 
in  his  right  sieve,  and  on  the  fingers 
of  his  left  hand  he  fixed  a  wdghnaJth, 
a  treacherous  weapon,  well  known 
among  Mardthas.  Thus  accoutred,  he 
slowly  descended  the  fort.  The  Khdn 
had  arrived  at  the  place  of  meeting 
before  him,  and  was  expressing  his 
impatience  at  the  delay,  when  Shivajl 
was  seen  advancing,  apparently  un- 
armed, and,  like  the  Khdn,  attended 
by  only  one  armed  follower,  his  tried 
fnend  Tdnaji  MAlusr6.  Shivajl,  in 
view  of  Afzal  Khdn,  frequently 
stopped,  which  was  represented  as 
the  effects  of  alarm,  a  supposition 
more  likely  to  be  admitted  from  his 
diminutive  size.  Under  pretence  of 
assuring  Shivajl,  the  armed  attendant, 
by  the  contrivance  of  the  Brdhman, 
stood  atafew  paces  distant.  Afzal  Kh  An 
made  no  objection  to  Shivaji'sfollower, 
although  he  carried  two  swords  in  his 
waistband, — a  circumstance  which 
might  pass  unnoticed,  being  common 
among  MarAthas  ;  he  advanced  two 
or  three  paces  to  meet  Shivaji ;  they 
were  introduced,  and,  in  the  midst  of 
the  customary  embrace,  the  treacher- 
ous MarAtha  struck  the  TvdgJinaTth  into 
the  bowels  of  Afzal  KhAn,  who  quickly 
disengaged  himself,  clapped  his  hand 
on  his  sword,  exclaiming,  'Trea- 
chery and  murder  I '  But  Shivajl  in- 
stantly followed  up  the  blow  with  his 
dagger.  The  KhAn  had  drawn  his 
sword,  and  made  a  cut  at  Shivajl,  but 
the  concealed  armour  was  proof 
against  the  blow :  the  whole  was  the 
work  of  a  moment,  and  Shivaji  was 
wresting  the  weapon  from  the  hand 
of  his  victim  before  their  attendants 
could  run  towards  them.  Saiyid 
Bandii,  the  follower  of  the  KhAn, 
whose  name  deserves  to  be  recorded, 
refused  his  life  on  condition  of  sur- 
render ;  and,  against  two  such  swords- 
men as  Shivaji  and  his  companion, 
maintained  an  unequal  combat  before 
he  fell.  The  bearers  had  lifted  the 
KhAn  into  his  pAlkl  during  the  scuflle  ; 
but,  by  the  time  it  was  over,  Ehaiidu 
Mall6,  and  some  other  followers  of 
Shivaji,  had  come  up,  when  they  cut 
off  the  head  of  the  dying  man,  and 
earned  it  to  PratApgayh.    The  signals 


agreed  on  were  now  made  ;  the  M4- 
walls  rushed  from  their  concealment, 
and  beset  the  nearest  part  of  the  Bi- 
jApdr  troops  on  all  sides,  few  of  whom 
had  time  to  mount  their  horses  or 
stand  to  their  arms.  Netaji  PAlkar 
gave  no  quarter ;  but  orders  were  sent 
to  Moro  Pafit  to  spare  all  who  sub- 
mitted ;  and  Shivajl's  humanity  to  his 
prisoners  was  conspicuous  on  this  as 
well  as  on  most  occasions.  This  success 
among  a  people  who  cared  little  for 
the  means  by  which  it  was  attainedi 
greatly  raised  the  reputation  of 
Shivajl;  and  the  immediate  fruits  of 
it  were  4000  horses,  several  elephants, 
a  number  of  camels,  a  considerable 
treasure,  and  the  whole  train  of 
equipment  which  had  been  sent 
against  him." 

JDarra, — The  sportsman  vdll  find 
excellent  shiMris  or  native  huntsmen 
at  the  Hills  waiting  to  be  employed, 
and  many  places  all  routed  where  he 
may  ply  his  rifle  and  gun.  Jungle 
fowl  and  spur  fowl  are  to  be  had  in 
most  directions,  and  there  is  always  a 
chance  of  coming  upon  a  panther,  a 
cliitdf  a  bear,  or  a  tiger.  Bison,  once 
numerous  on  the  hills,  are  now  only 
to  be  found  at  considerable  distances, 
and  are  excessively  shy.  For  a  first 
attempt  the  visitor  in  search  of  game 
may  descend  between  Sydney  and 
Elphinstone  Points  to  the  village  of 
Darra,  which  is  situated  about  2000  ft. 
down.  The  descent  is  rather  fatiguing 
on  account  of  the  long  grass,  low  jun- 
gle, and  broken  masses  of  rocks,  where 
snakes  are  plentiful.  Besides  the 
cobra,  and  rock  snake,  there  are  great 
numbers  of  a  most  deadly  little  snake, 
called  by  the  natives  phurscn^  the 
Kaju  TatA  of  Russell.  It  is  requi- 
site, therefore,  to  be  careful,  though 
no  European  has  yet  been  killed  by 
the  bite  of  these  reptiles.  Instances, 
however,  of  deaths  among  the  natives 
owing  to  the  bites  of  snakes  are 
not  uncommon.  Enormous  mon- 
keys inhabit  the  trees  which  clothe 
the  sides  of  the  mountains,  and  there 
are  a  few  peacocks,  which  two  kinds 
of  animals  are  said]  to  be  always  in 
spots  where  the  tiger  is  found.  The 
monkeys,   by  their  cries  and  excit 


Sect.  11. 


Eoute  6. — Pimd  to  SlwldpUr, 


205 


ment,  will  generally  make  known  the 
whereabouts  of  the  monster.  After 
reaching  Darra  there  is  a  path  beside 
a  clear  stream  to  another  village,  and 
thence  the  return  may  be  made  up 
Lodwick  Point.  As  the  climber  ad- 
vances, the  ascent  grows  more  steep, 
until  near,  the  top  there  is  a  sheet  of 
grass  without  any  jungle,  so  extremely 
slippery,  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to 
cross  it  with  unspiked  shoes,  next  to 
which  bare  feet  are  safest.  To  those 
who  are  accustomed  to  climb  moun- 
tains, the  ascent  will  be  very  enjoyable, 
commanding  as  it  does  the  most  mag- 
nificent scenery  on  either  side.  To  per- 
sons subject  to  giddiness  this  path  can 
hardly  be  recommended,  as  a  slip 
might  cany  them  down  many  hundred 
feet  into  the  forests  below.  After 
passing  the  grass,  a  narrow  path  about 
three  feet  broad  is  reached,  which  winds 
along  under  Sydney  Point  on  the  brink 
of  a  tremendous  precipice,  and  at  last 
leads  to  the  road.  So  great  is  the 
height  that  if  the  visitor  has  nerve 
to  look  down  he  will  see  the  most 
gigantic  trees  dwarfed  to  tiny  shrubs. 
Indeed  the  forest  looks  almost  like  a 
carpet  of  moss. 

Makrangafh, — Another  place  where 
game  is  to  be  found  is  the  forest  near 
Makranga^h.  A  ride  of  about  13  miles 
leads  through  beautiful  scenery  to  the 
village  of  Dewli,  where  the  sportsman 
may  halt  in  an  old  temple,  under 
some  of  the  tallest  trees  to  be  found 
in  these  parts.  In  the  early  morning 
the  jungle  fowl  and  partridges  will 
be  heard  crying  in  all  directions  on 
the  road  hither,  from  the  Hills'  side  ; 
while  as  evening  comes  on,  shouts 
may  be  occasionally  heard  &om  the 
herdsmen  calling  to  one  another  to  be 
on  the  look  out,  as  some  one  among 
them  has  from  the  mountain  top 
descried  a  prowling  tiger  near  the 
herds.  A  fine  river  flows  through  the 
valleys  in  this  direction,  and  the  jun- 
gles are  adorned  with  magnificent 
timber.  Bears  and  chitaly  the  spotted 
antelope,  are  obtainable  here,  and 
occasionally  tigers  ;  but  the  jungle  is 
so  thick  that  it  is  exceedingly  difficult 
to  follow  up  or  secure  a  wounded 
animal. 


There  are  many  other  beautiful  spots 
aroimd  the  hills  which  the  traveller 
can  explore,  taldng  with  him  an  In- 
dian guide;  but  the  most  important 
have  been  described.  A  month  may 
be  delightfully  passed  on  the  hills. 
The  rent  of  houses  for  the  season  is 
from  Rs.  300  to  1600. 


Table  of  Fares  for  Phaetons,  Dog-cariSj  Twigas, 
Shigrams,  and  Bullock-carts. 

R.  A. 

Morning  or  evening  drive  for  3  hrs.,  or 
under,  within  municipal  limits  :— 
Phaeton  with  2  horses  .  .  .30 
„  1  horse  .  .  ..20 
Tonga,  with  2  horses  .  .  .  .20 
Dog-cart  or  Shigram,  with  1  horse  .  1 J  0 
Bullock-cart 10 

On  the  hill  the  whole  day  within  muni- 
cipal limits : — 
Phaetons,  with  2  horses  .  .  .60 
„  „  1  horse  .  .  ..40 
Tonga,  with  2  horses  .  .  .  .50 
Dog-cart  or  Shigram  .  .  ..30 
BoUock-cart 2    0 


ROUTE  6, 

PUNA  TO  SHOLAPUE. 

For  the  stations  and  distances  on 
this  route  refer  to  Time  Table,  Route  I. 
The  whole  distance  to  Sholdpiir,  163| 
m.,  is  passed  through  a  level  and,  in 
general,  treeless  country,  with  but  few 
villages,  and  no  town  of  importance. 
The  hills  on  either  hand  nowhere  rise 
above  700  ft.,  and  are  at  3  to  5  m. 
distance,  except  in  a  veiy  few  places. 
A  road  runs  parallel  to  the  line.  The 
station-houses  are  small  but  neat,  with 
pretty  gardens  and  palings  covered 
with  creepers  with  white  flowers.  The 
first  station  is  Loni,  but  the  name  is 


^ 


206 


Houte  6. — Fund  to  Slwldiy&r, 


Sect.  II. 


not  written  up.  It  is  to  the  right  of 
the  line.  The  line  is  single  all  the 
way.  The  next  station,  Urll,  is  a  mid- 
dling-sized* village.  The  station  is  on 
the  right,  as  is  the  next  station,  Khed- 
gaoii,  where  the  train  stops  for  a  few 
minutes ;  Patds,  the  next  station,  is 
also  on  the  right,  and  Dhond  is  on  the 
left.  Diksal,  on  the  right,  is  a  small 
village,  where  there  is  time  to  take  a 
cup  of  tea.  Two  m.  beyond  Diksal 
you  cross  the  Bhima  river.  PumAlwddl 
station  is  on  the  right,  and  Jaiir  is  on 
the  left.  Here  mimosa  trees  are  very 
thick.  The  line  passes  between  banks 
of  earth,  which  are  so  close  as 
almost  to  touch  the  train.  Kem,  the 
next  station,  is  a  large  and  flourishing 
village,  the  largest  place  between  PunS 
and  Sholdpi^r.  There  is  a  fine  clump 
of  trees  on  the  right.  Bdrsi  Road  is 
a  nice  station  on  the  right,  near  a  large 
village.  This  place  is  the  station  from 
which,  in  the  rains,  travellers  who  in- 
tend to  visit  Pandharpi!ir  must  turn  off 
to  the  S.,  the  distance  being  about  30 
m.  In  dry  weather  they  will  proceed 
to  Mohal,  28  m.  farther ;  but  the  dis- 
tance is  only  24  m.  from  Pandharpiir. 
Pandharpiir  is  on  the  right  bank  of  the 
Bhima  river,  39  m.  W.  of  ShoUpilir. 
There  is  here  a  very  celebrated  temple 
to  Witthobd,  or  Withthal.  The  name 
is  said  to  be  derived  from  "W?i,'* 
knowledge,  Jlia,  privation,  and  La, 
"  who  take8,"=receiver  of  the  ignorant. 
The  people  in  charge  of  this  idol,  his 
clothes,  etc.,  are  the  Badwars.  The 
temple  is  said  to  have  been  built  in 
A.D.  80,  and  was  rented  by  certain 
Br^hmans  till  1081,  then  by  Badwfirs. 
The  idol  wears  a  high  cap,  and  has  a 
most  ludicrous  appearance.  The  le- 
gend is  that  a  Brdhman  named  Pan- 
delli,  going  on  a  pilgrimage  to  Banaras, 
neglected  his  parents  and  stopped  in 
a  Brdhman*s  house  at  Pandharpiir,  and 
saw  Gang^,  Yamuna,  and  Saraswati 
acting  as  handmaids  to  his  host  on 
account  of  his  filial  piety.  Pandelli 
then  gave  up  his  pilgrimage  to  Band- 
ras,  stopped  at  Pandharpiir,  and  treated 
his  pai'ents  with  great  respect  and 
honour,  whereupon  Vishnu  became  in- 
carnate in  him  as  Witthobd.  The  idol 
is  4  ft.  high,  and  the  pedestal  on  which 


it  stands  is  covered  with  4  silver  plates. 
I  The  first  chamber  in  the  temple  has 
16  pillars,  and  is  a  room  40  ft.  sq.  and 
10  ft.  high,  without  windows  and  ven- 
tilation.   The  2nd  pillar  on  the  left  is 
covered  with  silver  plates,  and  pil- 
grims embrace  it.     The  next  room  is 
called  the  Chdrkhamb,  and  is  20  ft.  sq. 
and  10  ft.  high.    The  idol  chamber  is 
8  ft.  sq.    Immense  crowds  of  pilgrims 
visit  this  temple  at  certain  times,  par- 
ticularly on  the  11th  day  from  the 
new  moon  and  the  11th  from  the  full 
moon  in  A^hddh  and  K^tik,  July  and 
October,  and  suffer  greatly  from  the 
crush  and  the   want  of  ventilation. 
The  pop.  of  Pandharpiir  is  16,275,  of 
which  the  Hindiis  are  16,267.  Between 
Bdrsl  and  Pandharpiir  there  is  a  good 
T.  B.  at  Shetphal,  13^  m.  from  Bdrsl. 
SJwldp€kr   is   a  city  of  53,403  in- 
habitants, the  capital  of  a  coUectorate, 
and  protected  by  a  strong  fort.    The 
T.  B.  is  350  yards  E.  of  the  station. 
The  fort  is  1^  m.  N.W.  of  the  station. 
It  is  built  on  level  ground,  with  a  very 
slight  fall  to  the  N.    The  ramparts  are 
of  mud,  with  a  fausse-braie.    It  has 
flanking  semicircular  bastions,  with  4 
high  towers.    It  has  the  Tank  of  Sa- 
deshwar  to  the  E.,  and  a  broad  and 
deep  ditch  on  the  other  3  sides.    The 
first  gate  is  called  the  Edntd  Dar- 
wdzah  or  Spike  Gate,  from  the  iron 
spikes  with  which  the  huge  massive 
wooden  doors  are  garnished.    These 
are  to  keep  off  elephants,  which  used 
to  be  trained  to  break  in  gates  by  push- 
ing with  their  foreheads.    It  has  a 
Persian  inscription,  of  which  the  fol- 
lowing   is   the    translation  :  —  "  The 
building  and  repairs  of  the  Spike  Gate 
with  iron,  and  of  the  sallyport  of  the 
Fort  Sholdpiir  in  the  fortunate  Province 
of  AurangabM,  took  place  in  the  reign 
of  Bdja  Sdhii,   King  of  Sdtdra,  and 
by  order  of  the    Peshwa    BAji   Rdo 
(may  his  good  fortune  be  perpetuated  I) 
and  under  the  advice  of  Saddseo  Pan- 
dit, Governor  of  the  said  Fort,  by  the 
hands  of  Special  Councillor  Abdjl  Ba- 
lAr,  Secretary  and  Deputy  of  the  said 
Governor.  The  building  was  completed 
on  the  1st  of  Muliarram,  in  the  year 
1225  of  the  holy  Hijrah  (A.D.  1806)." 
The  second  gate  is  at  an  angle  to  the 


Sect.  II. 


Houte  6. — Slioldpur. 


207 


first,  and  is  called  the  Mahang  Gate. 
The  1st  gate  has  2  rhinoceroses  carved 
above  it,  and  the  2nd  two  lions.  The 
walls  are  about  40  ft.  high.  Observe  in 
the  revetments  many  stones  taken  from 
Hindii  temples,  on  which  figures  of 
A^ishnUjMahadeo,  and  of  elephants  and 
peacocks  are  seen.  The  walls  are  not 
solid  enough  when  heavy  guns  are 
being  fired  on  them,  and  there  is  now 
no  communication  between  the  ditch 
and  the  interior  of  the  B'ort.  To  make 
it  really  strong  there  should  be  bomb- 
proofs.  There  is  in  the  city,  which  lies 
N.  of  the  Fort,  a  good  high  school  for 
boys  and  young  men,  and  a  school  for 
girls,  which  may  be  visited  by  those 
interested  in  educational  matters. 
There  are  between  50  and  60  girls, 
taught  by  a  BrAhmanl  lady,  but 
none  of  the  scholars  are  over  12  years 
of  age,  and  some  of  them  are  already 
married.  The  cantonment  at  Sholdpili-, 
which  lies  S.E.  of  the  station,  has  a 
deserted  look  and  many  houses  are 
falling  down.  There  was  once  a  strong 
force  here,  but  nearly  all  the  troops 
have  been  withdrawn.  In  April,  1818, 
General  Munro  marched  against  a 
body  of  BAji  RAo's  infantry,  4500  in 
number,  who  had  with  them  13  guns, 
and  were  commanded  by  Ganpat  Rdo 
Phdns6.  On  hearing  of  General  Mun- 
ro's  approach,  they  retreated  under  the 
walls  of  the  strong  fort  of  ShoUpiir, 
where  they  were  followed  up,  attacked, 
routed,  and  pursued  with  great 
slaughter.  The  P6ta  of  SholApiir  had 
been  previously  carried  by  escalade, 
and  the  Fort,  after  a  short  siege,  sur- 
rendered. (Grant  Duff,  vol.  iii.  p.  484.) 
There  is  a  fine  cotton-mill  at  SholApiir. 
It  is  near  the  Police  Station,  close  to 
the  Railway,  and  4  m.  S.W.  of  the 
Fort.  The  principal  owner  is  Murdrjl 
Gokaldds,  a  well-known  wealthy  mer- 
chant of  Bombay,  whose  family  have 
been  famous  for  their  liberality.  It 
is  278  ft.  long  by  84  ft.  wide,  and 
works  16,000  spindles.  The  lower 
story  is  16  ft.  high,  and  is  the  carding- 
room ;  and  the  story  above,  16  ft.  high, 
is  the  spinning-room.  The  chimney 
is  130  ft.  high.  The  weaving  shed  is 
138  ft.  long  by  78  ft.  wide.  The  en- 
gine-house is  48  ft.  by  30  ft.    This  Mill 


cost  £60,000.  Observe  that  in  Sho- 
lapi!ir  from  4 J  to  6  bales,  containing 
784  lbs.  of  cotton  each,  make  one 
khandi ;  but  in  Gujarat  only  \\  bales. 
The  railway  charge  for  carrying  a 
khandi  of  cotton  to  Bombay  is  Rs.  14, 
or  Rs.  3J  to  3i  per  bale.  Out  of  a 
khandi  of  cotton  2.  bales  of  yarn  are 
got  of  300  lbs.  each,  and  25  per  cent, 
is  waste.  Each  bale  pays  10  dnds  for 
municipal  tax,  and  Rs.  1^  brokerage. 
In  some  respects  the  mill  at  SholApiir 
is  worked  more  cheaply  than  those  in 
Bombay,  where  a  khandi  of  firewood 
weighs  800  lbs.  and  costs  Rs.  4 J  ;  but 
in  SholApilr  a  khandi  of  wood  weighs 
1600  lbs.  and  costs  Rs.  6.  Water  for 
the  mill  in  Bombay  costs  R.  1  for 
1000  gallons,  and  in  Sholdpiir  R.  1 
for  25,000  gallons. 

At  about  3  m.  N.  of  the  city  of  Sho- 
ldpiir is  the  Eki-ilkh  Tank.  This  tank 
has  been  formed  by  an  embankment 
of  earth  and  rough  stones  1 J  m.  long, 
which  has  been  carried  across  the  Ad- 
hin  river.  The  Indians  call  this  river 
the  Balen  Ndlah,  but  this  Ndlah  is  a 
smaller  rivulet  to  the  W.  The  lake  is 
10  m.  in  its  extreme  length,  and  4  m. 
at  its  greatest  breadth.  The  area  is 
about  6i  sq.  m.  at  full  supply  level. 
To  speak  with  precision,  the  embank- 
ment is  6980  ft.  long,  and  from  8  to 
18  ft.  broad  at  top.  There  are  2  towers, 
from  one  of  which  there  is  an  escape 
sluice  raised  by  a  capstan.  Three 
canals,  2  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river 
and  1  on  the  right,  are  carried  fi-om 
the  tank  to  irrigate  the  surrounding 
country.  The  High-level  canal  on  the 
left  bank  waters  2.40  sq.  m.  The 
Low-level  canal  from  the  left  bank 
waters  16.32  sq.  m.  The  High-level 
waters  10.12  sq.  m.  The  greatest 
height  of  the  embankment  is  76^  ft., 
and  the  greatest  depth  of  water  60  ft. 
There  are  thousands  of  trees  along  the 
course  of  the  canals,  but  no  great  plan- 
tation near  the  lake,  as  the  soil  is  rock, 
which  gets  harder  the  lower  you  go. 
In  such  ground  a  hole  must  be  dug  10 
ft.  deep  and  filled  with  earth  for  a 
tree  to  grow  in  it.  There  are  a  few 
alligators  in  the  lake,  and  plenty  of 
fish.  The  fishery  lets  for  450  rs.  a 
year.    But  for  this  lake,  which  ha« 


208 


Eoute  7. — Sholdpur  to  Bi;dpiir, 


Sect.  II. 


only  lately  been  finished,  the  whole 
district  near,  and  even  the  city  of  Sho- 
lapiir  itself,  must  havo  been  deserted 
daring^  the  late  famine.  The  road  to 
the  la^e  is  impassable  in  the  rains ;  it 
crosses  2  canals,  the  first  of  which  is 
so  deep  even  in  the  dry  weather  that 
the  water  flows  into  a  back  seat  of  a 
Tonga.  There  is,  besides,  the  broad 
bed  of  a  river  to  be  crossed,  which 
would  be  quite  impassable  in  the  rains. 
This  lake  affords  a  signal  example  of 
the  advantage  of  embanking  streams 
in  India. 


ROUTE  7. 

SHOLAPUB  TO  BLTAPUB. 

The  stages  are  as  follows  : — 

Miles. 
From  the  judges'  bangU  at  ShoUpiir  to 

Dholkeir 20 

Dholkeir  to  Gundwan 12 

Gundwan  to  Horti 8 

Horti  to  Jadgnndi 8 

Jadgun41  to  JBydpiir         .        .        .       .  12 

Total    .  .     eo 

After  2  m.  the  Motl  TalAo  or  Pearl 
Tank,  at  the  extremity  of  the  can- 
tonment, is  reached.  It  is  usual  to 
change  horses  at  the  5th  milestone, 
and  here  for  4  m.  the  road  is  shaded 
by  low  tamarisk  trees,  which  grow  on 
either  side  as  far  as  the  river  Bhlma. 
This  river  would  scarcely  be  passable 
ill  the  rains  except  in  a  boat,  but  it  is 
not  more  than  3  ft.  deep  in  the  warm 
weather,  and  has  a  rocky  bed.  After 
passing  the  19th  milestone  the  Bhlma 
river  must  be  crossed  again  to  reach 
the  banglA,  which  is  150  yds.  off  the 
road  to  the  right,  and  is  a  mere  dharm- 
sdla,  with  no  comfort  or  conveni- 
ence, and   open  to  the  public  view. 


This  place  ijs  200  ft.  lower  than  the 
£kn!ikh  Tank.    There  are  2  villages, 
Yarji  and  Jalkl,  between  Dholkeir  and 
GundwAn.    The  T.  B.  at  GundwAn  is 
more  wretched  than  that  at  Dholkeir. 
The  bugs  here  are  very  numerous.    At 
Horti  the  domes  of  the  buildings  at 
Bij&piiir  are  visible  from  the  rising 
ground.    At  the  43rd  m.  low  hills  be- 
gin, and  at  the  45th  the  white  tomb 
of  one  D&iid  Malik  is  passed  on  the 
right.    It  is  on  a  hill  a  mile  or  more 
off.    At  the  50th  m.  there  is  a  thick 
clump  of  trees,  and  before  reaching  it 
observe  some  small  tombs  and  temples, 
with  a  red  image  and  a  stone  with 
curious  drawings  like  ships.    The  road 
for  the  last  5  m.  is  through  a  stony  and 
desolate  tract,  and  though  the  appear- 
ance of  some  of  the  domed  buildings 
in  the  city  is  striking,  no  one  would 
imagine  that  here  stood  a  city,  the 
capital  of  the  Dakhan,  the  walls  of 
wnich  '^  were  of  immense  extent,  and 
its  fort  6  m.  in  circumference  "  (Grant 
Duff,  vol.  i.  p.  339),  while  its  sovereign 
maintained  an  army  of  80,000  horse 
and  200,000  infantry.    A  description 
of  Bij4pi!ir  has  been  given  by  Oapt. 
Sydenham  in  the  Asiatic  Besearches, 
vol.  xiii.  p.  432,  4th  ed. ;  and  also  by 
Colonel  Sykes  in  the  Trans,  of  the  Lit. 
Soc.  of  Bombay,  vol.  iii.  p.  55;  and 
by  Dr.  James  Bird  in  the  Jour,  of 
the  Bom.  As.  Soc.  for  May,  1844.  The 
description  which  follows  represents 
the  state  of  the  city  and  buildings  as 
they  now  are.  The  city  is  said  to  have 
extended,  at  its  most  flourishing  pe- 
riod, to  a  circumference  of  30  m. ;  but 
this  must  have  included  the  suburbs, 
which   were   formerly    divided    into 
Piiralis,  of  which  that  on  the  W.  was 
called  Sh4hpi!irah,  which  was  joined 
by  the  Ydkiitpiirah,  and  by  the  \Zuhrah 
or  Ibrah^pilirah  to  the  S.  of  these  2. 
All  3  seem  to  have  been  called  Tor- 
wah,  and  in  themselves  formed  a  new 
city,  which  was  fortified  by  Ibrahim 
»Adil  Shah  II.  the  24th  year  of  his 
reign,  A.H.  1011=AD.  1604.    The  as- 
trologers having  declared  that  to  re- 
main in  the  cittidel  would  be  unlucky, 
Ibrahim  removed  his  seat  of  govern- 
ment from  that  place  to  Torwah.    The 
new  capital,  however,  was  plundered 


Sect.  II. 


Boute  7. — Bij'dpiir, 


209 


bj  Malik  Ambar  o£  A^madnagar  in 
A.H.  1031===A.D.  1621.  On  this  the 
Court  returned  from  Torwah  to  the 
citadel ;  and  when  Aurangzib  took 
Bij&pi!ir,  Torwah  Was  "quite  depopu- 
lated, its  ruined  palaces  only  remain- 
ing, with  a  thick  wall  surrounding  it, 
whose  stately  gateways  were  falling 
to  decay."  This  suburb  then,  whose 
walls  extended  3  m.  from  the  W.  gate 
of  the  fort,  and  probably  other  suburbs 
which  have  now  utterly  perished,  must 
have  been  included  in  the  30  m.  What 
is  called  the  city  now  is  the  fort,  of 
which  Grant  Duff  says  that  it  was  6 
m.  in  circumference.  It  is  more  pre- 
cisely 28,760  ft.  round,  or  about  6i  m. 
The  total  pop.  according  to  the  Census 
of  1872  is  12,938.  Within  the  walls  of 
the  fort  is  the  citadel,  the  walls  of 
which  extend  1660  ft.  from  N.  to  S., 
and  1900  ft  from  W.  to  E.  The  tra- 
Tcller  coming  from  Sholdpiir  will  enter 
BijApiir  fort  or  city  by  the  ^Ahpiir 
gate,  which  is  on  the  N.W.  of  the  cita- 
del in  the  city  wall.  "When  he  comes 
to  examine  the  buildings,  he  will  then 
see  a  proof  of  the  former  riches  and 
magnificence  of  this  ruined  capital. 
He  will  see  a  dome  127^  ft.  in  dia- 
meter, while  that  of  St.  Peter's  is  only 
139,  and  that  of  St.  Paul's  108.*  But 
before  examining  the  edifices  he  must 
locate  himself  in  Khawds  KhAn's 
tomb,  which  is  now  used  as  a  T.  B. 
This  buUding  is  3600  ft.  S.  by  E.  of 
the  Sh4hpiir  Qate.  It  is  well  built 
and  handsome,  but  unfortunately 
swarms  with  bugs.  Snakes  also  are 
pretty  numerous,  and  a  tic  polongai 
4J  ft.  long,  which  had  just  swallowed 
a  large  rat,  was  killed  a  short  time 
since  close  to  the  bangld.  Bij&pilir, 
like  all  ruined  cities,  is  also  very  un- 
healthy during  tiie  rains,  and  for  some 
time  after  them.  During  the  late  fa- 
mine it  suffered  very  severely,  and 
about  60,000  persons  died  in  the  city 
and  surrounding  country.  Before 
making  excursions  the  traveller  will 
do  well  to  fix  in  his  memory  the  names 
of  the  gates  of  the  foi*t  or  city,  and 
their  locality.    The  Shdhpiir  Gate  on 

*  See  "Trans,  of  Arch.  Inst,"  Kovember, 
1854. 

[i?om6ay— 1880.] 


the  N.W.  has  already  been  mentioned. 
2400  ft.  to  the  8.  of  it  is  the  Paddea 
Gate,  and  600  ft.  to  the  S.  of  that  is 
the  Makkah  Gate.  Almost  exactly 
opposite  to  it  on  tiie  other  or  B.  side 
of  the  fort  is  'AUpiir  Gate  or  High 
Gate,  wrongly  called  in  maps  and 
elsewhere  the  Allahpoor  Gate.  1200 
ft.  to  the  N.  of  it  is  the  PadshAhpiir 
Gate,  and  6400  ft.  to  the  N.  of  that, 
and  in  the  centre  of  the  N.  wall  of  the 
fort,  is  the  Bdhmani  Gate.  The  first 
expedition  will  be  to  the  Ibrahim 
Bo^ah,  which  is  outside  the  Paddea 
Gate ;  and  returning  thence  the  Mau- 
soleum of  'Abdu'r  Baz&^  and  that  of 
Bigam  ^d^ibah  and  Kishwar  Ehdn's 
Mosque  may  be  visited.  Of  the  Ibra- 
him Ko?ah,  Dr.  Bird  says  truly,  "this 
tomb  is  decidedly  the  most  chaste  in 
design  and  classical  in  execution  of  all 
the  works  which  the  Bijdpiir  sove- 
reigns have  left  behind  them.'*  The 
traveller  will  proceed  first  to  the  Mak- 
kah Gate,  which  is  300  yds.  almost  due 
W.  of  the  T.  B.  The  Ibrahim  Ro?ah 
is  400  yds.  W.  by  N.  of  this  gate.  This 
magnificent  buUding  is  said  to  have 
been  erected  by  a  Persian  architect. 
It  is  inclosed  by  a  strong  wall  with  a 
lofty  gateway.  The  inclosure  is  600 
ft.  from  N.  to  S.,  and  240  ft  from  E. 
to  W.  The  tomb  has  to  the  W.  a  very 
beautiful  mosque  106  ft  long  from 
N.  to  S.,  and  66  ft  deep  from  E.  to  W., 
which  presents  to  the  E.  a  front  of  7 
graceful  arches.  In  the  open  space 
between  it  is  a  ruined  fountain  with 
a  reservoir.  On  each  of  the  4  sides  of 
the  Bof  ah  or  tomb  is  a  tasteful  colon- 
nade open  at  the  side  by  7  arches,  and 
forming  a  verandah  of  16  ft.  broad 
round  the  whole  edifice.  The  pave- 
ment of  this  colonnade  is  slightly  ele- 
vated, and  its  ceiling  is  exquisitely 
carved  with  verses  of  the  Kur*dn,  in- 
closed in  compartments  and  inter- 
spersed with  wreaths  of  flowers.  The 
letters  were  originally  gilt,  and  the 
ground  is  still  a  most  brilliant  azure. 
In  some  places  the  gilding  is  also  still 
remaining.  The  border  of  every  com- 
partment is  different  from  that  of  the 
one  adjoining.  The  windows  are 
formed  of  lattice-work  of  Arabic  sen- 
tences, cut  out  of  stone  slabs,  the  space 


210 


Boute  7. — Slioldpur  to  Bijajytir, 


Sect.  IT. 


between   each   letter   admitting  the 
light.    This  work  }8  so  admirably  exe- 
cuted that  Colonel  Sykes  declares  there 
is   nothing  to  surpass   it   in  India. 
Above  the  colonnade  outside  the  build- 
ing is  a  magnificent  cornice  with  a 
graceful  and  lofty  minaret  4  stories 
high    at   each  comer,  and  between 
every  2  such  minarets  are  6  smaller. 
From  a  2nd  inclosure,  with  4  mina- 
rets on  each  side,  rises  the  dome,  the 
plan  of  the  building  resembling  that 
of  the  tombs  at  Golkondah.    The  ceil- 
ing of  the  Rozah  is  quite  flat,  being 
made  of  square  slabs  without  apparent 
support;  and  it  is  remarkable  that 
this  tomb  and  its  adjoining  mosque 
are  the  only  stone  edifices  in  Bij&pilir 
of  this  description.    Under  this  roof 
is  a  cove  projecting  10  ft.  from  the 
walls  on  every  side.    Mr.  Fergusson 
says  in  his  "Hist,  of  Arch."  p.  562, 
"  how  the  roof  is  supported  is  a  mystery 
which  can  only  be  understood  by  those 
who  are  familiar  with  the  use  the  In- 
dians  make  of   masses  of   concrete, 
which,  with  good  mortar,  seems  ca- 
pable of  infinite  applications  unknown 
in  Europe."  The  apartment  so  covered 
in  is  40  ft.  sq.,  and  above  it  "  is  an- 
other in  the  dome  as  ornamental  as 
the  one  below  it,  though  its  only  ob- 
ject is  to  obtain  externally  the  height 
required  for  architectural  effect,  and 
access  to  its  interior  can  only  be  ob- 
tained by  a  dark,  narrow  staircase  in 
the  thiclmess  of  the  wall."  *    Over  the 
N.  door  is  an  inscription  in  Persian, 
which  may  be  translated  as  follows : — 
"  Heaven  remained  amazed  at  the  ele- 
vation of   this   building;  it  was  as 
though  another  heaven  arose  from  the 
earth.    From  this  Garden  the  Garden 
of  Paradise  derived  its  verdure.   Every 
pillar  in  it  is  as  graceful  as  a  cypress 
tree  in  the  Garden  of  Purity.    From 
the  apex  of  the  Sky  came  a  voice 
declaring  its  date.   This  heart-delight- 
ing building  is  the  Monument  of  Tdj  i 
SuU.dn."  The  last  line  is  a  chronogram, 

*  Mr.  Fergusson  says,  at  p.  561,  "that  Tb- 
xahim  warned  by  the  fate  of  his  predecessor's 
tomb,  commenced  his  own  on  so  small  a 
plan,  116  ft.  sq.,  that  it  was  only  by  oma- 
ment  that  he  could  render  it  worthy  of  him- 
self." 


which  gives  the  date  A.H.  1036=a.d. 
1626.  In  the  Persian,  as  given  by  Dr. 
Bird,  there  are  one  or  two  mistakes,  as 
Magar  for  digar.  Over  the  S.  door  is 
the  following : — 

In  pomp  like  Zubaidah,  and  in  dignity  like 

BaUlis, 
She  gave  lustre  to  the  throne  and  was  the 

crown  of  chastity. 
When  from  this  terrestrial  halting-place  of 

dust 
She  passed  to  tibe  capital  of  Paradise, 
I  asked  the  Sage  the  date. 
He  said,  Til^  i  Sul$4n  has  become  an  inhabit 

taut  of  Eden. 

The  last  line  is  a  chronogram,  and 
gives  the  date  A.H.  1083«=a.d.  1633. 
Over  the  same  door  is  inscribed, — 

[Translation,'] 

To  the  beauty  of  completion  this  work  of  the 

Mausoleum  was  brought  by  Malik  Sandal.* 
T^j  i  SulUn  issued  orders  for  this  Rozah, 
At  the  beauty  of  which  Paradise  stood  amazed. 
He  expended  over  it  l^  Ukhs  of  huns, 
And  900  more. 

Here  too  are  2  mistakes  in  Dr.  Bird'd 
Persian.  The  Hiin  being  3J  rs.,  the 
total  expense  was  Rs.  627,250.  When 
Aurangzib  besieged  Bljdpilr  in  1686, 
he  took  up  his  quarters  in  the  Ibrahim 
Bo^ah,  which  received  some  damage 
from  the  BljApilr  guns.  These  injuries 
were  partially  repaired  by  the  RdjA  of 
Sdtdrd,  but  the  edifice  was  more  com- 
pletely restored  by  the  English  Go- 
vernment. For  further  information 
respecting  this  exquisitely  beautiful 
building,  refer  to  Mr.  Fergusson's 
"History  of  Architecture."  It  need 
only  be  added,  that  the  double  arcade 
of  the  Mausoleum,  which  is  the  finer 
building  of  the  two,  surpasses  aU  de- 
scription; and  especially  when  seen 
by  moonlight  it  will  make  an  impres-^ 
sion  on  the  beholder  that  will  never 
be  forgotten.  Next  to  the  Bozah 
1050  ft.  to  the  N.,  is  an  Tdgdh, 
and  600  ft.  N.  of  that  is  a  building 
called  Samshabi  Ashas,  and  1700  ft. 
to  the  N.W.  of  that  again  is  the  Mau- 
soleum of  Amin  Sd^ib.  These  build- 
ings are  all  in  decay,  and  will  not  re- 
pay the  trouble  of  a  visit.    KhawAs 

*  The  tomb  of  this  personage  is  at  Tikota, 
13  m.  W.  of  the  Makksili  Gate. 


Sect.  II. 


Jioiite  7. — Bijdpilr. 


211 


Khan's  tomb,  which  is  now  used  as 
the  T.  B.y  is  that  of  the  traitor  who 
admitted  Auraogzlb.  It  is  74  ft.  3  in. 
high  from  the  inside  floor  line  to  the 
top  of  the  dome  inside.  The  lower 
story  is  octagonal.  The  descendant 
of  KhawAs  Kh^n  is  an  illiterate  old 
man,  who  is  hereditary  deshmukh  of 
Bijdpilr.  He  lives  at  the  Tillage  of 
Gankl.  The  tomb  of  the  Pir  or  Saint 
of  Khawds  Khdn,  whose  name  was 
*Abdu'rBaz4k,  is  likeKhawds  Ehdn's, 
only  that  the  lowest  story  is  square. 
It  is  45  ft.  in  diameter,  Interior  mea- 
surement ;  and  from  the  clerestory 
pHU-apet  to  the  floor  is  36^  ft. 
The  dome  is  nearly  complete,  not 
stunted,  and  springs  from  a  band  of 
lozenge-shaped  leaves.  The  passage  of 
the  clerestory  is  2  ft.  10  m.  broad, 
and  at  that  point  the  diameter  of  the 
dome  is  35  ft.  Bigam  Sdhibah,  whose 
tomb  is  near  it,  was  one  of  Anrangzib's 
wives.  The  remains  of  this  tomb  are 
in  an  inclosure  250  ft.  sq.,  with  places 
to  lodge  travellers  on  each  side,  and 
the  ruins  of  a  platform.  According  to 
Ghuldm  I^usain  Sd^ib  Bdngi,  who  is 
one  of  the  oldest  inhabitants  of  Bljd- 
piir,  there  used  to  be  a  marble  screen 
here,  which  was  destroyed  by  the  Ma- 
rdthas  somewhat  less  than  100  years 
ago.  The  position  of  the  Bigam's 
tomb  is  rather  doubtful,  and  the  de- 
scription of  it  given  in  a  former  ac- 
count of  Bljdpur  corresponds  rather 
to  the  tomb  of  I^dji  Hasan,  which 
is  near  the  'Alipiir  Gate.  The  tomb 
of  'Abdu^r  Bazdk  is  a  large  build- 
ing, now  much  decayed ;  near  it 
to  the  S.  is  that  of  Kishwar  Kh4n, 
whose  father,  Asad  Ehdn,  is  repeatedly 
mentioned  by  the  Portuguese.  He 
founded  the  fort  of  Dhdnir,  in  the  time 
of  'All  'Adil  Shdh  I.,  and  was  taken 
and  put  to  death  by  one  of  the  Nip^dm 
ShdM  kings.  All  these  minor  places 
may  be  visited  by  the  traveller  in  the 
morning  that  he  returns  from  Ibrahim 
Bozah.  In  the  evening  he  may  visit 
the  JSurj  i  Sharxah  or  "Lion  Bastion," 
so  called  from  being  ornamented  by 
2  lions'  heads  in  stone.  This  bastion 
is  1500  ft.  S.  of  the  Shdhpiir  Gate.  On 
the  right-hand  side  as  you  ascend  the 
steps  of  the  bastion  there  is  an  inscrip- 


tion, which  may  be  translated  as  fol- 
lows : — 

In  the  time  of  the  King  'All  'A'dil,  victorious 
over  infldels. 

To  whom  God  granted  a  splendid  victory  for 
the  sake  of  Murtazi, 

Through  the  fortunate  endeavours  of  Maivi> 
hall  Shih  in  5  months, 

This  bastion,  such  as  you  see  it,  was  built 
with  strong  foundations  like  a  solid  moun- 
tain, 

An  unseen  voice  from  heaven,  said  with  i>er- 
fect  gladness,  the  date  of  the  year  of  the 
unequalled  Lion  Mocque  was  "ft'om  high 
heaven,"  a.h.  1079= a.  d.  1668. 

On  the  top  of  this  bastion  is  a  huge 
gun,  called  the  Malik  i  Maiddn,  <*  Lord 
of  the  Plain."  *  It  is  14  ft.  long,  of 
blue  metal ;  but  the  circumference  the 
whole  way,  from  breech  to  muzzle,  is 
15  ft.  1  in.  The  diameter  of  the  bore 
is  2  ft.  4  in.  Just  above  the  touch- 
hole  is  the  following  inscription : — 

The  work  of  Muhammad  Bin  Husain  Rumi. 

At  the  muzzle  is  the  following  : — 

The  servant  of  the  family  of  the  Prophet  of 
God,  Abii'l  Olidzi  mi^xxi  Shlih,  956. 

At  the  muzzle  is  also— - 

In  the  SOth  year  of  the  exalted  reign, 

A.H.  1097,  ShAh  'A'lamgir,  conqueror  of  infi- 
dels. King,  Defender  of  the  Faith, 

Conquered  B^jdpi^,  and  for  the  date  of  his 
triumph. 

He  falfilled  what  justice  required,  and  an- 
nexed the  territory  of  the  ShAhs, 

Success  showed  itself,  and  he  took  the*  Malik 
i  MaidAn. 

The  metal  of  the  gun  takes  a  very 
high  polish,  and  is  said  to  be  the  same 
as  that  of  Gongs,  which,  in  the  "Annals 
of  Philosophy"  for  Sept.,  1813,  p.  208, 
is  declared  to  be  an  alloy  of  80*427 
parts  of  copper  to  19'573  parts  of  tin. 
On  the  5th  of  Jan.,  1829,  the  gun  was, 
by  the  Kdj4  of  S&t^4's  orders,  charged 
with  80  lbs.  of  coarse  powder  and  fired. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  city  deserted 
their  houses  in  alarm,  but  the  result 
of  the  explosion  did  not  justify  their 
terror.  The  report  was  loud,  but 
nothing  came  of  it.  400  ft.  to  the  E, 
of  the  Sharzah  Burj  is  a  strange  build- 
ing, called  the  Uparl  Burj,  or  Upper 
Bastion.    You  ascend  by  an  outside 

*  The  muzzle  of  this  gun  is  wrought  in  the 
shape  of  a  dragon's  mouth. 

P  2 


212 


Route  7. — Slwldpur  to  Bijdpdr, 


Sect.  IT. 


staircase,  52  steps,  when  you  come  to 
a  Persian  inscription. 

\Tra7islatUm,'\ 

In  the  time  of  Ibrahim  ShAh '  A'dU  Shih,  Protec- 
tor of  the  World,  ^  ,  ^.  . 

This  bastion  was  built  as  Fate  directed,  bemg 
constructed  by  HAidar  Khin. 

O  God  I  May  the  King  of  the  World  and  his 
Deputy  be  fortunate  I 

Tlie  Moon  which  is  in  the  bastion  of  exaltation 
is  like  the  Sun,  ^    ^    ^,      ,      „  , 

Its  date  comes  txom  this.  The  Ixastlon  is  called 
by  the  name  of  Q^dar. 

The  lion's  bastion  rises  to  the  sky  to  the  re- 
splendent sun. 

The  Upari  Burj  is  61  ft.  3  in.  high ; 
18  more  steps  lead  to  the  summit, 
which  is  round  ;  and  here  are  2  guns 
made  ol  bars  welded  together  with 
iron  bands.  The  larger  is  30  ft.  3  in. 
long,  and  has  a  diameter  of  2  ft.  5  in. 
at  the  muzzle,  and  3  ft.  at  the  bi-eech  ; 
the  bore  is  12  in.  in  diameter.  The 
other  gun  is  19  ft.  8  in.  long,  with  1  ft. 
diameter  at  the  muzzle,  and  1  ft.  6  in. 
diameter  at  breech ;  the  bore  is  8J  in. 
in  diameter.  On  returning  from  the 
Uparl  Burj,  the  Tdj  BAoli  or  "  Crown 
Well "  may  be  visited,  adjoining  which 
is  the  principal  bAzir.  This  well  is 
100  yds.  E.  of  the  Makkah  Gate.  The 
E.  wing  of  the  faQade  of  the  well  is 
partly  ruined.  Two  flights  of  4  and  8 
steps  lead  down  to  an  arch  of  34  ft. 
2  in.  span,  and  about  the  same  height. 
In  the  centre,  under  the  front  of  the 
arch,  is  a  vase  with  a  Tulsl  plant  grow- 
ing in  it  with  the  emblem  of  MahAdeo. 
The  tank  at  the  water's  edge  is  231  ft. 
2  in.  sq.  The  water  comes  partly  from 
springs  and  partly  from  drainage,  and 
is  30  ft.  deep  in  the  dry  weather.  The 
level  of  course  sinks  during  the  hot 
season,  and  is  then  approached  by 
side  stairs.  There  are  many  fish  in  it. 
During  the  famine  the  people  lived  on 
the  ground  around  it  for  the  sake  of 
the  water.  There  is  no  inscription, 
and  no  great  beauty  of  design.  Colonel 
Sykes  states  that  it  was  built  by  Malik 
Sandal  in  SultAn  Muliammad's  reign ; 
but  according  to  Dr.  Bird  it  was  the 
work  of  the  V4zir  of  Sul^An  Muham- 
mad, who  is  called  by  that  writer 
Senid-iil  Miilk,  in  which  name  there 
are  several  mistakes.  In  the  arcade 
to  the  right  of  the  well  remark  the 


curious  roof,  the  rafters  of  which  are 
of  stone.  The  W.  wing  of  the  arcade 
is  now  the  office  of  the  Civil  autho- 
rities. The  Makkah  Gate  to  the  W.  is 
now  the  Mdmlatd^r's  Kacheri,  and  is 
generally  kept  closed.  Here  are  the 
police  lines  and  the  prison.  A  gnn 
10  ft.  long,  of  blue  metal,  with  a  dra- 
gon's head,  lies  outside,  and  inside  is  a 
10-inch  mortar,  with  the  weight  of  the 
shot  inscribed  in  Mar^thi.  On  either 
side  of  the  gate  there  is  a  representa- 
tion of  2  lions  trampling  on  an  ele- 
phant. 

Hitherto  the  traveller  has  been  ex- 
amining the  W.  part  of  the  city  and 
suburbs  ;  on  the  next  day  he  will  pro- 
ceed to  the  E.,  as  &r  as  the  'Alipiir 
gate,  and  then  turn  N.  past  the  P^d- 
$hdpi!ir  gate  for  500  ft.,  when  he  will 
come  to  the  mausoleum  of  Sultan 
Muhammad,  7th  King.  The  total  dis- 
tance from  the  T.  B.  is  about  1|  m. 
This  magnificent  structure  is  generally 
called  the  Grol  Gumbaz,or  Round  Dome, 
but  it  is  also  called  Bol  Gumbaz,  which 
is  said  to  mean  "  Topless  Dome,"  and  by 
some  it  is  styled  Gul  Gumbaz,  or  "  Rose 
Dome."  Mr.  Fergusson,  in  his  "  Hist, 
of  Arch.,"  p.  662,  says  of  this  building  : 
"  The  tomb  of  his  successor,  Ma^miid,* 
was  in  design  as  complete  a  contrast 
to  that  just  described  as  can  well  be 
imagined,  and  is  as  remarkable  for 
simple  grandeur  and  constructive  bold- 
ness as  that  of  Ibrahim  was  for  exces- 
sive richness  and  contempt  of  con- 
structive proprieties.  It  is  constructed 
on  the  same  principle  as  that  employed 
in  the  design  of  the  dome  of  the  great 
mosque,  but  on  so  much  larger  a  scale 
as  to  convert  into  a  wonder  of  con- 
structive skill  what,  in  that  instance, 
was  only  an  elegant  architectural 
design."  This  structure  is  built  on  a 
platform  600  ft.  sq.  and  2  high.  In 
front  is  a  Nakdr  Kh&nah,  94  ft.  from 
S.  to  N.  and  88  ft.  from  E.  to  W.  The 
Mujdwir,  or  keeper,  gets  4  Rs.  a 
month,  and  lives  in  the  second  inclo- 

*  This  king  is  called  at  B^jdpi^r  itself  Mu- 
hammad, but  the  ATord  Mahmi^d,  which  signi- 
^  "  praiseworthy,"  occurs  in  the  2nd  inscrip- 
tion, q.  V.  He  is  called  Ma^mM  in  a  paper 
mentioned  in  the  "  Indian  Antiquary,"  vol.  ii. 
p.  2282.  His  name  was  Muhammad  Mahi- 
miid. 


Sect.  11. 


Boute  7. — Bijdp^r. 


213 


sure,  which  is  deformed  with  unsightly 
mud  huts.  At  each  comer  of  the 
mausoleum  is  a  tower  7  stories  high, 
besides  the  dome.  Mr.  Molecey  thinks 
these  towers  were  added  as  supports. 
They  are  very  much  cracked  in  places. 
Each  side  of  the  building  is  196  ft. 
long,  outside  measurement.  The 
square  room  over  which  the  dome  is 
raised  is  the  largest  domed  room  in 
the  world,  being  136  ft.  sq.  Briggs' 
book  of  Feb.,  1866,  makes  it  134  ft. 
3  in.,  which  is  an  error.  Over  the  en- 
trance are  three  inscriptions.  The  1st 
is  '*  Sul];4n  Mnl^ammad,  inhabitant  of 
Paradise,  1067."  The  next  is,  "  Mu- 
hammad, whose  end  was  commend- 
able, 1067,"  and  the  3rd  inscription 
is,  "  Muhammad,  became  a  particle 
of  heaven,"  (lit.  House  of  Salvation), 
1067."  The  date,  3  times  repeated, 
is  A.D.  1656.  The  fa9ade  presents 
3  lofty  arches,  springing  from  the 
pavement,  and  supporting  several  feet 
of  plain  lime- work  and  plaster,  above 
which  is  a  cornice  of  grey  basalt  and 
a  TOW  of  small  arches  supporting  a 
second  line  of  plain  work,  surmounted 
by  a  balustrade  6  ft.  high.  The  base 
of  the  middle  arch  is  of  grey  basalt, 
the  others  are  of  stonework  and 
plaster.  The  comer  towers  or  minarets 
are  12  ft.  broad,  and  are  entered  by 
winding  staircases  and  terminate  in 
cupolas.  Each  story  has  7  small 
arched  windows,  opening  outwardly 
and  looking  into  the  court  below, 
while  the  8th  admits  a  passage  for  the 
circular  stair.  From  this  there  is  an  en- 
trance to  a  broad  ledge  surrounding 
the  dome,  which  is  so  large  that  a 
carriage  might  pass  round  it.  This 
passage  rests  on  supports,  inclining 
inwards  in  curves  like  half  arches. 
The  internal  area  of  the  tomb  is  18,226 
sq.  ft.,  while  that  of  the  Pantheon  at 
Rome  is  only  15,833.  "  At  the  height 
of  57  ft.  from  the  floor  line,"  says  Mr. 
Fergusson,  "the  hall  begins  to  con- 
tract by  a  series  of  pendentives  as  in- 
genious as  they  are  beautiful,  to  a 
circular  opening  97  ft.  in  diameter. 
On  these  pendentives  the  dome  is 
erected,  124  ft.  in  diameter."  "  In- 
temally,  the  dome  is  175  ft.  high  ;  ex- 
ternally, 198  ft.,  its  general  thickness 


being  about  10  ft."  Inside  the  dome, 
and  outside  too,  are  iron  rings,  and 
two  brothers  named  'Umr  and  ^asan, 
ascended  inside  to  the  ring  in  the 
centre,  whence  they  dropped  a  line. 
Outside  on  the  parapet  is  a  fine  view 
over  Bijdpiir.  On  your  left  as  you 
turn  your  back  to  the  dome,  you  see 
*Allpiir  to  the  E.,  and  on  the  other 
side,  to  the  W.,  Ibrahim  Ko^ah  and 
the  fjpari  Burj  and  the  Sharzah  or  Lion 
Bastion  are  distinctly  visible,  and 
beyond  them,  at  4  m.  to  the  W.,  is 
the  wall  of  a  new  city,  which  the 
ministers  of  Ibrahim  II.,  father  of 
Sul];4n  Muhammad,  began  to  build,  but 
the  attempt  was  abandoned  as  un- 
lucky. Had  it  been  continued,  the 
legendary  demensions  of  the  city,  30 
m.  circumference,  might  have  been 
justified  by  fact.  About  1  m.  W.  of 
the  Gol  Gumbaz  one  sees  the  ruins 
of  what  were  the  villages  of  the 
masons  and  painters  employed  on  the 
mausoleum.  There  is  a  small  annex 
to  the  N.  without  a  roof,  built  by 
ISult^n  Muhammad  for  his  mother, 
Zuhrd  §A^ibah,  from  whom  one  of  the 
suburbs  was  called  Zuhrdpiir.  This 
building  is  defaced  by  a  low  ugly 
wall,  built  by  the  MarA^has,  which 
ought  to  be  removed.  The  cemenn 
covering  of  the  dome,  which  is  a  foot 
thick,  has  fallen  on  the  N.  side  and 
carried  away  the  ornamental  coping. 
The  rain  now  comes  in. 

Below  the  dome  is  the  tomb  of  Sul- 
f.An  Muhammad  in  the  centre.  To  the 
left,  facing  the  spectator,  are  the  graves 
of  his  youngest  wife  and  of  the  son  of 
'Ali  'A'dU  Shdh  II. ;  on  the  right,  are 
those  of  his  favourite  dancing  girl 
Rhambd,  his  daughter,  and  his  eldest 
wife  mentioned  by  Bemier,  vol.  ii.  p. 
22 1 .  The  ascent  at  the  left-hand  comer 
to  the  parapet  and  gallery  is  by  160 
steps.  If  a  person  whisper  softly  at 
one  point  of  the  gallery,  he  will  be 
heard  most  distinctly  at  the  opposite 
point.  There  is  also  a  good  triple 
echo. 

The  JAm'i  Masjid,  about  2,200  ft.  W. 
of  the  Gol  Gumbaz,  is  the  J4m'i  Mas- 
jid or  Cathedral  Mosque  of  BijApiir. 
The  N.  side  of  the  quadrangle  is  323 
ft.  3  in.  from  the  inner  wall  of  the  W. 


214 


Boute  7. — Sholdp'dr  to  Bijdpur. 


Sect.  11. 


side  to  the  edge  of  the  platfonn  on  the  ' 
K.  The  E.  side  has  a  wall  and  a  gate- 
way, but  is  unfinished ;  Mr.  Fergusson 
says,  p.  659,  *^  Even  as  it  is,  it  is  one  of 
tJie  finest  mosqaes  in  India."  In  the 
centre  is  a  hauz  or  reservoir,  now  dry. 
The  arcades  on  the  N.  and  S.  sides  of 
the  quadrangle  are  31  ft.  3  in.  broad. 
Including  arcades,  the  court  is  237^ 
ft.  broad  from  N.  to  S.  Over  the  W. 
arch  is, — 

Allah 
Mul^ammad 

.  aiclar 
Abii  Bakr 

•Umr 
'Usman. 
« 
The  Mil^rdb,  which  marks  the  place 

on  the  W.  to  which  the  people  turn 
in  prayer,  is  gilt  and  ornamented 
with  much  Arabic  writing,  but  there 
is  also  a  Persian  quatrain,  which  may 
thus  be  translated — 

Rest  not  in  the  Palace  of  Life,  for  it  is  not 
secure, 

None  can  rest  in  a  building,  which  is  not 
meant  to  endure, 

Fair  in  my  sight  seems  the  World's  halting- 
place, 

A  sweet  treasure  is  Life,  but  'tis  gone  without 
leaving  a  trace. 

This  Arch  was  built  in  the  time  of  the  reign  of 
Sultdn  Muljiammad  ShAh. 

The  date  1045  is  in  the  inner  centre 
of  the  arch  -  A.D.  1635.  Dr.  Bird 
gives  the  date,  of  the  structure  as 
A.H.  943=A.D.  1536,  according  to  the 
following  chronogram — 

Enter  the  Mosque  of  the  Sultan,  whose  end 
was  happy, 


which  would  be  in  the  reign  of  *A11 
'Adil  Shdh.  Mr.  Fergusson  says  that 
the  building  was  commenced  by  'All 
'Adil  Shdh  (1557—1579),  and  though 
continued  by  his  successors  was  never 
completely  finished.  If  it  had  been 
completed  it  would  have  covered  from 
50,000  to  55,000  sq.  ft.,  and  would 
have  been  the  size  of  a  mediaeval  ca- 
thedral. Each  of  the  squares  into 
which  it  is  divided  has  a  domed  roof, 
beautiful,  but  so  flat  as  to  be  concealed 
externally.  12  of  these  squares  are 
occupied  by  the  great  dome,  which  is 
57  ft.  in  diameter,  but  stands  on  a 
square  of  70  ft.    There  is  another  in- 


scription, which  translated  says,  "  Ya- 
kilt  DAbiUi  was  the  servant  of  the 

• 

shrine,  and  the  slave  of  Sult;4n  Ma- 
bammad  Sh4h.  May  God  perpetuate 
his  sublime  shadow  1  a.h.  1045= A.D. 
1 635.' '  The  pavement  below  the  dome 
is  of  chunam,  divided  by  black  lines 
into  numerous  squares  called  mumUds 
or  compartments  for  persons  to  pray 
on,  imitating  the  mufalld  or  prayer- 
carpet  which  the  faithful  carry  with 
them  to  the  mosques.  These  were 
made  by  order  of  Aurangzib  when  he 
carried  away  the  velvet  carpets,  the 
large  golden  chain  and  other  valu- 
ables belonging  to  the  Mosque.  Mr. 
Molecey ,  the  architect  who  has  been  in 
charge  of  the  buildings  here,  states 
that  the  sJdltr  or  ornament  at  the  top 
of  the  mosque  was  filled  with  a  sort  of 
grain  called  rurd  to  give  it  weight. 
N.  of  the  JAm'i  Masjid  700  ft.  is  Kha- 
wds  KhAn's  home,  and  about  1100  ft. 
W.  of  that  and  parallel  with  it  is  Yd- 
]fM  Ddbiill's  mosque,  500  ft.  to  the  S. 
of  which  is  NiiwAb  Mu§t;afa  KhAn's 
mosque,  all  of  which  places  may  be 
visited,  though  they  do  not  call  for 
special  description.  Mu^t^fa  KhAn 
iGrdistdnl  was  a  distinguished  noble- 
man at  the  court  of  'All  'Adil  Sh&h, 
and  was  murdered  in  A.D.  1581  by 
Eishwar  KhAn,  who  usurped  the  re- 
gency in  the  time  of  Ibrahim  'ildil 
ShAh  II.  700  ft.  to  the  N.W.  of  his 
mosque  is  the  palace  of  the  AsAr  i 
Sharif,  "illustrious  relics,  which  are 
hairs  of  the  Prophet's  beard."  It  is 
a  large  heavy  looking  building  of  brick 
and  lime,  and  is  close  to  the  moat  of 
the  inner  fort  and  in  the  centre  of  its 
E.  rampart.  One  enters  first  a  veran- 
dah or  portico  60  ft.  high,  supported  by 
the  trunks  of  gigantic  trees,  now  pro- 
tected with  planks.  This  portico  is 
36  ft.  broad,  and  looks  upon  a  tank 
250  ft.  sq.,  the  mud  of  which  was 
cleared  out  by  labourers  as  one  of  the 
works  during  the  famine,  and  the 
water  now  looks  clear.  Passing  througjh 
the  verandah  you  come  out  into  an  open 
space,  and  see  at  100  ft.  to  the  W.  a 
row  of  subordinate  buildings.  From 
this  is  the  best  view  of  the  Gol  Gum- 
baz,  as  the  distance  diminishes  the 
impression  of  its  excessive  bulk.    The 


Sect.  11. 


Itoute  7. — JBiJdpur, 


215 


ceiling  of  the  verandah  or  portico  has 
been  very  handsomely  painted.      On 
the  right  of  the  staircase  by  which  you 
ascend  to  the  upper  rooms,  is  a  suite 
of  apartments,  in  the  first  of  which 
are  cases  for  books.    They  contained 
MSS.  of  some  value,  which  were  sent 
by  Sir  B.  Frere  to  Bombay.     He  also 
preserved  the  portico  by  building  a 
gigantic  square  prop  and  also  an  arch 
with  a  sharp  point,  which  has  an  in- 
congruous look  beside  the  old  arches, 
which  are  broad    and    but    slightly 
curved.     Bemark  here    a  very  fine 
piece  of  ruddy  marble  with  shells  im- 
bedded in  it,  which  is  in  one  of  the 
arches  of  the  portico.    The  main  flight 
of  steps  ascended  here  is  broad,  and 
leads  to  a  hall  81  ft.  4  long  and  27  ft. 
4  broad.    After  mounting,  you  pass 
into  an  upper  verandah  or  ante-cham- 
ber to  the  right,  the  ceilings  and  walls 
of  which  have  been  gilt.    The  doors 
are  inlaid  with  ivory,  and  in  the  palmy 
days  of  BijApiir  the  effect  must  have 
been  very  striking.    In  the  N.  wall  is 
a  cabinet  in  which  the  sacred  hair  is 
kept,  and  this  is  opened  only  once  a 
year.    You  now  pass  to  the  S.  into  2 
rooms  beautifully  painted  with  vases 
of  flowers.    All  these  rooms  were  de- 
faced and  spoiled  by  the  Mardthas. 
The  Edjd  himself  is  said  to  have  set 
the  example  in  scraping  off  the  gilding, 
and  his  followers  imitated  him  only 
too  well.    They  picked  out  the  ivory 
that  inlaid  the  doors,  and  otherwise  so 
injured  the  rooms  as  to  reduce  this 
once  splendid  palace  to  the  state  of  an 
unsightly  bam.  This  happened  partly 
under  the  Peshwds,  and  partly  when 
the  English  transferred  BijApiir  to  the 
Raja  of   Satdrd.     The  A§dr  i  Sharif 
formerly  communicated  with  the  cita- 
del by  means  of  a  bridge,  of  which 
nothing  now  remains  excepting  the 
pillars,  and  succeeded  to  the  honour 
of  holding  the  precious  relics  of  the 
Prophet  aSter  a  similar  building  within 
the  citadel  had  been  burned  down. 
Following  the  edge  of  the  ditch  to  the 
S.W.  the  traveller  will  come  to  a  mas- 
sive square  tower  called  the  CJuitra 
Ganj,  which  is  one  of  14  such  built  by 
Afzal  Khdn,  who  met  his  death  at  the 
hands  of  Shivajl,  the  founder  of  the 


Mardtha  empire.     These,  which  are 
contrivances  for  giving  impetus  to  the 
water  of  an  aqueduct,  were  built  in 
the  time  of  Mu1;^ammad  Shdh  to  supply 
the  city.    There  is  an  inscription  on 
this  tower  as  follows: — "  Be  it  known 
to  the  executors  of  ornamental  arts, 
the  architects  of  important  works,  and 
to  celebrated   living  workmen,  that 
Af^al    Khdn    Muhammad    Shdhf,   a 
nobleman  of  good  fortune,  the  present 
commander-in-chief,  the  first  in  rank 
of  the  Dakhan    lords,   the   religious 
destroyer  of  infidelity,  on  whom  de- 
scends  Qod's  favour,  whom  heaven 
pronounces  to  be   the   most  accom- 
plished  and    excellent^    and   whose 
name,  like  God's  praise,  is  resounded 
from  every  quarter,  saying,  it  is  ex- 
cellence, did,  after  much  labour,  and 
by  order  of  Mul|^ammad  Shdh  Ghdzi 
(the  exalted  in  dignity,  whose  C09rt  is 
like  that  of  Sulaimdn,  and  whose  gloiy 
is  as  the  sun),  render  this  aqueduct 
conspicuous  (calling  it  by  the  name 
of  Muhammad  Nidd,)  for   the  con- 
venience of  God's  people,  so  that  who- 
soever should  have  a  thirsty  lip  might 
have  his  heart  filled  and  satisfied  at 
this  water,  whilst  his  tongue  would  be 
moist  in  praying  that  this  sovereignty 
of  the  king,  the  asylum  of  the  uni- 
verse, may  abide  for  ever,"    A.H.  1063 
s=A.D.  1652.    The  unfinished  tomb  of 
'AH  'Adil  Shdh  H.  is  to  be  seen  to  the 
W.  of  the  Agdr  i  Sharif,  and  on  the  N. 
of  the  citadel.    It  is  a  noble  ruin  of  7 
large  Gothic-looking  arches,  construc- 
ted on  a  terrace  15  ft.  high  and  more 
than  200  ft.  sq.    Had  not  the  death  of 
the  Sultdn  put  a  stop  to  its  progress 
and  prevented  the    addition   of   an 
upper  story,  in  conformity  vnth  the 
original  design,  it  would   have  sur- 
passed every  other  building  at  Bijdpi!ir, 
both  in  magnificence  and  beauty. 

The  Ark  or  atadeh—Aboxit  1,400  ft 
to  the  S.W.  of  the  Asdr  Ma^all  is  the 
citadel  gate,  and.  here  the  walls  are 
thick  with  pillars  and  sculptured 
stones,  taken  from  Jain,  temples  which 
probably  stood  on  this  spot  when  the 
Mul^ammadans  stormed  the  citadel. 
Having  demolished  these  idol  temples, 
the  conquerors  used  many  of  the 
stones  in  rebuilding  the  walls.     The 


216 


JRoute  7. — Sholdpur  to  Mjdpur, 


Sect.  IL 


rest  they  carried  75  yds.  to  the  N.W. 
and  put  them  together  again  in  dis- 
orderly combination  so  as  to  form  a 
new  temple,  which  by  the  Mil^rdb  or 
arch  towards  the  Kiblah  or  point  of 
prayer  is  shown  to  have  been  used  as 
a  mosque.  At  the  distance  of  70  yds. 
from  the  gateway,  you  pass  to  the  left 
under  a  low  roof,  and  have  on  your 
left  a  small  mound  called  the  Ganj  i 
Shahiddn,  or  "  Store  of  Martyrs,"  in 
which  the  Muslims  who  fell  in  the 
assault  were  buried.  You  are  now  in 
front  of  the  first  Jain  temple,  conver- 
ted into  a  mosque,  with  12  pillars,  9  ft. 
6  high,  in  a  row,  the  rows  being  7  deep, 
the  total  number  of  pillars  being  there- 
fore 84.  There  is  a  central  Mandap 
or  Hall,  2  stories  high,  the  inner  room 
being  8  ft.  8  sq.,  and  the  outer  or  sur- 
rounding room  25  ft.  2  sq.,  inclusive  of 
the  inner.  At  the  N.  side,  about  the 
centre  row,  notice  a  wonderfully  hand- 
some and  elaborately  carved  black 
pillar,  and  to  the  N.E.  of  it  an  ancient 
Kanarese  inscription.  On  several  of 
the  pillars  around  are  inscriptions,  some 
in  Sanskrit  and  some  in  Kanarese. 
Pass  now  about  200  yds.  to  the  N.  and 
you  come  to  the  Anand  Ma1;iall  or 
"  palace  of  joy,"  where  the  ladies  of 
the  seraglio  lived.  In  a  line  with  it 
to  the  W.  is  the  Gagan  Mal|;iall  or 
"  heavenly  palace,"  the  N.  face  of 
which  has  3  magnificent  arches.  The 
span  of  the  central  arch  is  66  ft.  6, 
and  that  of  each  of  the  side  arches 
17  ft.  lOi.  The  height  of  all  3  is  the 
same,  about  50  ft.  The  ruins  of  these 
palaces  are  extremely  picturesque,  but 
the  ground  is  thickly  clothed  with 
coarse  grass  and  shrubs,  1  yd.  or  so 
high,  where  one  might  easily  step  on  a 
cobra  or  a  tic  prolonga.  The  buildings 
have  cellars,  the  ab(Se  of  porcupines, 
which  are  very  numerous  here,  and  are 
caUed  Sdrgd.  Holes  scraped  by  these 
animals,  and  their  fallen  quills,  are  to 
be  found  everywhere.  Dogs  are  some- 
times killed  by  being  transfixed  with 
the  quills.  About  150  yds.  to  the  N.E. 
is  the  second  Jain  temple,  and  the 
same  distance  to  the  N.W.  is  the  un- 
finished tomb  of  'AH  'Adil  Shdh,  men- 
tioned above,  which  is  little  more  than 
a  series  of  ruined  arches.    The  second 


Jain  temple  has  10  rows  of  pillars  7 
deep.  The  Mi^rdb  in  it  shows  the 
Mu^ammadans  used  it  as  a  mosque. 
At  200  yds.  to  the  S.W.  of  this  is 
a  building  called  the  S&t  Ehandi  or 
"  Seven  Stories,"  a  pleasure  palace 
for  the  ladies,  from  the  top  of  which 
thej'  could  overlook  the  whole  city, 
being  themselves  unseen.  It  formed 
the  N.E.  corner  of  a  vast  building 
called'  the  Granary,  which  was  proba- 
bly the  public  palace  of  the  kings, 
where  their  public  and  private  au- 
diences were  held.  From  this  the 
moat  of  the  citadel  is  crossed  by  a 
causeway  140  ft.  long,  but  the  average 
breadth  of  the  moat  may  be  taken  as 
150  ft. 

Mihtar*8  Mosque.-^IOOO  ft.  to  the 
S.E.  of  the  entrance  into  the  citadel 
is  the  MihtarMaliall.  Observe  in  going 
to  it,  2  gigantic  stone  posts  of  a  gate- 
way with  a  carved  beading.  Each 
post  is  10  ft.  long  and  3  thick.  This 
small  but  elegant  structure  is  3  stories 
high,  and  has  minarets  at  the  comers 
and  ornamental  carving  in  soft  clay 
stone  about  its  windows.  Dr.  Bird,  in 
his  paper  in  the  Bom.  As.  Soc.  Joum., 
vol.  i.,  p.  376,  has  given  a  lithographic 
view  of  this  mosque.  It  may  be  ob- 
served in  explanal^on  of  its  name,  that 
when  the  Hindiistanl  language  arose 
in  the  Urdii,  or  camp,  of  the  Mughul 
emperors,  the  Persian  soldiers  gave 
nicknames  to  various  persons,  which 
took  their  place  in  the  language  :  thus, 
a  tailor  was  called  Khalifa,  "  Caliph ; " 
a  waterman  was  called  Bihishtl,  "  an 
inhabitant  of  Paradise  ; "  and  a 
sweeper,  the  lowest  of  the  low,  was 
called  Mihtar,  "  a  prince."  The  story 
is  that  Ibrahim  Shdh  had  a  disease 
which  his  physicians  could  not  cure, 
and  the  astrologers  told  him  that  his 
only  chance  was  to  give  a  large  sum 
to  the  first  person  he  saw  next  morn- 
ing. The  king  looked  out  of  the 
window  very  early  and  saw  a  sweeper, 
on  whom  he  bestowed  a  vast  sum,  and 
the  poor  fellow,  not  knowing  what  to 
do  with  it,  built  this  mosque.  Mr. 
Fergusson  says  of  this  structure — 
"Perhaps  the  most  remarkable  civil 
edifice  is  a  little  gateway,  known  as 
the  Mihtar*s  Mahall,  'the  gate  of  thA 


Sect.  II. 


Soute  8. — Bombay  to  Goa, 


217 


sweeper,'  with  a  legend  attached  to  it ' 
too  long  to  quote.    It  is  in  a  mixed  { 
Hindii  and  Muhammadan  style,  every  ' 
part  and  every   detail  covered  with  > 
ornament,  but  always  equally  appro- : 
priate  and  elegant.     Of  its  class  it  is  , 
perhaps    the    best    example    in  the 
country,  though  this  class  may  not  be 
the    highest."     With  regard  to  this 
passage    it  must  be  remarked    that 
the     Arabic    word    Mahall    cannot 
signify  gateivay,  it  signifies  building, 
seraglio,  palace;     however,  in   maps 
drawn  on  the  spot,  the  structure  is 
called   the   Mihtar's  Mosque,  though 
there  is  nothing  to  make  one  think 
that  it  was  built  for  religious  purposes.  | 
Observe  in  returning  to  the  T.  B.,  to 
the  left  as  you  turn  from  it  to  the 
Mihtar's  Mosque,  2  enormous  tamarind 
trees.    The  larger  is  47  ft.  9  in.  in  cir- 
cumference, the  lesser,  36 ft.  6  in.  The 
Fatlji  Gate  in  the  centre  of  the  S.  wall 
of  the  city  is  that  by  which  Aurangzlb 
is  said  to  have  entered.    It  must  be 
said  that  an  idea  has  been  entertained 
of  making  BijApiir  the  capital  of  the 
Collectorate  instead  of  Kaladgi,  and 
of  using  the  abundant  water  in  the 
moat  round  the  citadel  to  irrigate  the 
neighbouring   grounds,  turning  them 
into  a  garden  or  a  park. 

Routs  to  Kcdadgi  and  Bdddmi. — It 
might  so  happen  that  the  traveller 
would  wish  to  visit  Bdddmi  from  Ka- 
ladgl,  instead  of  going  round  by , 
Belgdon  and  Dhdrwdd.  A  full  de-  \ 
scription  of  Bdddmi  will  be  found  in 
a  {rnbsequent  Route,  and  therefore  a 
veiy  brief  account  only  is  here  given 
of  the  route  by  Kaladgi. 


From 


From 

To 

Distance. 

M.      F. 

1 

Brought  forward 

38      0 

'  ^usain  Sahib's 

Sonagii     . 

3       i 

Darg^h 

Sonaga        .    . 

Baulatti      .    . 

4      4 

iBaulatti  . 

Kiindragi. 

2      1 

Kuudragi     .    . 

Kaladgi       .    . 

6      5 

Kaladgi    . 

Kattikeri . 

14      5 

Kattikeri     .    . 

BMdmi       .    . 
Total     . 

11      2 

81       3 

itei»Mirfc».-The  road  is  good,  but  water  Ijad 
and  scarce  to  Mulwar,  where  there  are  4  good 
wells.  The  3  stations  mentioned  after  the 
Futhi  Gate  are  very  small  villages. 

At  Baril  Garsingi  water  is  plentiftil.  Kol.ir 
is  a  large  village  on  the  N.  bank  of  the 
Krifflipa  river.  Two  basket  boats  ply  on  the 
terry  here.  The  other  places  are  small  vil- 
lages, and  Kaladgi  is  a  small  town  and  canton- 
ment on  the  Gatparba  River,  which  is  120  yds. 
wide,  and  2  ft  deep  in  December. 

The  road  at  Kaladgi  is  very  ba<l  and  heavy, 
with  sand  in  the  latter  part.  6  small  villages 
are  passed  ou  the  way. 


Shahpur  Suburb 
Fat^  Gate 
Jumnal       .    . 
Wandkar  . 
Mulwar       .    . 
Ronial 

Chhojii  Garsingi 
Ba]*d  Garsingi 
Kolar  .        .    . 
Baloti      . 
Bargaudi     . 


L 


To 

Distance. 

M. 

F. 

Fat^^  Gate 
Jumnal       .    . 

1 

4 

0 
0 

Wandkar  Halll 

6 

2 

Mulwar    . 

6 

3 

Ronial         .    . 

6 

3 

Chho^A  Garsingi 
Bani  Garsingi  . 
KoUr 

0 
0 
3 

6 

Baloti  .        .    . 

4 

0 

Bargandl . 
Husain  Sd^ib's 

5 
1 

4 
0 

Dargih 
Carry  forward 

38 

6 

ROUTE  8. 

BOMBAY  TO  GOA. 

The  best  and  easiest  way  of  visiting 
Goa  is  to  embark  at  Bombay  on  board 
one  of  the  British  India  Steam  Naviga- 
tion Company's  steamers,  and,  leaving 
Bombay  Harbour  about  6  p.m.,  the  tra- 
veller will  reach  Ratnagiri,  123  m.,  at 
11.40  next  morning.  The  bay  here  is 
tolerably  sheltered  from  the  N.E.  and 
S.,  but  to  the  "W.  and  S.W.  it  is  quite 
open.  It  is  possible  that  the  traveller 
might  like  to  stop  at  Ratnagiri,  a  de- 
scription of  which  is  appended.  Rdjd- 
piir  and  Vijayadurg  are  also  places 
worth  a  visit,  as  is  Mdlwan,  and  the 


218 


Boute  8. — Bombay  to  Goct. 


S6Ct  II. 


overland  route  to  them  is  accordingly 
here  given  : — 


Names  of  Places. 

Distances 
in  Miles. 

1 
Stages. 

K. 

F. 

M.    r. 

Ratnagiri,  b.p.o.  . 

1 

3i 

Rajw441    .       .       .    . 

0 

5 

X  KaUndA  r. 

0 

3 

Bh&tea      .        .        .     . 

0 

»i 

A  well  and  dh. 

2 

H 

A  well  and  dh. . 

1 

6 

A  well  and  dh. 

;    0 

4 

Paved  descent .        .    , 

2 

u 

X  r.  to  Golai) 

0 

5 

X  n 

1 

^ 

. 

X  r.       ,        .        ,        , 

0 

2 

Panwas     .... 

0 

1 

11    7i 

X  n.  and  r.  to  Maulanga 

3 

0 

^ 

X  n 

2 

4i 

X  r.  to  Bhar 

0 

n 

Binl 

5 

6i 

11    4^ 

X  MuchVmdi  r.     . 

0 

H 

m 

Asoll         .        .        .    . 

0 

2* 

Ascend  hill  to  a  temple 

1 

8 

X  r.  to  Kotapur   . 

1 

6 

X  n 

0 

4 

Gliotna. 

8 

3 

X  n.          .        .       .    . 

1' 

2 

X  r.  to  Raijapur    . 
X  Suknadir.    .       .    . 

8 

3 

12    1 

0 

H 

Satidli   .... 

8 

3} 

Judtl         .... 

8 

4 

X  Kaiiwir.   . 

4 

0 

Kabiirli  (hence  visit  Vi- 

jayadurg,  Viziadroog) 

0 

^ 

X  n 

2 

3 

PAtagAon  .... 

0 

5i 

15    1 

JambhAu 

5 

6 

X  8eo  r.  110  yds.  broad 

0 

^ 

Bdgk      .        .        .        . 

0 

4 

Chandosi  .        ... 

1 

H 

Walandi 

2 

H 

SirgAon  Wadi    .        .    . 

1 

6 

X  Mithbasr. 

1 

H 

SAlsi 

1 

n 

15    0 

X  n 

0 

H 

X  Banii  r. 

1 

6 

Barni     .... 

0 

44 

X  n 

0 

4i 

X  n 

o 

5 

X  n.  with  steep  banks . 

1 

H 

X  n.  to  Wai-oni     . 

0 

H 

X  Harnf  r.        ... 

1 

'4 

X  Gadr. 

1 

0 

Santnil     .       .        .    . 

0 

^h 

10    4} 

X  n.  rd.  to  MAlwan     . 

0 

6 

Ratnagiri  {Rutnaglierry  *). —  This 
place  is  the  principal  civil  station  in 
the  S.  Konkan.  A  small  detachment  of 
troops  is  usually  stationed  at  it.  The 
town  is  large  and  open,  facing  the  sea. 
There  are  two  small  bays  formed  by  a 
rock  on  which  the  fort  is  built.  There 
is  neither  shelter  nor  good  anchorage, 

*  Ratuaguiry  of  Grant  Duff. 


as  the  bay  is  completely  exposed,  and 
the  bottom  is  hard  sand  with  rock.  With 
any  breeze  from  the  W.  there  are  heavy 
breakers  on  the  bar  at  the  entrance  of 
the  river,  and  boats  cross  it  only  at  the 
top  of  high  water.  The  landing  place 
for  boats  is  on  the  S.  of  the  fort,  near  a 
small  tank,  close  to  high- water  mark. 
The  cantonment  lies  on  the  N.  of  the 
town.  Batnagiri  has  its  name  from  a 
demon  named  Batndsur,  who  was  killed 
by  an  incarnation  of  Shiva  called  Ndth, 
or  Jotibd,  who  is  worshipped  at  a  fa- 
mous temple  near  Eolhdpilir.  There  is 
probably  some  historical  foundation  for 
this  legend,  and  Ratnagur  may  be  re- 
garded as  a  king  of  the  aborigines 
killed  by  some  .^^an  leader.  Other- 
wise the  word  might  be  translated 
"  Hill  of  Gems,"  from  Skr.  ratjuini,  '^a 
jewel,"  and  giHh,  «  hill."  This  is  a 
pretty  town  hid  in  palm  trees,  with  a 
hill  fort  to  the  N.  on  a  hill  which  juts 
into  the  sea,  once  a  stronghold  of  the 
Mar&thas.  The  principal  thing  of  in- 
terest here  to  the  tourist,  however,  is 
the  Tdrli,  or  "  Sardine  "  fishing,  which 
is  pretty  to  witness,  independently  of 
epicurean  considerations.  Fleets  of 
canoes  may  be  seen  putting  out  for 
these  fish  in  January  and  February. 
Three  men  are  required  in  each  canoe, 
two  to  paddle  and  one  to  cast  the  net. 
The  attitudes  of  the  men  engaged  in 
casting  the  nets  are  beautiful,  and  dis- 
play their  fine  athletic  figures  to  ad- 
vantage. They  stand  in  the  bows  of 
the  canoes,  leaning  slightly  forward, 
with  the  nets  gathered  up,  the  head 
turned  back  over  the  shoulders,  and 
with  eyes  glancing  keenly  around  in 
search  of  the  shoal.  The  fish,  which  is 
most  delicious,  is  caught  in  such  num- 
bers that  a  single  net-caster  will  fill  his 
canoe  in  the  course  of  the  morning,  as 
many  as  50  fish  being  taken  at  a  single 
cast,  and  quantities  of  the  fish  are  used 
to  manure  the  rice  fields.  At  these 
times  the  deep-sea  fishing  is  entirely 
neglected.  The  fishing  is  within  a 
short  distance  of  the  shore,  just  outside 
the  breakers,  and  can  be  carried  on 
only  when  the  water  is  sufficiently 
clear  to  admit  of  the  fish  being  readily 
seen.  In  calm  weather  the  water  is  as 
clear  as  crystal ;  and  it  is  a  beautiful 


Sect.  II. 


SoiUe  8. — Rdjdpur — Vijayadurg. 


219 


sight  at  such  times  to  watch  the  waves 
breaking  on  the  sands,  which  seem 
literally  of  pearls,  while  the  fleet  of 
canoes  is  shooting  hither  and  thither 
among  the  bright  waters,  with  a  fisher- 
man standing  in  the  bow  of  each 
boat  in  a  picturesque  attitude,  like  a 
piece  of  Grecian  sculpture.  The  back- 
ground of  this  picture  is  formed  by 
a  fishing  Tillage,  with  many  boats 
drawn  up  on  the  beach,  nets  drying 
on  the  sand,  huts  nestled  among  groves 
of  cocoa-nut  and  other  trees,  and  the 
old  fort  of  Batnagiri  frowning  over 
them. 

•  The  KaXiTida  r.,  just  beyond  Ratna- 
giri,  is  never  fordable  except  at  neap 
tides,  but  is  crossed  in  boats.  The  r. 
and  n,  at  Golap  are  likewise  unfordable 
at  high  water.  P&nwas  is  a  small 
straggling  village,  with  a  few  temples ; 
Maulangd  a  good  sized  village  ;  Bhar 
and  JBifii  mere  hamlets.  Not  far  from 
Bini  is  a  pretty  fishing  village  called 
Sangameshwar,  where  2  rivers  meet, 
with  steep  hills  all  round,  and  scenery 
as  attractive  as  can  be  found  in  the  S. 
Konkan.  There  is,  also,  at  no  great 
distance  a  tirth.oT place  of  pilgrimage, 
of  some  celebrity,  called  wSdawddL 
Here  is  a  shrine  of  Ganpati,  which 
draws  from  Government  a  revenue  of 
1,200  rupees  per  annum.  A  spring  of 
fine  water  oozes  from  the  rock. 

Jldjdjmr, — This  is  a  very  flourishing 
place,  and  a  great  emporium,  there 
being  good  roads  to  Kolhdpiir  and 
Belgdon,  and  the  Suknadi  river,  on 
which  the  town  is  situated,  being  navig- 
able for  vessels  of  450  khandis.  The 
exports  are  cloth,  ^7*t,  and  pepper,*  and 
the  imports  dates,  dried  fruits,  and  iron. 
There  are  about  1000  families  resident, 
exclusive  of  strangers,  who  are  very 
numerous.  A  considerable  quantity 
of  oil  is  made  here  from  the  sesamum 
and  the  cocoa-nut.  The  manner  of 
extraction  is  somewhat  primitive.  The 
trunk  of  a  large  tree  forms  the  mortar, 
and  a  branch  the  pestle,  which  is  made 
to  revolve  by  a  buffalo,  driven  by  a 
man.  One  such  apparatus  extracts  20 
sirs  of  oil  from  sesamum,  or  40  from 
cocoa-nut,  daily.  The  town  of  Rajdpiir 

•  "  Oriental  Christian  Spectator,"  April,  1834. 


is  some  miles  up  the  first  creek  met 
with  to  the  N.  of  Vijayadurg,  Still 
higher  up  the  creek,  and  about  1  m. 
above  the  town,  on  the  L  b.  of  the  r.,  is 
a  hot  spring,  which  gushes  from  a  cow's 
head  carvS  in  stone,  at  the  base  of  a 
hill  about  100  ft.  high,  which  joins  with 
the  general  range  of  the  Eonkan.  The 
mouth  of  the  spring  is  8  in.  in  diameter. 
The  colour  of  the  water  is  dark,  and  it  is 
strongly  mineral.  According  to  the 
natives  its  temperature  never  varies. 
Major  Wingate  on  the  morning  of  the 
21st  of  July,  1860,  found  it  to  be  109  % 
and  Dr.  Wilson  states  that  it  boils  an 
egg  easily,  and  that  the  water  is  too 
hot  for  bathing.  It  appears  to  be  a 
similar  spring  to  those  at  M^h^r,  Dd- 
bhul,  and  other  places  in  this  direction. 
On  the  hUl  above,  about  half  a  mile 
further  on,  are  14  singular  intermittent 
springs,  which  are  reported  to  flow  only 
during  a  part  of  the  year.  They  com- 
mence in  December  and  Januaiy,  but 
not  simultaneously,  and  continue  flow- 
ing for  several  months,  when  the  water 
diminishes,  and  at  last  disappears. 
This,  however,  does  not  appear  to  be 
the  invariable  course,  as  in  1849  they 
did  not  flow  at  all,  and  at  other  times 
all  or  some  of  them  have  flowed  at  un- 
certain intervals.  A  small  well  or 
cistern  has  been  built  around  each 
spring,  but  when  the  spring  is  in  full 
flow  die  water  passes  this  barrier.  The 
temperature  of  the  water  in  one  of 
these  wells  was  found  by  Major  Win- 
gate  to  be  84  *. 

Vfjayadurg  (Viziadroog).  —  From 
KaMrli  or  Mdjapur  it  is  an  easy  jour- 
ney of  some  12  m.  to  visit  the  ancient 
fort  of  Vijayadurg,  "  fort  of  victory  ; " 
or  Gheriah  as  it  is  called  by  some 
English  writers,  the  word  being  merely 
a  corruption  of  garki^  "  fort."  This 
place  has  some  historical  interest  at- 
taching to  it.  having  been  captured  by 
the  great  Olive  (then  Oolonel  Olive)  and 
Admiral  Watson,  on  the  13th  of  Feb., 
1756.  The  whole  affair  was  extremely 
characteristic  of  those  times,  when  the 
ideas  of  honourable  procedure  were  al- 
most as  lax  among  the  English  as 
among  the  Mardthas.  A  British  arma- 
ment, consisting  of  8  ships  of  the 
line,  one  of  50,  and  another  of  44  guns, 


220 


Eoute  8. — Bomhay  to  Ooa, 


Sect  II. 


with  several  armed  vessels  belonging 
to  the  Bombay  marine,  having  on  board 
800  English  soldiers  and  1000  Sipdhls, 
sailed  from  Bombay  early  in  February, 
to  reduce  Vijayadurg,  the  stronghold  of 
the  piratical  chief  Tiilajt  Angria.  They 
were  to  co-operate  with  the  PeshwA's 
troops  under  Khandaji  M4nkar,and  the 
fruits  of  success  were  of  course  to  be 
shared.  But  a  committee  of  10  officers, 
of  which  Admirals  Watson  and  Po- 
cocke,  Mr.  Hough  and  Colonel  Clive 
were  members,  had,  before  leaving 
Bombay  harbour,  agreed  to  share  all 
the  prize  property  taken,  without  any 
recognition  of  the  Mardtha  claims  to  a 
portion.  When  the  English  fleet  ap- 
peared, Angria  repaired  to  the  Ma- 
ra^ha  camp  to  negotiate  for  a  surrender. 
The  English  pronounced  this  an  in- 
fraction of  the  terms  of  alliance, 
though  on  what  grounds  it  is  difficult 
to  see.  Admiral  Watson  attacked  the 
sea-face  of  the  fort  on  the  12th  of 
February,  while  Clive,  the  same  night, 
landed  with  the  troops,  so  as  to  cut  ofl: 
any  communication  between  the  Ma- 
rd^as.and  the  garrison.  The  Mardtha 
general  endeavoured  to  bribe  Mr. 
Hough  to  get  the  Admiral  to  suspend 
operations ;  and,  failing  in  that,  he 
olfered  to  Captain  Andrew  Buchanan, 
commanding  the  picquets,  a  bill  on 
Bombay  for  80,000  rupees,  to  permit 
him  with  a  few  men  to  pass  into  the 
fort.  The  bribe  was  rejected  ;  but  the 
Bombay  Government  were  so  struck 
with  the  singular  honesty  of  their  offi- 
cer, that  they  presented  him  with  a 
gold  medal  in  consideration  of  his  ex- 
traordinarily good  behaviour.  The  fort 
surrendered  on  the  13th,  when  the 
captors  decided  that  the  Mardthas  had 
no  right  to  share,  and  divided  the  prize 
property,  amounting  to  £100,000, 
among  themselves.  Tiilajl  Angria  was 
taken,  put  in  irons,  and  imprisoned  in 
one  of  the  Peshwd's  hill  foits  near 
Rdigaj-h.  A  few  months  after  the  fort 
was  given  up  to  the  Peshwd,  and  did 
not  revert  to  the  English  till  1818. 
Vijayadurg  is  one  of  the  few  good  har- 
bours on  the  W.  coast  of  India.  The 
anchorage  is  landlocked,  and  sheltered 
from  all  winds.  There  is  no  bar  at  the 
entrance,  the  depth  being  fi'om  7  to  6 


fathoms,  and  from  4  to  3  inside  at  low 
water.  The  rise  of  the  tide  is  about 
7  ft.  The  fort  is  in  good  preservation, 
and  is  one  of  the  finest  specimens  of  an 
Indian  fortress  to  be  seen  in  the  W. 
Presidency.  It  has  a  double  wall,  with 
flanking  towers,  protected  by  ditches. 
There  is  a  well  of  sweet  water  inside, 
and  also  a  large  tank,  the  bottom  of 
which  is  said  to  have  been  lined  with 
lead.  The  English  batteries  were  on 
the  N.  side  of  the  creek  about  1200  yds. 
oif,  too  distant  to  have  done  much 
damage.  The  wall  on  that  side  has 
many  shot  marks,  but  there  is  no  indi- 
cation of  a  breach  or  other  sefiou» 
injury.  There  is  a  large  temple  within 
a  mile  of  Vijayadurg,  which  is  very 
picturesquely  situated  at  the  bottom  of 
a  ravine,  and  is  worth  a  visit.  Angria's 
dock  is  2  m.  to  the  E.  of  Vijayadurg, 
and  is  merely  a  wet  dock  with  a  ma- 
sonry entrance.  It  has  no  gates.  The 
entrance  was  probably  built  up  on 
the  admission  of  a  vessel,  and  the 
water  afterwards  drained  off  to  the 
level  of  low  tide,  when  the  re- 
mainder was  pumped  out,  or  allowed 
to  evaporate. 

Pdtg&on  is  a  village  of  moderate  size, 
with  a  large  temple,  near  which  is  good 
ground  for  encamping.  After  leaving 
this  place  other  temples  will  be  passed 
at  Tamltdn,  Beyond  this  is  the  Seo 
river,  which  is  fordable  at  low  water. 
Three  small  boats  are  kept  for  crossing 
at  other  times.  The  bed  of  the  r.  is 
sand  and  mud.  The  places  between  it 
and  JScUsi  are  small  hamlets.  SdlH  it- 
self is  a  village  of  moderate  size,  with 
two  temples  so  large  as  to  be  capable 
of  accommodating  a  regiment.  The 
Mithbds,  or  "  sweet-smeUing  "  river, 
has  bad,  stony,  and  difficult  banks. 
Beyond  Barni  the  country  becomes 
very  jungly.  The  Harni  and  Gad 
rivers  are  crossed  in  boats,  but  the 
latter  is  fordable  in  the  fair  season. 
Santrul  is  a  small  village  with  some 
temples,  near  which  is  good  encamping 
ground.  At  the  first  n.  after  passing 
it,  is  a  very  small  hamlet,  and  here  a 
road  branches  off  to  Mdlwan,  which 
is  a  large  place,  with  a  population  of 
10,000.  Good  iron  ore  is  found  here, 
an  account  of  which,  and  of  the  smelt- 


Sect.  TI. 


Route  8. — Old  Goa. 


221 


ing  process  will  be  found  in  the  Bom. 
As.  Jour,  for  1844,  p.  436.  The  fort, 
called  also  Sindidurg^  was  built  by 
Shivaji  in  1662.  In  1756  it  was  taken 
by  Major  Gordon  and  Commodore 
Watson,  and  called  Fort  Aujipistus,* 
but  was  next  year  restored  to  the  Bdjd 
of  Kolhdpi!ir,  and  finally  ceded  to  the 
English  in  1812.  It  stands  on  an 
island,  which  is  low,  and  at  a  little 
distance  not  distinguishable  from  the 
mainland. 

Supposing  the  traveller  not  to  land 
at  Ratnagiri,  but  to  go  on  at  once  in 
the  steamer  to  Goa,  he  will  reach  Vin- 
gorlen,  199  m.  from  Bombay,  about 
9  P.U.,  and  here  the  steamer  will  stop  ^ 
an  hour.  Goa  roadstead  will  be  reached 
at  2  A.M.,  the  whole  voyage  taking 
32  hours.  The  port  of  Goa  is  formed 
by  the  high  headland  point  of  Aguado 
to  the  N.,  and  Marmagdon  Point  to 
the  S.  The  steamer  anchors  just  to  the 
S.  of  Aguado  Point,  and  thence  to  Goa 
the  traveller  must  proceed  in  a  boat. 
If  he  should  have  interest  sufficient  to 
obtain  the  use  of  the  Governor's  barge 
with  14  rowers  and  a  coxswain,  he  will 
go  up  with  comparative  ease  and 
rapidity.  Otherwise,  should  there  be 
a  strong  wind  or  a  high  swell,  it  will 
not  be  so  pleasant.  Supposing  that  he 
leaves  the  steamer  at  3  A.M.  he  will 
come  abreast  of  the  hospital  at  Nova 
Qoa  in  an  hour,  and  in  )  hour  more  he 
will  be  at  the  hotel.  Should  he,  how- 
ever, proceed  to  Kaibandar,  he  will 
probably  not  disembark  before  5  A.M.  ; 
for,  although  Raibandar  is  not  more 
than  6  m.  from  Aguado  Point,  it  takes 
2  hours  to  do  the  distance,  as  the  cur- 
rent is  very  strong.  There  is  no  hotel  at 
Baibandar,  but  there  are  one  or  two 
good  houses,  such  as  that  of  the  Ba- 
ronne  de  Combargna,  where  a  tra- 
veller might,  perhaps,  be  introduced. 
A  carriage  will  be  found  indispensable, 
as  Old  Goa  is  3  m.  E.  of  Raibandar, 
and  there  is  some  stagnant  water  on 
the  road,  the  smell  of  which  is  most 
fetid  and  very  likely  to  give  fever,  so 

*  Grant  Duff,  vol.  iii.  p.  99.  In  the 
"Selections  from  the  Records  of  Bombay," 
vol.  X.  N.S.,  p.  3,  it  is  stated  that  it  was  the 
Fort  of  R6ri  (Rairee),  the  name  of  which  was 
so  changed. 


that  it  will  be  as  well  to  pass  the  spot 
with  all  speed. 

Old  Goa.  —  The  first  expedition 
should  be  to  the  church  of  Bom  Jesus, 
where  S.  Francois  Xavier  is  buried  ; 
and  his  tomb  is  the  thing  most 
worth  seeing  in  Goa.  The  road  is  ex- 
cellent, and  leads  along  the  water's 
edge  first  through  Raibandar,  and  then 
along  the  ruined  gardens  of  Old  Goa, 
whose  mouldering  buildings  are  de- 
serted by  all  but  priests.  The  facade 
of  the  church  of  Bom  Jesus  is  hand- 
some, and  is  93  ft.  4  in.  high,  and  77  ft. 
broad,  from  N.  to  S.  You  turn  a  little 
to  the  right  to  reach  it.  It  is  decorated 
with  8  columnar  pilasters,  2  close  toge- 
ther on  either  side  being  in  the  centre, 
and  2  wide  apart  on  either  side  of 
these.  This  facade  is  of  the  natural 
dark  colour  of  the  laterite,  while  the 
sides  are  whitewashed.  Near  the  top 
of  the  facade  is  a  coat-of-arras,  and  the 
letters  I.H.S.  Internally  the  church 
is  199  ft.  10  in.  long  from  W.  to  E. 
Fonseca  says  *  that  the  facade  is  78  ft. 
high,  and  75  ft.  g  in.  broad.  He 
makes  it  internally  55^  ft.  broad,  and 
61  ft.  \  in.  high,  and  182  ft.  long.  The 
church  was  finished  on  the  24th  of 
Nov.,  1594,  and  consecrated  on  the 
15th  of  May,  1605.  On  one  of  the  pil- 
lars supporting  -the  choir  is  in- 
scribed :— 

Hanc  Ecclesiam  Jesu  solemni  ritu  conse- 
cravlt  reverendissimus  et  illustrissimns 
Dom  D.  Alexius  Menesius,  Archiepiscopus 
Goensus  Indi»  Primus,  a.d.  HDCV.  Id.  Ma. 
(15th  of  May,  1605). 

On  a  wall  near  the  side  door  on  the 
N.  is  inscribed  : 

Sepultura  de  Dom  Hieronimo  Masuarenhes, 

'Capita©  Quefre  de  Cochin  e  Onnuz  e  a  cuja 

custa  se  fez  esta  Igreja;  em  gratificaQ&o  a 

Companhia  de  Jesu  che  dedicilo  este  logar. 

Falecio  no  anno  de  1593. 

At  the  S.  end  of  the  transept  of 
the  church  is  an  exquisite  screen, 
and    under  the  principal   arch   is  a 

*  "An  Historical  and  Archeeological  Sketch 
of  the  City  of  Goa,  preceded  by  a  short  Statis- 
tic^ Account  of  the  Territory  of  Goa,  written 
with  the  authorization  of  Government,  by 
Jo86  Nicolau  da  Fonseca,  Pres.  of  the  So- 
ciedad  dos  Amigos  das  Literas."  Bombay-: 
Thacker  and  Co.,  1876. 


222 


Eoute  8. — Bombay  to  Goa, 


Sect.  II. 


silver  image  4]  ft.  high,  value 
£300,  given  by  the  relict  of  Urban 
Darezo.  The  pedesti^  is  inscribed  as 
follows : — 

Sanctissimo  Indiarum  Apostolo 

Francisca  de  Sopranio  Patritia  Genuenses 

Urbani  Daritii  olim  uxor 

Nunc  Maria  Francisca  Xavieria 

In  celeberrimo  Incamationis  Monasterio 

Christi  Sponsa 

Peregrino  Celesti, 

Peregrin!  Amoris  votum  et  monumentum. 

P.P.  Anno  Domini  1670. 

Over  the  S.  door  is  a  picture  5  ft. 
4j  in.  by  4  ft.  ^  in.,  v^ith  the  inscrip- 
tion : — 

Dimidium  cemis  quern 

Magnum  suspicit  orbis 

Xavierest;  lotum 

Nulla  tabella  capit. 

It  is  a  picture  of  S.  Francis  Xavier. 
The  face  is  of  a  vigorous  and  rather 
handsome  man,  taken  at  the  time  he 
left  Europe,  at  the  age  of  41.  The 
tomb,  which  is  all  of  the  finest  marble, 
was  given  by  the  Grand  Duke  of  Tus- 
cany. It  is  so  very  dark  at  this  spot, 
that  the  bronze  tableaux  on  the  tomb 
can  be  made  out  only  vnth  great  diffi- 
culty. There  are  2  lithographs  of  it, 
and  one  of  the  Saint  himself,  in  the 
"  Resumo  Historico  de  S.  Francisco  Xa- 
vier," por  Jos^  Manuel  Braz  de  Sa. 
Nova  Goa.  Imprensa  Nacional,  1878. 
The  tomb  is  divided  into  3  oblong  com- 
partments, the  last  of  which  supports 
the  silver  coffin  that  contains  the  body. 
The  lowest  plinth  is  of  jasper  4|  ft. 
high,  19^  ft.  long,  9^  ft.  broad  ;  the 
second  plinth  is  also  of  jasper,  h\  ft. 
Mgh,  114  ft.  long,  and  5^  ft.  wide. 
This  plinth  has  in  the  centre  of  each 
side  a  bronze  plate  with  angels  in  ala- 
baster. The  plate  on  the  W.  side  re- 
presents the  saint  baptizing  in  the 
Moluccas  ;  that  on  the  N.  side  repre- 
sents him  preaching  to  the  natives — 
"  Ut  vitam  habeant."  The  plate  on  the 
S.  side  represents  the  saint  crossing  a 
river  on  a  raft,  to  escape  savages — 
**  Nihil  horum  vereor."  On  the  E. 
side,  which  is  at  his  head,  the  apostle 
is  represented  expiring  among  his  dis- 
ciples, and  surrounded  by  angels,  and 
the  sun  is  setting,  with  the  motto, 
"  Major  in  occasu."  The  3rd  plinth 
is  placed  to  receive  the  silver  coffin ; 


it  is  9|  ft.  long,  ^  ft.  broad,  and  2  ft. 
high.  The  railing  is  of  red  jasper.  On 
the  top  is  the  coffin  of  silver,  6|  ft. 
long,  2^  ft.  broad,  and  3^  ft.  high,  ex- 
clusive of  the  lid,  which  is  1^  ft. 
Above  is  the  cross,  2^  ft.  high.  Two 
angels  :  one  near  the  head,  holds  the 
heart,  with  a  halo  over  it ;  the  other 
says,  "Satis  est  Domine,  satis  est." 
The  coffin  weighs  600  silver  marks, 
each  of  the  value  of  £1.  13«.  ^d. 
Total  equal  £600,  but  now  worth 
£788.  On  the  sides  of  the  coffin  are 
32  pictures,  referring  to  various  pas- 
sages in  the  life  and  death  of  the 
saint. 

The  pictures  on  the  coffin  are : — 
1st,  The  saint  vrith  bare  head  and 
feet;  2nd,  not  visible  ;  3rd,  Visited 
by  Jerome  in  hospital  of  Vicentia; 
4th,  Vision  in  hospital  at  Rome ; 
6th,  Vision  seen  by  his  sister ;  6th, 
The  saint  saving  the  son  of  D.  Pe- 
dro Mascarenhes  ;  7th,  The  saint  rais- 
ing a  rich  man ;  8th,  He  baptises 
idolaters ;  9th,  He  restores  a  drowned 
boy  at  Cape  Kum^ri ;  10th,  He  cures 
a  sick  man ;  11th,  He  frightens  the 
Badajas  in  Travankor;  12th,  He  re- 
stores to  life  2  boys  ;  13th,  He  is  shown 
a  treasure  at  Meliapib: ;  14th,  He  effects 
2  cures  in  Malacca ;  16th,  He  restores 
a  crucifix  dropped  into  the  sea  ;  16th, 
Is  shovim  preaching  to  the  natives ; 
17th,  While  preaching  at  Malacca  on 
the  6th  of  December,  1647,  announces 
victory  over  the  King  of  Acheen ; 
18th,  Bestores  2  persons  in  Eh&repa- 
lan ;  19th,  He  aids  a  dying  man  ; 
20th,  He  is  carrying  an  infant  on  his 
shoulders  ;  21st,  He  is  travelling  from 
Amangueli  to  Macao ;  22nd,  Cures  a 
dumb  man  at  Amangueli  ;  23rd,  Cures 
a  deaf  Japanese  ;  24th,  Prays  in  a 
storm  in  the  ship  of  Duiui:e  da  Gama  ; 
26th,  Baptising  3  persons ;  26th,  not 
visible  ;  27th,  not  visible ;  28th,  He  is 
shown  expiring  at  Sanchia;  29th,  He 
appears  to  Catherine  da  Chamez ; 
30th,  His  body  is  shovm  working 
miracles  ;  31st,  not  visible ;  32nd,  not 
visible. 

The  body  is  well  preserved,  but 
shrunk  to  4^  ft. ;  the  4th  and  5th  toes 
are  wanting,  having  been  bitten  off 
by  Isabel  de  Caron,  who  wanted  them 


Sect.  II. 


Route  S.—Old  Goa, 


223 


as  relics.  The  vestments  studded  with 
pearls  were  giyen  by  DoSia  Maria  Sofia, 
wife  of  Pedro  II.  of  Portugal.  On  the 
right  side  is  his  staff,  with  194  eme- 
ralds, and  a  medallion  inscribed  :  **  D. 
Francisc.  Xayier,  Indies  Apost.  et  in 
Orienti,  An.  MDCXCIX."  On  the  re- 
verse is  the  eflSgy  of  Pedro  II.  Near 
the  tomb  are  several  offerings  made  by 
persons  cured  of  diseases.  There  is  a 
silver  leg,  presented  by  Maria  Antonia 
Francisca  Xavier  da  Costa  Campos, 
whose  leg  was  cured  and  straightened, 
26th  Dec.  1859.  The  vestry  is  a  room 
60  ft.  long  by  40  ft.  broad  and  30  ft. 
high,  with  armoires  all  round,  topped 
with  pictures  of  saints.  The  vestments 
are  very  rich,  with  gold  embroidery. 
At  the  tomb  are  4  silver  lamps,  weigh- 
ing 1524  ^^B.  The  body  of  the  saint  has 
usually  been  exhibited  once  a  year, 
but  it  is  said  that  this  exhibition  will 
not  take  place  in  future,  as  the  body  is 
now  so  slmvelled  and  decomposed.  In 
the  vestry  is  the  following  inscrip- 
tion : — 

Sepultura  de  Balthazar  da  Viegas,  a  cuja 
custa  se  fez  esta  Sachrista,  a  Compaiihia  de  J. 
em  gratiAcaQ&o  desta  bom  obra,  e  cle  outras  que 
fez  k  esta  caza,  che  dedicam  este  logar  para 
seu  Jazigo.    Faledo  a  14  de  Janeiro  de  1659. 

On  returning  from  the  church  just 
described,  the  traveller  may  stop  at 
the  Powder  Factory,  which  will  be  on 
his  left  as  he  comes  back  to  Bai- 
bandar. 

Over  the  door  is  the  following  in- 
scription : — 

Reinado  Portugal  o  Gatholico 

Rei  Dom  Felipe  8^  mandou 

a  Cidade  fazor  toda  a 

Fahrica  desta  Caza  da 

Polvera  do  Dinheiro  de 

hum  por  cento  sendo  Vizo- 

Rei  deste  Estado,  Dom 

Francisco  da  Gama,  Conde 

Almirante,  o  qual  a  prin- 

cipio  adcabou  aposni 

perfercare  em  que  ora 

estfto  Vizorei  Dom  Miguel  de  Noronha, 

Conde  de  Llnhares,  a.d.  1030. 

There  is  a  fine  spring  of  water  here, 
and  a  pretty  garden.  There  is  also  a 
warehouse  with  a  few  pounds  of  pow- 
der, over  which  a  sentinel  keeps  wateh. 
The  next  visit  will  be  to  the  church  of 
6.  Cajetan,  which  is  ^  of  a  m.  to  the 


N.N.B.  of  Bom  Jesus.  The  facade  is 
of  red  laterite,  whitewashed.  The 
church  is  the  best  preserved  in  Old 
Goa.  It  stands  near  the  ruins  of  the 
Viceroy's  Palace,  and  was  built  by  the 
Friars  of  the  iTheatines,  and  finished 
22nd  Maxch,  1655.  It  is  121  ft.  long, 
and  81  ft.  broad.  The  facade  looks  to 
the  W.,  and  has  5  bastard  Corinthian 
pilasters  on  either  side  of  the  portal. 
It  has  2  low  towers,  and  in  the  centre 
of  the  church  is  a  cupola.  Gemelli 
Careri  says,  it  is  in  imitation  of  S.  An- 
drea de  la  Vella  at  Rome.  According 
to  others,  it  is  a  copy  of  the  Basilica 
of  St.  Peter's  at  Rome.  Over  the 
threshold  is  "  Domus  mea,  domus  ora- 
tionis."  The  nave  and  2  aisles  have 
each  3  altars.  Under  the  beautiful 
cupola  is  a  well  (see  "  Or.  Christian 
Spectator,"  vol.  5,  p.  119).  The  Baron 
de  Candol,  Tavaras  de  Almeida,  and 
Viscount  Sergio  de  Souza,  Governors  of 
Goa  in  1840, 1877,  and  1878,  are  buried 
in  this  church.  The  facade  is  98  ft. 
3  in.  broad  from  N,  to  S.,  and  80  ft. 
high.  The  towers,  which  are  20  ft. 
higher,  are  100  ft.  high.  To  speak  with 
precision,  the  interior  of  the  church 
from  the  W.  entrance  to  the  high  altar 
is  123  ft.  long,  to  which  add  8  ft.  for 
the  altar,  and  the  total  length  is  131  ft. 
The  transept  is  from  N.  to  S.  89  ft. 
The  roof  is  supported  by  4  vastly 
massive  columns,  which,  as  it  were, 
divide  the  interior  into  chapels.  There 
are  here  large  pictures  of  the  Bap- 
tism of  Christ  by  John  the  Baptist,  the 
Descent  from  the  Cross,  the  Death 
of  S.  Theresa,  who  is  being  trans- 
fixed with  an  arrow  by  a  boy. 
There  are  some  old  tombs,  one  of 
1709. 

To  the  N.N.W.  of  S.  Cajetan  is  the 
so-called  Arch  of  the  Viceroys,  on  the 
site  of  what  was  in  1510  the  principal 
gate  of  the  city.  The  arch  is  about 
38  ft.  high,  and  the  passage  beneath  is 
16  ft.  high.  Above  this  is  a  row  of 
alternate  globes  and  deer.  The  deer 
refers  to  Vasco  da  Gama,  Gama  in 
Portuguese  meaning  •*deer."  Above 
this  is  a  figure  of  Vasco  in  a  sailor's 
hat  with  the  brim  turned  up.  He 
wears  a  large  fur  cloak,  trunk  hose, 
and  black  bx)ts,  and  is  veiy  squarely 


224 


Route  8.—  Bomhay  to  Goa, 


Sect.  II. 


built.  Above  him  is  S.  Catherina. 
Patroness  of  Goa.  The  arch  faces  the 
N.  and  is  about  100  ft.  S.  of  the  river. 
Over  the  figure  of  Vasoo  da  Gama  is 
inscribed  : — 

Reinado  de  El  Rei  D.  Felipe  1", 

Posa  Cidade  de  aqui  Dom 

Vasco   da   Oama,  V*   Conde, 

Almirante,  descobrador 

e  reconquestador  da 

India  sendo  Vizo  Rei  O  Conde  Dom  Francisco 

Da  Gama  seu  bisneto. 

O  anno  D.  97. 

This  arch  was  built  of  black  stone 
in  honour  of  Vasco  da  Gama.  The 
statue  of  S.  Catharine  is  of  bronze  gilt. 
There  is  also  this  inscription  in  the 
passage  under  the  arch  on  the  left 
hand  as  you  go  to  the  river  on  the 
N.  :— 

Legitime   e   verdadeiro  Rei  D.  Jofto  lY., 
ristoridor  da  Liberdade  Portugueza,  1656. 

Above  the  inscription  is  the  half- 
length  figure  of  a  warrior,  over  whose 
left  shoulder  is  the  Immaculate  Con- 
ception, that  is  the  Virgin  with  the 
half  moon  at  her  feet,  and  to  his  right 
the  crown  and  arms  of  Portugal.  At 
a  little  distance  is  also  the  following 
Latin  inscription : — 

SanctissimsB  conception!  Ma- 

rittt  Joannes  IV.,  Portugalise  Rex 

una  cum  generalibus  comi- 

tiis  se  et  regna  sua  sub 

annuo  censu  tributaria 

publice  dlcavit  atque  dei- 

param  in  imperii  tutela- 

rem  electain  a  labe  origi- 

nali  preservatam  i)erpe- 

tuo  defensurum  jura- 

mento  firmavit  et  ut  vive- 

ret  pietas  Lusitante  hoc 

vivo  lapide  in  memoriale 

perenne  exorari  jussit 
Anno  Christo  MDCLVI  im- 
perii sui  VI. — Esta  escriptura 
por  muito  apagada 
mandou  o  Senado  gravar 
de  novo  e  reparou  este 
Arco  em  1831. 

From  this  place  commenced  tlie  Rua 
Direita,  which  led  from  the  Palace  of 
the  Viceroys  to  the  church  of  Miseri- 
cordia  (see  Linchoten,  Hist,  de  la  Na- 
vegacion,  p.  57,  and  Pyrard,  Voyage, 
part  ii.  p.  30).  Neai*  the  arch  was  the 
Ribeira  des  Gales,  "  Key  of  the  Vice- 
roys," 700  paces  long,  and  200  broad, 


and  covered  with  palm  trees.     Here 
were  the  Bangacal  for  storing  cargo, 
the  Peso  and  Alfondega,  or  Custom 
House,  which  Pyrard  compares  to  the 
Palais  Royal,   The  Palace  of  the  Vice- 
roys, of  which  only  one  small  gate,  10 
ft.  high,  remains,  was  situated  a  little 
S.  of  the  arch  (see  Tavernier,  Les  Six 
Voyages,  vol.  ii.  p.  116).     Here  was  a 
hall  with  pictures  of  ships  since  the 
time  of  Vasco.    This  hall  opened  into 
another,  with  portraits  of  the  Viceroys, 
some  of  whom  returned  to  Portugal 
with  fortunes  of  £300,000.     In  front 
stood  the  High  Court  and  the  Jail, 
which  was  called  Tronco.    The  Cathe- 
dral stands  to  the  S.W.  of  S.  Cajetan, 
in  the  middle  of  the  Rua  Direita.     It 
was  made  a  cathedral  by  a  bull  of 
Paul  III.,  dated  November  3rd,  1534. 
The  body  of  the  church  was  finished  in 
1519.    The  height  of  the  fagade  to  the 
top  of  the  cross  is  llof  ft.,  and  the 
breadth  100*  ft.    The  length  of  the 
cathedral  itself    is  250  ft.,  and  the 
breadth  181|  ft.  external  measurement. 
There  is  one  lateral  tower,  that  to  the 
N.  having  fallen  down  on  the  25th  of 
July,  1776.    There  are  5  bells;   the 
great  bell  was  tolled  at  the  auto  dafL 
The  cathedral  was  called  the  "  Church 
of   S.   Caterina."    It   must   be    said 
that,  though  Fonseca  gives  the  breadth 
of  the  facade  at  lOOf  ft.,  recent  mea- 
surement,  carefully  taken,  makes  ■  it 
108  ft.   8  in.    Externally,  the  style 
of  this  church  is  Tusco-Doric,  and  in- 
ternally, Mosaic-Corinthian.  It  is  said 
to  have  been  begun  in  1511,  but  that 
it  was  rebuilt,  and  that  the  body  was 
finished  in  1619,  and  the  whole  struc- 
ture was  finished  in  1631.    The  inside 
is  divided  into  a  nave  and  2  aisles  by 
6  in-egularly  shaped  massive  pillars, 
which  form  6  arches,  of  which  that 
nearest  the  entrance  is  comparatively 
low,  and  the  furthest  off  very  lofty. 
The  nave  is  72  ft.  high,  and  the  aisles 
574  ft.    The  nave  is  142|  ft.  long,  and 
69|    ft.    broad.      Although    Fonseca 
m^es  the  total  length  of  the  cathedral 
250  ft.,  and  the  breadth  181^  ft.,  re- 
cent measurement  makes  it  273  ft. 
long,  and  137  ft.  9  in.  broad,  but  at  the 
transept  144  ft.    The  entrance  is  by  a 
triple  portal,  and  over  the  central  one 


Sect.  II. 


Rovte  S.—Old  Goa. 


226 


is  a  slab  with  the  following,  in  places 
illegible,  inscription  :— 

Rein**®  o  Mni  Cat"  A  mandaram  ronti- 

Rey  D.  Seb»"  m*<»"  nuar  a  custa 

fazer  esta  S.  se  de  sua  Real  Fa- 

.    .    .    .    o  anno  do  Z^  ate  o  prosente 

8^  de  562  sedo  Q'he  o  Arcebpo  Pri- 

Administradores  niaz  D.  Frey  Fran«<» 

della  OS  ArcebP"  dos  Martyres  e 

Primares  Vizo  Rey  deste 

OS  Catolicos  Reis  seus  Estado 

successores. 

At  the  entrance  are  2  marble  basins 
for  holy  water,  and  a  baptismal  font 
of  blac&  stone,  which  was  in  the  ori- 
ginal edifice.    It  is  inscribed : — 

Esta  pia  mandou  faser  Jorge  Gomez,  e  a 
deo  a  esta  86  em  onra  e  lo  amor  do  Senhor  Deos 
em  1532. 

The  ceiling  is  vaulted,  and  in  the 
chapels  adorned  with  mosaics.  The 
4  chapels  on  the  right  of  the  entrance 
are  dedicated  to  S.  Anthony,  S.  Ber- 
nard, the  Cruz  dos  Milagros,  and  the 
S.  Spirito.  The  cross  of  the  Srdcbapel 
is  20f  ft.  long,  and  is  said  to  have 
grown  to  that  bulk  from  a  small  size. 
In  the  second  chapel  is  a  handsome 
tomb,  with  the  following  inscription : — 

Nesta  Sepultura  estao  os 

Ossos  de  Dona  Leonor,  Mas 

carenhas  segundo  mulher 

De  Francisco  de  Mello  de  Castro, 

Govemador  que  foi  do  Estado 

da  India  tres  vezes  e  a 

terceira  vez  que  govemou 

mandou  fazer  esta 
sepultura  pera  nella  se 
depositorem  os  ossos  da 
data  sua  mulher  a  qual 
fallecio  em  8  de  Maio  de 
684  a  tern  nesta  Capella 
huma  messa  quotidlana. 

The  transept  is  90J  ft.   by  36  ft. 

There  are  3  altars  to  the  right,  1  to 

Nossa  Senhora,  and  2  to  S.  Jos^fo  ;  on 

the  N.  side  is  the  following  inscription 

surmounted    by    an   escutcheon,    in 

which  is  a  skeleton  holding  a  scythe 

and  trampling    on    an   archbishop's 

mitre  : — 

Neste  Mausoleo  estfto  os 
ossos  de  D.  Lefto,  1  Arcebispo* 

de  Goa,  e  de  D.  Fre  Andre 

de  S.  Haria,  Bispo  da  Cochim, 

para  aqui  solemnemente 

trasladadas  do  Conyento 

da  Madre  de  Deos  em 

5  de  Octubre  de  1864. 

Requiescant  in  pace. 

*  Dom  Gaspar  de  Le&o  Fereira,  died  1576. 
IBomhay—lSSO.] 


The  chapels  on  the  left  are — 1.  N. 
Senhora  de  Necessidades ;  2.  S.  Sebas- 
tian ;  3.  Blessed  Sacrament ;  4.  K. 
Senhora  de  Bom  Vida.  According  to 
Fonseca,  Don  Antonio  de  Noronha, 
nephew  of  Albuquerque,  was  buried  in 
the  Cathedral,  but  his  tomb  is  not  now 
to  be  found.  There  is,  however,  an 
epitaph  to  Garcia  de  Noronha.  Under 
a  casque,  and  surrounded  by  foliage,  is 
inscribed  : — 

A  qui  fajs.  D.  Garcia  de  Noronha, 

Vicerei  que  foi  da  Indite.  Falleceo 

Nesta  cidade  de  Goa  aos  3  d'Aviil 

da  Era  1540  annos. 

In  the  centre  of  the  transept  is  an 
epitaph  to  Julius  SimSo   Quavaliro, 
engineer  and  architect,  and  to  the  left 
of  it  is  that  of  Henrique  Jaques  de 
Magalhaens,  who  was  Governor  of  An- 
gola, and  his  son  G^eral  Pedro  Jaques 
de  Magalhaens,  who  died  SOtJi  April, 
1700.    On  the  right  of  the  architect's 
tomb  is  that  of  Gomez  da  Silva,  with 
the  date  22nd  Sept.  1663.    On  looking 
from  the  terraced  roof  of  the  Cathedrid 
one  cannot  but  think  of  the  solemn 
and  terrible  sights  that  have  been  seen 
in  the  Square  below.    To  the  S.  is  the 
Palace  of  the  Inquisition,  which  is  now 
utterly  demolished.    The  walls  (see 
Pinkerton's  "  Travels,"  vol.  ix.  p.  234) 
were  5  ft.  thick,  and  the  windows  so 
high,  that  it  was  impossible  for  the 
prisoners  to  look  out  from  them.  From 
this  building  the  processions  of  the 
auto  da  fi  were  seen  advancing  to 
the  place  of  execution,  and  specta- 
tors at  the  windows  of  the  Cathedral 
could  see  the  miserable  fate  of  the  con- 
demned.   The  number  of  the  execu- 
tions has  no  doubt  been  greatly  exag- 
gerated ;  it  is  certain,  however,  (see 
Buchanan's  Ch.  Besearches,  p.  152,) 
that  at  least  105  men  and  16  women 
were  consigned  to  the  flames.    How 
many  perished  in  the  dark  dungeons 
of  the  palace   itself   can   never  be 
known,  but  we  may  be  sure  that  a 
much  greater  number  died  there  than 
those  who  were  publicly  immolated. 
The  Inquisition  was  abolished  by  royal 
letter,  on  the  10th  of  Feb.,  1774,  re-es- 
tablished under  Dona  Maria  I.  in  1779, 
and  finally  abolished  in   1812.    The 
site  is  now  covered  with  buslies,  the 


226 


Houte  8. — BoTnhay  to  Goa. 


Sect.  II. 


liarboar  of  poisonous  snakes,  n  fitting 
conclusion  for  this  execrable  institu- 
tion.  To  the  N.W.  of  the  Cathedral  is 
the    Archbishop*iS    Palace,    2  stories 
high,  230  ft.  long,  and  108  ft.  broad. 
Dr.  Gemelli  Careri,  who  saw  it  in  1695 
(see    Churchill's    Voy.,    vol.    iv.    p. 
205),  speaks  of  its  beauty,  and  no 
doubt  it  was  a  rery  magnificent  resi- 
dence, but  it  is  now  in  a  ruinous  state. 
The  doors  of  the  facade  are  yery  hand- 
some ;  enter  to  the  left  of  these,  and 
pass  through  a  hall  of  3  pillars  into 
cloisters,  on  the  walls  of  which  are 
pictures,    representing    martyrdoms. 
They  are  much  injured.    Then  ascend 
31  very  steep  stairs  to  the  left,    lliis 
leads  to  a  landing,  the  windows  of 
which  overlook  a  mng  of  the  palace, 
now  in  ruins.    To  the  right  is  a  gal- 
lery, in  which  are  many  pictures,  in  a 
very  damaged  state.    Ascend  12  more 
steps  to  the  church  of  S.  Francis  d'As- 
sisi,   of  which  a  description  follows. 
W.  of  the  cathedral  are  the  convent  and 
church  of   S.  Francis    d'Assisi.     The 
convent  was  built  in  1517  by  Antonio 
de  Louro,  a  Franciscan  friar,  at  a  cost 
of  £6000.    Pyrard,  pt.  ii.  p.  31,  calls 
it  "  the  richest  and  most  beautiful  edi- 
fice in  the  world."    In  the  cloisters 
were  depicted,  in  blue  and  gold,  the 
life  of  S.  Francis  d'Assisi.   The  church 
was  finished  in  1521,  and  dedicated  in 
1603,  by  Archbishop  Menezes,  to  the 
Spirito  Santo.    It  was  rebuilt  in  1661, 
but  the  gate  of  the  old  edifice,  "exqui- 
sitely carved,"    remains.     Here   are 
buried  Christovfto  Britto,  Dom  Jo5o  da 
Castro,  and  Dom  Manoel  de  Camora. 
It  is  190  ft.  long,  and  60  ft.  broad.     It 
is  referred  to  in  Fryer's  "  A  New  Ac- 
count of  E.  India  and  Persia,"  p.  150. 
The  altar  in  the  chief  chapel  is  an  ex- 
quisite work  of  art.    At  the  W.  end  is 
a  galleiy,  in  which  are  seats  for  the 
bishop  and  monks.  It  appears  to  have 
been  used  as  our  chapter-houses  were. 
The  scenes  from  the  life  of  8.  Francis 
d'Assisi,  mentioned  above,  are  visible 
from  this  at  the  E.  end,  but  are  much 
damaged.    This  has  been  a  gorgeous 
church,  but  is  now  terribly  decayed. 
Kemark  the  view  from  the  side  win- 
dows over  the  great  square.    Fonseca 
says,  "  in  one  of  the  corridors  are  hung 


the  portraits  of  all  the  archbishops." 
Of  these  but  few  are  left,  and  are  much 
decayed.  This  church  was  closed  in 
1835,  when  the  effects,  valued  at 
£13,350  14*.  Qd.,  were  confiscated.  In 
front  of  the  church  of  S.  Francis  runs 
a  steep  narrow  road  to  the  chapel  of 
S.  Catharine.  It  was  built  in  1510,  on 
the  site  of  the  gate  of  the  city  by  which 
the  Portuguese  entered  when  Albu- 
querque took  Goa.  It  was  here  that 
the  most  desperate  struggle  with  the 
Mu^ammadan  garrison  took  place,  and 
here  some  of  the  bravest  Portuguese 
soldiers  fell.  Over  the  door  is  the  fol- 
lowing : — 

Aqui  neste  Ingar  estava  2i  porta  porque 
entrou  o  Governador  Affonso  d' Albuquerque 
li  tomar  esta  cidade  a  os  Mouros  em  dia  de  S. 
Catharina  anno  1510,  em  cujo  honnor  e  me- 
moria  o  governador  Jorge  Cabral  mandon 
faser  esta  caza,  anno  1590,  It  custa  de  S.A. 

The  next  visit  may  be  to  Xavier's 
well.    At  J  m.  to  the  S.E.  of  the  Arch 
of  the  Viceroys  is  a  narrow  lane  run- 
ning to  the  E.,  after  proceeding  along 
which  for  a  short  distance,  turn  to  the 
left,  and  after  150  yds.  come  to  a  well. 
It  is  40  ft.  down  to  the  surface  of  the 
water,  over  which  is  an  arch  of  brick, 
covered  now  with  shrubs  and  creepers. 
Descending  34  steps  you  will  nearly 
reach  the  water,  and  will  see  that  there 
are  other  steps  below  the  water  which 
are  now  broken.  About  40  yds.  N.  of  this 
well  is  S.  Xavier's  chapel,  the  facade 
of  which  is  22  ft.  high.  The  building  is 
roofiess,  and  is  built  of  laterite,  wMch 
looks  very  coarse,  as  the  rains  have 
washed  away  the  plaster  which  once 
covered  it,  and  also  all  but  the  iron- 
stone itself.     There  are  3  chambers. 
The  first  is  38i  ft.  long  from  8.  to  N., 
and  has  3  arches  on  either  side  ;  the  2 
first  being  13  ft.  high,  and  the  3rd  12^ 
ft.    This  chamber  is  14  ft.  broad ;  the 
2nd  chamber  is  37  ft.  long  and  16  ft. 
broad,  and  has  2  windows  on  either 
side.    The  3rd  chamber  is  18  ft.  long, 
and  12^  ft  broad.    In  the  right  wcdl 
of  this  chamber  is  a  door,  now  blocked 
up  ;  to  the  E.  of  this  door,  at  the  dis- 
tance of  28^  ft.,  is  a  well,  in  which  8. 
Xavier  is  said  to  have  performed  his 
ablutions.    It  is  believed  that  there  is 
a  miraculous  double  reflection  of  the 


Sect.  11. 


Bouie  8. — Old  Goo. 


227 


light  in  the  water,  one  large  light  and 
one  small,  the  second  being  miracu- 
lous. The  traveller  may  easily  satisfy 
himself  that  there  is  no  miracle.  If, 
after  looking  at  the  doable  light,  he 
will  go  23  ft.  from  the  N.  end  of  the 
well  and  stop  up  a  crack  which  he  will 
find  there  in  the  brick  covering  of  the 
well — after  doing  this,  he  will  find 
that  the  second  light  in  the  water  has 
vanished.  Although  there  is  nothing 
remarkable  in  the  spot,  the  details  of 
the  building  have  been  minutely  given, 
as  next  to  S.  Xavier's  tomb  and  coffin, 
this  is  the  greatest  object  of  venera- 
tion and  pilgrimage  in  Goa.  The  pro- 
prietor of  the  ground  on  which  Xa- 
vier's  chapel  stands,  lives  in  Bombay. 
He  admits  that  there  are  a  great  many 
cobras  and  other  poisonous  snakes  at 
this  spot,  so  that  it  will  be  well  to  be 
careful. 

The   next  visit  should    be  to  the 
church  of  S.  John  of  God  and  the  con- 
vent of  S.  Monica,  which  are  to  the 
S.W.  of  the  church  of  Bom  Jesus.    To 
reach  these  places  you  must  turn  to 
the  right  before   you  arrive  at   the 
latter  church.    You  will  proceed  some 
100  yds.  from  the  tall  cross  you  will 
see  at  the  turning   along  a  narrow 
lane    overgrown  with    herbage    and 
sprinkled  here  and  there  with  great 
stones,  which  make  it  both  disagree- 
able and  dangerous  to  pass  along  in  a 
carriage.     The  first   building  is  the 
church  of  S.  John,  which  is  on  the  left 
hand.    It  is  a  roofless  ruin,  of  which 
the  doors  have  been  blocked  up,  as  it 
is  dangerous  to  enter.    The  wall  of  the 
enclosure  is  considerably  out  of  the 
perpendicular  and  might  fall  at  any 
moment,  in  which  case  persons  passing 
alongthe  lane  could  hardly  escape  being 
crushed.  Just  beyond  S.John's  Church 
on  the  right  are  the  vast  convent  and 
the  chui-ch  of  S.  Monica.     The  fa9ade 
of  the  church  is  supported  by  3  im- 
mense flying  buttresses.     At  a  few 
hundred  yds.  beyond  these  buildings, 
and  to  the  W.  of  them,  is  the  chui^h 
of  S.  Augustine,  of  which  the  fa9ade 
alone  is  standing,  and  is  about  80  ft. 
high.     On  its  S.W.  side  is  a  tower, 
but  the  corresponding  one  has  fallen. 
Still   more    to  the  W»  are  a  brick 


column  and  part  of  a  wall,  and  be- 
yond these  again  on  an  eminence  is 
the  chnrch  of  S.  Anthony.  Opposite 
this,  but  on  the  right  of  the  road,  is 
the  church  of  S.  Rosario,  commonly 
called  N.  8.  da  Rosario.  Ko  admis- 
sion is  granted  to  the  convent  of  S. 
Monica,  though  there  is  only  1  aged 
nun  left  there.  The  building  is  vast, 
but  according  to  all  accounts  there  is 
nothing  particularly  worth  seeing,  and 
at  all  events  it  is  quite  in  vain  to  sue 
for  leave  to  enter.  The  church,  how- 
ever, of  S.  Monica  can  be  seen,  but  a 
fee  is  expected.  The  stone  doors  in 
the  fa9ade  of  the  church  are  very 
handsome  ;  above  them  is  a  medallion 
with  the  head  of  Our  Saviour,  and  be- 
low is  the  head  of  a  griffin,  and  below 
this  again  the  royal  arms  of  Portugal, 
that  is,  6  castles  with  a  tablet  in  the 
centre  containing  5  smaller  tablets,  in 
each  of  which  are  6  things  that  look 
like  buttons  but  are  meant  for  coins. 
These  are  intended  to  represent  the  25 
pieces  of  silver  for  which  Our  Saviour 
was  sold.  Over  the  first  door  are  2 
inscriptions,  below  the  figure  of  a 
ship,  round  which  is  a  legend  of 
which  only  the  word  "Navio"  can 
now  be  read. 
The  Ist  inscription  is : — 

Jesu  Christo  Eterno  Deus 

Filho  do  Eterno  Padre,  lux 

£  Salvador  do  mimdo. 

Below  the  arms  is  inscribed  : — 

O  Catolico  Felippo  IIII.  Rel 

XX.  de  Portugal,  Monarcha 

da  Espanhas  agragou  a 

Sen  podrado  ester  en 

Signe  mosteiro  em 

XXVII.  de  Marco,  MDCXXXVI. 

The  2nd  inscription  is  : — 

Fundor  e  defensor  e  con- 

summor  esta  sua  Nova  Caza 

E  a  encher  de  gloria. 

This  church  is  115  ft.  long  from  E. 
to  W,  and  50  ft.  broad,  including  the 
wall  which  is  11  ft.  thick.  There  is  a 
latticed  gallery  at  the  W.  end  in- 
tended for  the  nuns.  There  are  also 
some  confessionals.  The  pulpit  is  in 
the  S.  wall,  and  is  very  rich  with 
carving  and  gilding.  Opposite  to  it 
is  an  altar,  but  the  main  altar  is  on 

Q2 


228 


HoiUe  8. — Bombay  to  Goa. 


Sect  II. 


the  E.  and  is  reached  bj  a  flight  of 
gteps.  On  either  side  of  the  lowest 
step  is  the  figure  of  an  angeL  On  the 
rit^ht  of  the  chancel  arch  is  a  picture 
of  a  procession  of  nuns  in  black  cloth- 
inc^,  strangely  contrasting  with  their 
white  faces.  On  the  right  of  the  altar, 
opposite  the  pulpit,  is  the  following  in- 
scription : — 

A  Sep.  a  questa  janta  deste 
epftafio  e  do  P.  Fr.  Diogo  de 

Sta  Anna  da  Ordem  dos 
Erem*  da  N.P.S.G.  e  o  sendo 

Prior  na  Persia  redu2io  a 

obediencia  da  Sta  Egreja  Bo- 

manae  David  Patriarca 

doe  Armeniofl  e  com  ille 

seiflbispos  Ereg. :  e  sacerdotes 

qne  todos  jurarfto  obcd"  a  ata 

Igr.  Bomana  exercen  todos 

OS  lugares  authorizados  na 

Cong,  athe  ser  della  Provin. 

Visitador  apostolico — Foy 

deput.  dos  off.  e  junz.  dos 

ordes  na  se^.  instan- 

cia  e  um  o  pnmeiro  Adm. 

deste  real  Convento  sea  re- 

ediflcador  e  foy  espiritual 

das  Pelig.  por  todo  o  tem^o  de 

sua  vida  pelo  que  nfto  aceitou 

a  mitra  de  Bispo  em 

Cochim.  Foy  natural  de 

Brag,  da  Caza  e  fami- 

lia  dos  Condes  de  Beva- 

vente,  dos  nobilissimos 

Morels,  Pimenteis,  Preiras 

de  quern  procedem  os 

Senhores  de  Barcellona 

illustre  por  obras  virtuosas 

*  *  ^^  e  escbrecido  por  esmolar 

e  Benefeitor  deste  real 

Convento  no  temjwral 

e  espiritual.  Ainstan- 

cia  dos  Madris  e  Beli- 

giozas  delle  foy  aqui 

sepultado  e  onde  flcfto 

sens  ossos  para  i)erpetua 

memoria.    Falleceo  sendo 

de  edade  de  setento  e  tres 

annos  em  uma  quinta 
fera  as  nove  lioras  de  noete 
aos  26  de  Octubro  de  1644. 

The  first  stone  of  the  Convent  of  S. 
Monica  was  laid  on  the  2nd  of  July, 
1706,  by  D.  Fr.  Aleixo  de  Menezes, 
Archbishop  of  Goa.  It  took  21  years 
to  finish  the  building,  which  cost 
200,000  crusados. 

Having  seen  the  most  remarkable 
buildings  in  Old  Goa,  the  traveller 
may  pay  a  visit  to  the  palace  of  the 
governor  at  Pat0im,  which  town, 
otherwise  Nova  Goa,  is  joined  to  Kai- 
bandar    by   a    causeway,   which    is 


9800  ft.  long.  The  present  governor, 
who  is  an  admiral  in  the  Portuguese 
Navy,  and  was  educated  in  England, 
has  been  governor  of  Angola,  and  has 
introduced  the  coffee  plant  from  that 
part  of  Africa,  in  the  belief  that  it  is 
superior  to  that  now  grown  in  India. 
He  has  made  aboulevard  in  front  of  the 
palace  towards  the  river,  and  planted 
it  with  flowers  and  shrubs,  which  is  a 
great  improvement  on  the  mud  bank 
over  which  the  palace  formerly  looked 
out.  There  is  a  fine  saloon  in  the 
palace,  hung  with  the  portraits  of 
former  viceroys  and  governors.  In 
the  principal  hall  is  a  portrait  of  the 
king.  There  is  also  in  the  building  a 
chapel,  with  an  image  of  Christ  which 
belonged  to  the  Liquisition.  The 
Viceroy  has  a  guard  of  12  soldiers, 
dressed  in  the  old  style  as  the  first 
viceroys  had  iJiem.  Opposite  the 
palace  is  the  Accountant  -  General's 
Office,  249  ft.  long  and  128  broad. 
Beyond  are  the  Jail,  Telegraph  Office, 
and  High  Court,  88  ft.  long  and  82 
broad.  To  the  8.  is  the  most  populous 
quarter.  S.W.  from  the  palace  is  N.S. 
da  Concei9&o,  situated  half  down  a 
hill  behind  the  town,  plain  but  beauti- 
fully situated.  There  is  a  cemeteiy 
with  pictures  from  convents.  The 
Municipal  Hall  is  72  ft.  x  105,  with 
portraits  of  Vasco  da  Gama  and  Albu- 
querque. In  one  room  is  a  portrait 
of  Bernardo  Peres  da  Silva,  the  only 
native  of  Gba  who  has  been  governor. 
To  the  E.  is  the  Archbishop's  Palace, 
and  W.  of  that  is  a  barrack  498  ft.  long 
and  54  broad,  which  cost  £13,000. 
Facing  the  barracks  is  a  statue  of  Al- 
buquerque, set  up  on  the  24th  October, 
1847,  with  this  inscription : — 

Nfto  vos  hade  falteu,  gente  amosa 

Honra  valor  e  fama  gloriosa. 

No  bona  e  feliz  govemo  do 

Hlmo  e  Bx««»  Sr.  D.  Manoel  de  Portugal  e 

Castro  V"**  da  India. 

Anno  de  1832. 

In  this  barrack  were  confined  the  Sd- 
wantwddl  rebels,  Phond  Sdwant  and 
his  8  stalwart  sons.  On  the  extreme 
W.  of  the  city  is  the  esplanade,  called 
since  1838  Campo  de  D.  Manoel. 
There  are  2  bridges,  that  of  Minerva 
and  tiiat  of  S.  Ignez.  This  town  being 


Sect.  II. 


Route  8. — Old  Goa, 


229 


nearer  the  sea  is  much  cooler  and  more 
healtiiy  than  either  Baibandar  or  Old 
Goa.  A  visit  may  also  be  paid  to 
Aguado  Point,  which  is  260  ft.  above 
the  sea.  The  passage  must,  of  course, 
be  made  in  a  boat.  There  is  a  circular 
tower  at  the  Point  .36 J  ft.  in  diameter 
and  42  ft.  high,  showing  a  light  revolv- 
ing in  7  minutes.  Here  is  the  largest 
clock  bell  in  Goa.  In  the  fort  is  a  cis- 
tern 115  ft.  in  diameter,  and  holding 
2,376,000  gallons.  There  are  4  barracks 
and  a  chapel  to  Our  Lady  of  Good 
Voyages.  In  1808  British  troops  held 
thef  ort.  The  place  has  its  name,  Aguado 
or  Agoado,  from  aguay  "water,'*  be- 
cause ships  were  supplied  here  with 
water  for  their  voyages.  Overa  fountain 
is  an  inscription  which  may  be  thus 
translated — "  In  the  reign  of  the  very 
Catholic  king  Dom  Felipo  III.  of  Por- 
tugal, the  Count  of  Vidigueira,  Dom 
Francisco  da  Gama,  the  viceroy,  ordered 
the  city  to  build  this  fountain  with 
money  received  from  ships  which 
watered  at?this  port.  It  was  done  in 
the  year  1624."  The  fort  has  79  guns 
and  some  soldiers  with  4  officers.  Close 
by  on  a  hill  is  the  Church  of  S.  Lau- 
rence, begun  1630  and  finished  1643. 
Within  is  an  inscription  of  which  the 
following  is  a  translation — "In  the 
reign  of  the  Catholic  King  of  Portu- 
gal, Dom  Philip  III.,  the  Viceroy,  D. 
Miguel  de  Noronha,  Count  of  Linhares, 
ordered  this  hermitage  of  S.  Laurence 
to  be  built  with  the  money  of  this 
Senate  in  the  year  1630."  S.  of  the 
port  is  the  Fort  Marmagao,  which  was 
also  built  in  the  reign  of  Dom  Phi- 
lip III.,  when  Dom  Francisco  da  Gama 
was  for  the  second  time  viceroy,  in  the 
year  1624.  This  fort  is  2  leagues  in 
circumference.  It  has  63  guns.  Fort 
Beis  Magos  is  2  m.  E.  by  N.  of  Agoada. 
It  was  built  in  1561,  and  has  33  guns. 
It  was  rebuilt  in  1707,  when  Caetano 
de  Mello  e  Castro  was  viceroy.  To 
the  E.  is  the  church,  with  the  tomb  of 
Don  Luis  da  Athai'de,  viceroy.  Fort 
Gaspar  Dios  faces  Beis  Magos,  and 
was  built  in  1598.  There  is  a  fine 
view  over  the  harbour  from  Fort  Beis 
Magos.  The  Alfondega,  or  Custom 
House,  at  Goa  is  108  ft.  long  and  72 
broad. 


Observe  in  Goa,  the  oyster-shells 
used  in  windows  instead  of  panes  of 
glass,  and  the  manchU  or  litter  very 
much  used  by  the  better  classes.  It 
consists  of  a  cloth  or  curtained  frame 
slung  on  a  bambii  and  carried  by  2 
men.  It  is  convenient  and  light,  but 
thereas  little  protection  from  the  sun. 

The  island  of  Goa  is  9  m.  long  and 
3  broad.  It  was  called  by  the  na- 
tives Tls  WAdi.  Panjim  is  5  m. 
from  the  harbour's  mouth,  and  Bai- 
bandar, joined  by  the  causeway,  is 
about  2  m.  further.  There  are  2J  f . 
of  water  in  the  harbour  at  low  water. 
The  territory  belonging  to  Goa  is  60  m. 
long  by  30  broad,  and  the  area  is  1060 
sq.  m.  It  is  bounded  on  the  N.  by  the 
Tirakol  or  Arandem  river,  which 
separates  it  from  S^wantwddi,  on  the 
E.  by  the  W.  GhAts,  on  the  W.  by  the 
sea,  and  on  the  S.  by  N.  Eanara.  It  is 
divided  into  the  old  and  new  conquests. 
There  are  three  provinces  in  the  old 
conquests,  viz.,  IlhSo,  which  has  48  sq. 
m.,  Salsette  with  102,  and  Badez  with 
72  sq,  m..  The  new  conquests  contain 
Pamem,  73  sq.  m. ;  Batagrama,  67  sq. 
m.  ;  Sdtari,  144  sq.m. ;  Ponda,  or  An- 
tr^y,  79  sq.  m.  :  Kanakona,  113,  and 
Embarbarcem,  186 ;  EAkoran,  5  sq.  m. ; 
Chandravadi,  37  sq.  m.  ;  Balli,  67  ; 
Astograr,  77 ;  Anjadiva,  1  sq.  m. ; 
Tirakol,  1.  In  the  Sahiyddri  range, 
which  bounds  Goa  to  the  E.,  the 
highest  peaks  are  Sonsagor,  3827  ft. 
high  ;  Kattanchimanti,  3633  ;  Vag- 
narim,  3600  ;  and  Morlemchogar,  3400. 
The  principal  streams  are  the  Tirakol, 
which  has  a  course  of  14  m.,  the 
Chapera,  which  runs  18  m.,  the  Mdn- 
davl  with  38J  m,,  and  the  Tuari  with 
39  m.  The  pop.  in  1851  was  363,788, 
there  being  then  3308  more  females 
than  males.  In  1879  the  pop.  had  in- 
creased to  392,234.  Goa  was  con- 
quered by  Alfonzo  de  Albuquerque  in 
1610.  He  found  village  communities 
existing.  The  village  council  consisted 
of  the  tax-collector,  the  clerk,  carpen- 
ter, barber,  shoemaker,  washerman, 
crier,  and  inahdr,  or  sweeper.  The 
revenue  is  now  £77,111  6*.  The  ex- 
penditure is  £26,436.  There  have  been 
famines  in  1653, 1670,  and  1682.  The 
late  treaty  with  the  Government  of 


230 


Boute  10. — SdwarUwddi  to  Belgdoh. 


Sect.  11. 


British  India  in  which  the  salt  trade 
has  been  settled  and  a  railway  from 
Hubli  to  Marmagao  sanctioned  cannot 
but  greatly  increase  the  prosperity  of 
Goa. 


ROUTE  9. 

GOA  TO  VINGOBLBJr. 

The  distance  between  these  2  places 
is  28  m.,  and  can  be  crossed  in  a 
steamer  or,  in  fine  weather,  in  a  native 
boat.  After  leaving  the  harbour  the 
first  place  seen  '^l  be  Tirakol,  a 
white  fort  crowning  a  hill  about  150  ft. 
high ;  after  that  Beri  Fort  will  be  seen. 

Vingorlen  is  not  a  harbour  but  a 
roadstead,  protected  only  on  the  N. 
The  T.  B.  is  3  m.  S.E.  of  the  landing- 
place.  There  is  a  small  pier  at  Vin- 
gorlen, with  2  cranes  for  landing  heavy 
cargo.  On  a  hill  overlooking  the  pier 
is  an  unfurnished  bangl4  belonging  to 
the  Custom  House.  A  shigram  with 
bullocks  for  the  traveller  himself,  and 
a  bullock  cart  for  his  luggage  to  go  to 
S^wantwddi,  can  be  obtained  for  3  rs. 
The  T.  B.  and  the  town  cannot  be  seen 
from  the  landing-place,  being  hidden 
by  palm  trees.  The  town  extends  in 
a  straggling  fashion  for  about  2  m. 
along  the  road  to  S&wantwddl.  There 
is  a  good  ToYim  Hall,  with  a  clock 
tower.  A  vast  amount  of  cotton  and 
timber  is  shipped  at  Vingorlen.  The 
pop,  of  Vingorlen  is  very  incorrectly 
given  by  Thornton  at  5000,  but  it  ap- 
l^ears  from  the  census  papers  of  1872, 
p.  176,  to  be  14,996.  VingorleA  was  a 
retreat  for  the  numerous  pirates  who 
infested  the  coast  until  1812,  when  it 
was  ceded  by  the  Chief  of  Sdwant- 
w4dl  to  the  East  India  Company.  It 
is  the  place  of  embarkation  for  troops 
and  officers,  both  civil  and  military, 
coming  from  Sdwantwddl  and  Bel- 
gdou. 


ROUTE    10. 

SlWAKTWADl  AJSJ}  BY    THE  AMBOLI 
ghIt  to  BELGAON. 

From  VingorleA  to  Sdwantw&di  is 
about  13  m.  along  a  very  fair  road, 
which  leads  through  a  tolerably 
wooded  country,  with  low  hills  and 
small  streams.  At  a  place  called  Kir- 
nil,  about  the  7th  m.,  it  is  usual  to 
change  horses,  and  the  road  then 
turns  off  a  little  to  the  N.  to  Sdwant- 
wAdl. 

Sdwantwddi, — ^This  place  belongs  to 
the  Sir  Desdi,  a  chief  of  good  family. 
The  name  of  the  present  Sir  Desdl  is 
Raghon^th  Sdwant  Bhonsle,  or  Bdba 
S^^ib,  who  is  18  years  of  age  and  has 
just  married  Tdi^  B&l,  daughter  of 
Jamn&  Bdi,  the  adopted  mother  of  the 
G&ekw&d,  He  is  a  bold  rider  and 
sportsman.  His  full  title  is  Sir  Desai 
Baj^  Bah&dur.  He  was  born  in  Sep- 
tember, 1862,  and  is  entitled  to  a 
salute  of  9  guns.  The  country  of 
which  he  is  cMef  has  an  area  of  900 
sq.  m.,  and,  according  to  the  census  of 
1872,  a  population  of  190,814,  chiefly 
Hindi!is.  The  revenue  is  a  little  under 
Rs.  300,000,  and  is  derived  chiefly  from 
land.  It  is  increasing.  The  chief 
traces  his  ancestry  back  to  Phond 
Sdwant,  the  father  of  Eem  Sdwant, 
who  reigned  from  A.D.  1627to  A.D.  1640. 
Very  little  is  known  of  the  early  his- 
tory of  the  family.  The  country  was 
conquered  by  the  Kings  of  Bijdpiir, 
but  one  of  the  chiefs,  named  Mdng 
S&want,  resisted  fiercely.  His  capital 
was  at  Hodaw4d&,  on  the  Tirakol 
river,  where  he  died.  His  residence 
there  is  much  resorted  to  as  a  shrine 
by  the  Bhonsle  faraUy  of  WAdl. 
About  1646  Lakam  S4want  made  a 
treaty  with  Shivaji,  but  soon  resumed 
his  allegiance  to  BijdpTlir.  After  several 
conflicts  Lakam  was  obliged  to  renew 
his  engagements  to  Shivaji,  and  thence- 
forth became  subject  to  the  Mardtbas. 
The  chiefs  of  S&wantwddi  were,  how- 
ever, attacked  by  the  Angrias  of 
Koldba,  who  were  at  first  admirals  of 
Shivujl's  fleet  and  afterwards  became 


Sect.  11. 


Houte  10. — Sdwantwddi — Wddi, 


231 


formidable  pirates.    At  last,  about  the 
middle  of  the  18th  century,  in  RAm- 
chandra  SAwant's  reign,  1737 — 1755, 
they  were  finally  overthrown  by  Jay- 
T&m  S4want  at  Lanja.    Kem  S&want 
reigned  from  1755  to  1803.    He  mar- 
ried the  daughter  of  Jayaji  Sindhia, 
and,  owing  to   this    great  marriage, 
obtained  from  the  Emperor  of   Dilll 
the  title  of  RAj6  BahAdur,  the  IlAj6  of 
which    probably    means    the    distin- 
guished Rdj^.    He,  like  the  A'ngrias, 
indulged  in  piracy,  which  brought  on 
a  conflict  with  the  British  Govern- 
ment, in  which  Kem  Sdwant  defended 
himself    successfully.      On  Kem   S4- 
want's  death  in  1803  a  struggle  took 
place  between  his  imcles,  Jayrdm  and 
Shrlrdm,  which  was  ended  by  Som 
Sdwant,  the  father  of  Jayrdm,  who, 
being  beleaguered  in  the  fort  of  Wddl, 
blew  up  the  palace  and  destroyed  his 
whole  family  except  one  son,  Phond 
iSdwant,  who  being  then  a  prisoner 
in  the  fort  at  Redl,  escaped.    Lak^hmi 
Bii,  widow    of    Kem  Sdwant,  then 
adopted  Kdmchandra,  or  Bbau  ^dl^ib, 
who  was  strangled,  and  the  army  of 
the  NipAni  chief  took  possession  of  the 
country,  but  he  was  expelled  by  Phond 
S4want,  the  chief  who  had  escaped 
when  the  palace  was  destroyed.  Phond 
Sdwant    made    a    treaty    with    the 
British,  and  ceded  Vingorleii  to  them. 
He  died  in    1812,  and   DurgA    Bdl, 
second  widow  of  Kem  Sdwant,  became 
regent.     She  died  in  1819,  when  such 
disorders  arose  that  the  British  again 
interfered.     A  treaty  was  concluded 
lietween  them  and  the  W4di  State  on 
the  17th  February,  1819,  by  which 
the    latter  ceded  all  their  seaboard, 
including  the  forts  of  Redl  and  Niwli. 
In  1822  the  British  placed  Kem  Si- 
want,  the  son  of  Phond  Sdwant,  on 
the  throne,   but    in  1838  they  were 
obliged    to  take    the   administration 
into  their  own   hands.      In  1844    a 
rebellion  broke  out  in  the  neighbour- 
ing state  of  Kolh&pi!ir,  and  in  January, 
1845,  extended  ^1  over  Sdwantwddi. 
Phond  Sdwant,  a  man  of    some  in- 
fluence, with  his  8  sons,  joined    the 
rebels,  and  Annd  $d^ib,  the  eldest  son 
of  the  late  Sir  Dcsdi  Kem  Sdwant, 
liaving  joined  them  qn  the  I6th  pf 


November,  1834,  several  engagements 
with  the  British  took  place.    Ensign 
Faure,  of   the   2nd  European   regt., 
who  was  coming  from  BelgdoA  to  Vin- 
gorlen  with  a  cavalry  escort,  was  mor- 
tally  wounded   and   died  the    same 
evening.    On  the  16th  of  Jan.,  1846, 
Colonel  Outram  moved   against   the 
rebels  with  a  strong  force.    On  the 
27th  General  de  la  Motte  took  posses- 
sion  of   the  forts  of    Manohar  and 
Mansanto^,  which  had  been  evacu- 
ated by  the  enemy  during  the  night, 
on  which  the  rebels  escaped  into  the 
Goa  territory.    At  last  a  convention 
was  arranged  with  the  Government  of 
Gkta,  the    refugees  were  allowed   to 
return,  and  Annd  ^a^ib  came  back  to 
Wddi    on    August   2l8t,    1849.     The 
British   force   employed   during   the 
rebellion  consisted  of  the  left  wing  of 
the  2nd  Queen's,  or  Royals,  a  company 
of    H.M.'s  17th  Foot,  the   7th  regt. 
Bom.  N.I.,  and  the  3rd  Madras  N.I., 
and  detachments  of  7  other  regts.,  and 
these  troops  were  much  harassed  in 
hunting  the  insurgents   through   the 
dense  and  dangerous  jungles  of   the 
country.    The  people  of  Wddl  are  a 
fine,  athletic,  and  martial  race,  and 
for  a  long  time  supplied  many  good 
soldiers  to  the  Bombay  army.    The 
present  Sir  Desdi  is  the  son  of  that 
Annd  $dl>ib  who  played  such  a  con- 
spicuous part  in  the  rebellion,  and, 
being  a  minor,  the  State  is  still  go- 
verned by  the  English,  under  whose 
rule  the  people  have  settled  down  into 
quiet  and  orderly  habits.    A  well  dis- 
ciplined local  corps  has  been  estab- 
lished, new  roads  have  been  made,  and 
the  chief  having  been  educated  at  tho 
Rdjkumdr  College,  shows  every  dispo- 
sition to  govern  his  country  in  accord- 
ance with  British  views. 

Wddi. — At  this  town  there  are  some 
peculiar  manufactures :  stuffs  em- 
broidered with  gold  and  silver  are 
well  made  here,  also  bison  horns, 
polished  and  mounted  with  silver,  and 
native  packs  of  playing  cards  divided 
into  suits  named  after  the  10  incar- 
nations of  Vishnu.  Each  suit  has 
a  king,  vazir,  and  10  plain  cards, 
in  all  120 ;  they  are  dealt  to  4 
players,  4  at  £^  time,  an4  tlie  hig^hcs^ 


232 


JioiUe  10. — Sdwanttoddi  to  Belgdon. 


Sect.  11. 


wins.  Also  boxes  ornamented  with 
the  wings  of  the  diamond  beetle,  &c., 
are  well  made  here.  The  Moti  taldo, 
or  "pearl  tank,"  which  borders  the 
town,  covers  37  acres,  and  is  fall 
of  fi^,  but  has  no  alligators.  Every 
year  the  water  is  let  off  and  the 
mud   cleared    out,  but  the   fi^   are 

Preserved  in   a   deep  pit.      E.    and 
f  J!,  of  the  tank  is  the  old  wdd^,  or 
palace,  where  are  the  public  offices, 
which  are  to  be  rebuilt  with  a  hand- 
some facade  and  clock  tower.     The 
walls  of  the  fort  have  been  cleared 
away,  but  there  is  a  bastion  to  the  N. 
of  the  tank,  where  the  post-office  is  to 
be  placed.    The  b^zir  is  long,  but  has 
notning   remarkable.    About  70  yds. 
to  the  W.  and  by  N.W.  of  the  tank  are 
the  lines  of  the  local  corps.    There  is 
a    handsome    gateway    to    the    N.E. 
North  of  the  tank  there  is  a  Boman 
Catholic   chapel,  which  is  well  sup- 
ported, as  there  are  5000  Roman  Ca- 
tholics in  the  vicinity.  The  Library  is 
close  to  the  tank,  and  there  is  a  fine 
view  over  it.    There  are  1500  volumes 
and  a  good  reading-room.    There  is  a 
small   People's  Park,  the  railings  of 
which  are  made  of  the  muskets  taken 
from  the  people  when  the  country  was 
disarmed.    This  is  good  head-quarters 
for    sportsmen,    as    the    road,    after 
leaving  the  N.  side  of  the  lake,  lies 
through  a  jungle,  which  is  in  many 
places  dense.   Tigers  wander  from  hill 
to  hill  in  these  woods,  and  panthers 
are  always  there.    The  bears  are  large 
and    fierce,  but  keep   to  the  Ghdts, 
where   they  sometimes   kill   solitary 
travellers. 

The  stages  to  the  Amboli  Gh&t  are 
as  follows : — 


From 

To 

MUes. 

W4dl       . 

.    Danoli 

.    9 

Danoli 

.    Amboli  . 

.    .  lOJ 

Between  Wddl  and  Danoli,  3 
streams  are  crossed  by  neat  and  quite 
level  bridges,  which  have  inscriptions 
on  them,  with  the  date  of  construction. 
The  streams  are — 1,  the  Burdl ;  2,  the 
Pugd ;  3,  the  Warkond.  In  the  largest 
of  these  there  are  alligators.  The  T.B. 
at  Danoli  stands  on  a  slight  eminence 
to  the  left  of  the  road  as  you  go  to 


Amboli.    It  has  one  very  good  room 
with  2  beds,  one  of  which  has  mus- 
quito-curtains.      Another   room,    not 
quite  so  good,  has  only  1  bed  without 
curtains.    In  the  best  room  there  are 
4  tables,  shelves,  pegs,  and  a  framed 
list  of    furniture,  with  the  rates  at 
which  compensation  will  be  demanded 
for  breakages.    There  are  a  dressing- 
room  and  bath-room.     The  man  in 
charge  of  the  banglA  will  supply  a 
good  curry  for  12  dnAs.    The  windows 
have  Venetians  and  the  doors  chiks,  so 
there  are  no  flies.    You  pay  1  r.  for  24 
hrs.  and  8  kn&s  for  less  time.    The 
road  ascends  the    whole   way   from 
Danoli,  and  is  so  steep  in  some  places 
that  the  horses  can  only  walk.    The 
hills   are    thickly  wooded,  and    the 
scenery  resembles  that  of  MahAbalesh- 
war,  though  it  is  far  less  picturesque, 
the  hills  being  not  nearly  so    high. 
The  road  is  generally  thronged  with 
carts,  which  impede  progress.    About 
half  way  is  the  hamlet  of  NhAne  Ka 
Pdnl.    The  police  here  say  that  they 
often  hear  the  roaring  of  wild  beasts 
at  night,  and  that  the  panthers  come 
down  after  the  bullocks  and  frighten 
the  cart-men.    Higher  up  there  are 
tigers  and  bears.    The  53rd  milestone 
from    Belgdon    is    passed    near   the 
T.   B.  at    Danoli,  and  the  T.   B.   at 
Amboli  is  reached  just  at   the  43rd 
milestone.    The  bangli  stands  a  little 
off  the  road  to  the  left  as  you  go  to 
Belg^ofi,  and  has  a  clean  bed  with 
musquito  curtains  and  plenty  of  tables 
and  chairs.    Usually  at  this  GhAt  a 
strong  wind  sets  in  at  sunset,  and  rises 
almost  to  a  tempest.    Observe  to  the 
right  of  the  bangU  the  hill  of  Mahd- 
deogajrh,  which  was  one  of  the  strong- 
holds of  the  rebels  in  1844.    There  is 
now  not  a  vestige  of  a  fort  upon  it. 
7  m.  to  the  N.  of    Mahddeogaj-h  is 
Manohargafh,  which  is    a   hill    fort 
2600  ft.  above  the  sea.    The  fort  is 
440  yds.  from  B.  to  W.  and  350  from 
N.  to  S.  where  broadest.    To  the  W. 
of  it  is  the  much  smaller  fort  of  Man- 
santo^h,  or  "  mind  at  peace,"  on  part 
of   the   same  ridge  separated  by    a 
chasm.    Manohar  has  2  strong  gates 
to  a  single    entrance,  which  is  ap- 
proached by  a  flight  of  steps  hewn  in 


Sect.  II. 


BotUe  10. — Belgdoh, 


233 


the  solid  rock.  These  forts  in  skilfal 
hands  would  be  almost  im^gnable. 
Until  1845  they  belonged  to  Kolhdpiir, 
but  after  the  rebellion  of  that  year 
were  annexed  to  S4wantw4dl.  The 
Gh^ts  all  along  between  these  forts 
from  Amboli,  swarm  with  wild  beasts, 
but  the  jungle  is  so  dense  that  it  is 
almost  impossible  to  drive  them  from 
their  lairs.  The  Sir  Desii  has  a 
bangld  at  Amboli,  and  so  has  the  Poli- 
tical Superintendent.  The  man  in 
charge  of  the  Sir  Des4i*s  bangld 
haying  gone  out  early  one  morning, 
found  a  veiy  large  tiger  sitting  close 
to  the  door,  which  made  off  without 
attempting  to  hurt  him.  On  leaving 
the  T.  ^,  at  Amboli  there  is  rather  a 
steep  descent,  and  the  road  then 
turns  to  the  right,  and  after  150  yds. 
passes  on  the  left  a  white  tomb  with  a 
tablet,  on  which  is  inscribed,  ^'  Sacred 
to  the  memory  of  Ensign  Wilmott, 
14th  Regt.  Bombay  N.  I.,  who  fell  at 
the  taking  of  the  Fort  of  Mah4deogairh 
by  escalade  on  the  15th  of  September, 
1832."  Beyond  this  tomb  is  a  village, 
which  is  rapidly  increasing.  A  road 
here  turns  off  to  the  right,  which  leads 
to  the  Bdm  Ghdt,  and  the  old  road  to 
Vingorlen,  which  is  disused  on  account 
of  the  great  Steepness  of  the  Ghdt. 
There  is,  however,  a  banglA  here  much 
used  by  shooting  parties.  The  next 
stage  to  Amboli  is  Kanilr,  10  m.  dis- 
tant. There  is  a  very  tolerable  T.  B., 
and  the  road  is  excellent,  as  it  is  be- 
tween E4ni^r  and  the  next  stage, 
Tandulw^di,  which  is  14  m.  distant. 
There  is  much  rice  cultivation  along 
the  road,  whence  Tandulwidl  gets 
its  name.  The  T.  B.  here  is  a  little 
way  off  the  road  to  the  right, 
and  has  some  fine  trees  near  it.  At 
^  m.  beyond  it  is  a  toll  of  4  dni^. 
Wdsl,  the  next  stage,  is  about  9  m., 
and  Belg&on,  which  comes  next,  is 
9  more.  The  T.  B.  at  Belgjioii  is 
close  to  the  fort,  the  arrangements  are 
bad. 

Belgaon  is  the  capital  of  a  collec- 
torate,  which  has  a  pop.  of  483,928, 
the  town  of  Belg^ii  itself  having 
26,947.  A  very  large  garrison  has  been 
usually  kept  in  the  cantonment,  but 
is  now  greatly  reduced,    According  to 


Mr.  Stokes,  Madras  C.  S.,*  the  original 
name  of  Belgdoii  was  Venu-grAma= 
Bambii  village;  the  Sanskrit  Yenu 
having  become  Vel.  Copies  of  the 
Veda  at  Belgion  are  superscribed 
Venu-grama.  The  town  by  the  natives 
is  called  ShAhpilir  Belgdou,  from  the 
neighbouring  jAgir  of  Shdhpiir,  which 
lies  to  the  S.  It  is  situated  in  a  plain 
about  2600  ft.  above  the  sea,  with  low 
hills  in  the  distance.  The  fort  being 
at  the  E.  extremity,  the  town  lies  in 
the  centre,  and  the  cantonment  to 
theW. 

Tlie  Ihrt  is  strong  against  natives, 
built  of  stone,  with  earthen  ramparts. 
It  is  of  an  oval  shape,  1000  yds.  in 
length  by  800  in  breadth,  with  a  broad 
and  deep  wet  ditch  cut  in  very  hard 
ground  ;  the  wall  is  30  ft.  high.  To 
the  N.  is  a  large  tank,  and  to  the  S. 
rice  fields.  The  entrance  is  to  the  N. W. 
Within  the  fort  is  an  arsenal,  a  bar- 
rack for  European  soldiers,  and  some 
bangl&s  of  civilians  and  others.  This 
fort  was  taken  by  Brig. -General  after- 
wards Sir  T.  Munro,  on  the  10th  of 
April,  1818,  having  been  besieged  from 
the  20th  of  March.  The  English  bat- 
teries were  erected  on  the  N.W.  of  the 
fort,  and  between  the  tank  and  the  na^ 
tive  town.  The  enemy  had  1600  men 
and  36  guns,  besides  60  small  brass 
guns  and  wall  pieces.  They  lost  20 
killed  and  60  wounded,  and  the  Eng- 
lish 11  killed  and  12  wounded.  On  the 
right  of  the  gateway  is  a  Persian  in- 
scription, a  lithograph  copy  of  which 
is  given  by  Mr.  Burgess  in  his  Re- 
port of  the  first  season's  operations 
in  Belgdon,  of  which  this  is  the  trans- 
lation : — 

The  glorious  God  I 
Under  the  Government  of  Kh&n  Muhammad, 

of  fortunate  issue, 

The  wall  of  the  Fort  was  entirely  restored, 

On  this  day  Pir  Mu^aminad,  sou  of  Zi\A\ 

Kh4n, 

Superintended  this  excellent  work. 

This  said  the  sage,  is  the  date  of  the  structure. 

The  wall  became  strong  and  solid  exceedingly. 

The  last  line  is  the  chronogram,  and 
gives  the  date  1648.  The  slab  is  built 
into  the  front  wall  of  the  library, 
which    was   formerly  the    Kil'addr's 

*  Records   of  Bombay  Government,  New 
Series,  No,  116,  p.  18, 


234 


EoiUe  10. — SawarUwddi  to  Belgdm, 


Sect.  IL 


house.*  On  the  left  of  the  gateway, 
in  a  recess  in  the  parapet,  is  another 
Persian  inscription,  which  maybe  thus 
translated : 

Y'akiib  'Ali  KhAn,  the  gladdener  of  hearts, 
Whose   mercy   makes   the  house  of  life  to 

abound, 
Strengthened  the  foundations  of  the  ramparts 

of  the  Fort, 
And  made  its  base,  strong  as  the  wall  of 

Alexander, 
The  sage  said,  the  date  of  its  restoration 
Is,  the  wall  became  stronger  than  the  spirit 

of  the  desperate. 

This  chronogram  gives  A.H.  937  = 
A.D.  1530.  In  the  passage,  through  the 
gateway  which  curves  to  a  second  gate, 
is  a  row  of  arches  with  some  neat 
carving.  At  120  yds,  distance  you 
come  straight  to  the  ruined  Naubat 
Khdnah  or  music  gallery.  Before  reach- 
ing this,  is  the  Executive  Engineer's 
Office  on  the  right,  and  the  CoUector's 
house  is  just  beyond  the  Naubat 
KtiAnah,  also  on  the  right.  On  the  left 
is  the  fort  church,  St.  Thomas.  It  is 
112  ft.  7  long.  There  are  7  tablets  ; 
the  first  has  this  inscription  : — 

This  Tablet  was  erected 

by  Government 

in  recognition  of  the  able 

and  devoted]  public  services  of 

CHARLES     JAMES     MANSON, 

of  the  Bombay  Civil  Service, 

Who,  when  Acting  Political  Agent, 

Southern  Maratha  country, 

was  barbarously  murdered 

by  a  Band  of  Rebels 

in  the  night  of  the  29th  May,  1858, 

at  the  village  of  Suraban. 

The  Apse  and  Memorial  Window  at  the  E.  end 

of  the  Church  were  erected  by  his  Friends 
In  affectionate  remembrance  of  his   public 

worth. 

Another  tablet  is  to  Lieut.  "W.  P. 
Shakespeare,  and  A.  P.  Campbell,  and 
Ensign  W.  Caldwell,  who  all  fell  in 
the  insurrection  of  Kolhipilr  and  Sd- 
wantwddl.  Beyond  the  Naubat  Khdnah 
to  the  E.  is  a  neat  but  plain  mosque, 
with  no  inscription,  and  with  one 
large  tomb  and  3  smaller  ones  inside. 
A  little  further  to  the  S.  is  a  plain 
temple,  built  of  laterite.  It  is  oblong, 
and  is  55  ft.  from  N.  to  S.,  and  42  ft. 
from  E.  to  W.  There  is  a  low  wall  at  the 


entrance, 


along 


which    are    carved 


*  So  stated  in  Mr.  Burgess'  Report;  but, 
according  to  infonnation  received  ou  the  sj^ot, 
that  hou»<;  has  perished, 


figures  of  musicians.  Then  comes  the 
real  facade,  with  4  pillars  and  2  pilas- 
ters, 2  of  the  pillars  being  on  either 
side  of  the  entrance ;  all  of  them  are 
of  very  complicated  character.  There 
was  an  inscription  in  this  temple,  as  in 
one  of  the  otner  2,  in  the  old  Kanada 
language,  beautifully  cut  on  a  slab  of 
black  porphyry,  which  is  now  broken 
across.  It  is  now  in  the  Museum  of 
the  Bombay  Asiatic  Society.  It  states 
that  Malik^rjuna,  whose  descent  for  3 
generations  is  given,  built  the  temple  to 
Sh4ntin4th,  the  16th  Tirthankar.  The 
date  is  Shaka  1127=A.D.  1206.  Mr. 
Burgess,  p.  2,  gives  part  of  the  inscrip- 
tion, and  thinks  it  may  belong  to  the 
Ratta  dynasty  ;  he  also  gives  a  photo- 
graph of  the  temple  and  a  plan.  After 
the  facade  comes  a  passage  6  ft.  10  In. 
broad,  then  a  wall  with  6  pilasters, 
from  the  capitals  of  which  hang  down 
representations  of  cobras.  The  inner 
chamber  is  quite  plain,  and  is  about 
.32  ft.  sq.  Tents  are  now  kept  in  it, 
and  the  door  is  locked. 

The  second  Jain  Temple  is  within  the 
Commissariat  Store  Yard,  and  is  very 
much  handsomer  than  that  outside. 
The  roof  is  a  most  complicated  piece 
of  carving,  with  eaves  about  2  ft. 
broad,  which  seem  to  rest  on  the  bar- 
like  projections  from  the  pillars.  The 
roof  outside  rises  in  tiers,  but  the  in- 
side is  circular.  The  principal  entrance 
faces  the  N.W.,  and  has  one  elephant 
remaining  at  the  side,  much  mutilated. 
To  the  top  of  the  domed  roof  inside  is 
16|  ft.  There  is  a  quadruple  pendant 
in  the  centre.  At  the  lowest  circle 
there  are  figures  of  Jain  deities,  then 
5  rows  of  niches  with  small  figures, 
but  the  lowest  row  is  empty.  The 
niches  are  shell-shaped.  There  are  4 
portals,  7  ft.  sq.  each,  and  each  with  4 
black  basalt  pillars,  7  ft.  8  in.  high,  3 
ft.  of  which  is  the  base  forming  part 
of  the  stylobate,  which  is  also  3  ft. 
high.  These  pillars  are  4  ft.  6  in.  round. 
This  leads  to  an  inner  chamber,  the 
roof  of  which  is  open  in  the  centre, 
and  supported  by  4  pillars,  between 
which  and  the  wall  is  a  passage  4  ft.  6 
in.  broad.  The  breadth  of  the  pillars  is 
2  ft.  3  in.  The  wall  is  ornamented  with 
8  pilasters  £ind  4  denii-pil^sters.    The 


Sect.  II. 


HoiUe  10. — Belgdon. 


235 


height  of  the  inner  chamber  to  the 
opening  in  the  roof  is  12  ft.  9  in.,  and 
that  of  the  pillars  8  ft.  5  in.  This  cham- 
ber leads  to  a  2nd  inner  chamber  8  ft. 
8  in.  from  E.  to  W.,  and  8  ft.  from  N. 
to  S.  This  leads  to  a  3rd  inner  cham- 
ber, which  is  very  dark ;  it  is  8  ft.  5  in. 
from  E.  to  W.,  and  7  ft.  1  in.  from  N. 
to  S.  The  image  was  here,  but  there 
is  now  merely  a  place  for  it,  with  an 
elephant  and  lion  in  relief.  Mr.  Bur- 
gess says,  "  The  pillars  of  the  temple 
are  square  and  massive,  but  relieved 
by  having  all  the  principal  facets,  the 
triangles  on  the  base  and  neck  carved 
with  floral  ornamentations.  In  the 
front  wall  of  this  chamber,  which  is 
3  ft.  7  in.  thick,  are  2  small  recesses, 
closed  by  sliding  stones  1  ft.  9  in.  high. 
The  door  leading  from  the  Mandap  to 
the  temple  has  been  carved  with  un- 
common care.  On  the  centre  of  the 
lintel  is  a  Tlrthankar,  and  above  the 
cornice  are  4  squat  human  figures.  On 
tlie  neat  colonettes  of  the  jambs  are  5 
bands  with  human  groups,  in  some  of 
which  the  figures  are  little  more  than 
an  inch  high,  yet  in  high  relief  ;  in- 
side this  is  a  band  of  rampant  SinlutSj 
with  a  sort  of  high  frill  round  the  neck 
of  each.  Outside  the  colonettes  is  a 
band  of  chahvas  or  sacred  geese,  an- 
other of  Sitihag,  and  then  one  of  hu- 
man figures,  mostly  on  bended  knees." 
To  the  N.W.  of  this  temple  is  the  Jdm'i 
Masjid.  The  faQade  measures  81  ft.  5 
in.  in  length,  and  the  mosque  is  58  ft.  7 
in.  deep.  In  the  S.  wall  is  a  well  with 
water  at  the  depth  of  16  ft.  This 
mosque  is  called  the  Masjid  i  Safd. 
Over  the  entrance  is  a  Persian  inscrip- 
tion, very  difficult  to  read  ;  it  may  be 
translated  as  follows  : — 

By  the  auspices  of  the  Lord  of  happy  con- 

jonctures, 
Whose  Court  is  exalted,  whose  throne  is  like 

heaven,  and  whose  place  is  that  of  Jibrail, 
Was  built  this  Mosque,  whose   door  is  the 

point  to  which  the  Faithful  turn  in  prayer. 
It  became  the  Defence  and  Refuge  to  Isldin, 
And  on  a  happy  day^  by  the  auspices  of  As'ad 

(Most  Happy)  EhaUt 
The  foundation  was  laid  and  the  work  brought 

to  completion. 
The  princes  and  nobles  of  the  Dakhau,  from 

their  good  fortune. 
Mom  and  eve,  offer  their  salutations  in  His 

Court, 
In  the  year  a.h.  924. 


There  is  a  round  seat,  very  solid  and 
heavy,  and  about  4  ft.  high,  in  front  of 
the  mosque,  on  which  As'ad  Kh4n  is 
said  to  have  often  sprung  when  dressed 
in  full  armour.  This  As'ad  Khdn  Suri, 
otherwise  called  Khurram  Turk,  was  a 
gigantic  warrior,  who  held  Belgdou 
against  all  assail|ints  for  a  numl^r  of 
years  in  the  beginning  of  the  16th  cen- 
tury. Belgdon  was  taken  by  Khwa- 
jah  Ma^mM  Gaw&n,  the  general  of 
Muhammad  Sh^,  in  1472.  The  dis- 
trict jail  at  Belgdon  has  only  about 
130  prisoners  with  short  sentences. 
The  others  are  sent  to  Gokdk.  There 
is  no  place  for  women  in  the  hospital 
of  this  jail,  and  neither  females  nor 
boys  are  taught  anything.  The  prison- 
ers are  not  employed  in  manufactures, 
nor  in  anything  but  breaking  stones  and 
gardening.  There  are  no  cells  for  so- 
litary confinement  except  those  for 
condemned  criminals.  There  are  2 
cemeteries,  the  new  one,  which  is  well 
kept  and  planted  with  flowers,  being 
IJ  m.  W.  of  the  fort.  The  old  ceme- 
t«y  is  at  the  N.  end  of  the  bdzAr.  It 
is  shaded  with  many  trees,  and  sur- 
rounded by  a  high  wall.  It  was  closed 
in  January,  1874.  Lieut.  Pawlet 
Shakespeare,  who  was  mortally 
wounded  at  Samangarh  on  the  29th  of 
Sept.  1844,  is  buried  here,  as  is  Lieut. 
E.  M.  Irvine,  of  the  Madras  Artillery, 
killed  at  the  same  place.  St.  Mary's 
Church  at  Belgdon  is  dedicated  to  St. 
Mary  the  Virgin.  It  stands  in  the 
cantonment  N.W.  of  the  town,  is  130 
ft.  long  from  B.  to  W.,  40  ft.  wide 
from  N.  to  S.,  and  60  ft.  high.  It  was 
consecrated  in  1869.  There  is  a  hand- 
some Memorial  Cross  in  the  compound 
to  23  sergeants  of  H.M.'s  64th,  who 
died  during  the  Persian  and  Indian 
campaigns,  1856  to  1858.  After  seeing 
this  church,  the  tomb  of  As'ad  Khdn 
may  be  visited.  It  is  at  the  N.  end  of 
the  Sadar  bdzdr,  100  yds.  to  the  S.  of 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  It  is  a 
plain  square  building  of  stone,  with  a 
dome.  There  is  no  inscription.  A 
number  of  ostrich  eggs  are  suspended 
in  the  inner  room  where  the  actual 
tomb  is.  This  place  had  a  revenue  of 
6000  rs.,  which  has  all  been  seized  by 
Government.    The  Race  Course  lies  to 


236 


Eottte  10. — Sdwantwddi  to  Belgdoh, 


Sect.  II. 


the  N.W.  of  this  building,  and  it  is  a 
pleasant  drive  to  it.  The  town  has 
nothing  remarkable  about  it.  It  was 
greatly  improved  in  1848  by  a  sub- 
scription of  the  inhabitants.  Govern- 
ment, in  acknowledgment  of  their  li- 
berality, made  an  annual  grant  of  £600 
for  the  same  purpose  At  Sutgati,  14 
m.  from  Belg^n,  and  the  first  stage 
on  the  road  to  Fund,  there  are  2  In- 
dian fig-trees  of  very  great  size.  The 
first  is  near  the  T.  B. ;  the  stem  forms 
a  wall  of  timber  extending  40  ft.  The 
tree  rises  to  a  great  height,  and  the 
branches  spread  out  100  ft.  round  the 
trunk.  The  other  tree  is  about  1  m. 
from  the  banglA,  and  though  not  re- 
markable for  height,  covers  a  larger 
surface  of  ground.  Belgdon  is  usually 
considered  a  very  healthy  place.  There 
is  good  shooting  within  12  m.,  and  al- 
together it  is  a  very  popular  station. 

sights  in  the  vicinity  op 
belgAo^. 

Xddarojiy  anciently  called  E^dara- 
valli,  a  village  on  the  river  Malparba, 
is  3  m.  from  Mugut  Ehdn  Hubll, 
which  is  the  2nd  stage  on  the  Dhdr- 
w4d  road  from  Belgdon.  There  is 
a  temple  to  Shankar  Deva,  of  black 
stone,  in  the  bed  of  the  river,  and  in- 
accessible during  floods.  The  distance 
as  the  crow  flies  from  the  fort  of  Bel- 
gdon  is  about  18  m.  The  central 
shrine  is  8  ft.  3^  in.  sq.,  and  each  of 
the  2  side  ones  5  ft.  64  in.  The  pillars 
of  the  Mandap  and  portico  to  the  cen- 
tral temple  remain  ;  but  the  roofs  and 
the  capitals  of  all  the  columns  have 
been  carried  off  by  the  river.  A  stone 
tablet  3J  ft.  high,  and  1  ft.  8  broad, 
was  removed  by  Mr.  Fleet,  C.S.,  from 
the  front  of  the  temple  to  the  village 
of  |K4daroli,  where  it  now  is.  It  is 
written  in  old  Kanarese,  and  mentions 
a  gift  of  5  golden  Gady&nas  to  this 
temple  by  Dandandyaka  in  the  year 
of  the  Shaka  era  997= A.D.  1076.  This 
Dandan^yaka,  whose  proper  name 
seems  to  have  been  KeshavAdityadeva, 
was  the  general  of  the  Kalydni  sove- 
reign Someshvara  Deva  II.,  known  as 
Bhuvanaikanakadeva.  As  this  temple 
is  interesting  from  its  antiquity  and 
its  singular  position  in  the  bed  of  the 


river,  the  traveller  may  like  to  visit 
it,  particularly  as  it  is  the  first  march 
in  a  tour  of  some  interest.  The  temple 
is  57  ft.  long  from  E.  to  W.,  and  25  ft. 
broad  from  N.  to  S. 

Sdmpgdon.  —  From  Eidaroli  to 
S4mpgdoii  is  7|  m.  N.  by  £.  At  Sdmp- 
g&on  is  a  mosque,  38  ft.  from  E.  to  W., 
and  about  the  same  from  N.  to  S.  It 
is  a  well  proportioned  and  pleasing 
structure.  Over  the  Mihrdb  is  a  hand- 
some Tughri  inscription,  containing 
parts  of  the  6th,  12th,  and  61st  SiiraJis 
of  the  Kur'&n.  About  7  m.  E.  of  Sdmp- 
gdo&  is  the  village  of  Bail-Hangal, 
where  is  a  temple  which  dates  from 
about  A.D.  1200.  This  temple  is  about 
64  ft.  long,  and  33  ft.  broad.  There  is 
an  inscription  on  a  large  stone  slab  in 
front  of  it,  and  also  on  another  in  a 
ditch  close  by.  These  ought  to  be 
translated. 

Saundati. — About  18  m.  to  the  E. 
of  Bail-Hangal  is  the  town  of  Saun- 
dati. There  is  a  temple  here  to  Bha- 
vdnl  It  is  in  the  fort,  and  was  buUt 
by  the  Desdi  of  Nargund.  In  the 
Kacheri  are  2  inscriptions  in  E^anarese 
and  Sanskrit.  The  first  refers  to  Mal- 
likdrjuna  and  Lak^hmi  -  Deva,  who 
lived  in  Venu-grama  or  Belgaou.  The 
date  is  Shaka  1151  =A,D.  1229.  The 
inscriptions  probably  refer  to  the  Ratta 
dynasty.  A  critical  version  of  both  is 
much  required.  About  1  m.  due  S.  of 
Saundati  is  the  celebrated  temple  of 
Yellamd  at  Pdrasgad.  It  is  built  in 
the  bed  of  the  Sarasvati,  a  small  stream 
which  runs  E.  from  the  hills  above 
Saundati.  The  temple  is  said  to  be 
2000  years  old,  but  was  rebuilt  in  the 
beginning  of  the  13th  century,  and 
again,  except  perhaps  the  shrine,  with- 
in the  last  200  years.  It  stands  in  the 
middle  of  a  court,  surrounded  by  ar- 
cades with  pointed  arches.  In  the  W. 
gate  are  some  pillars  like  those  of  the 
Jain  temples  at  Belgdon,  and  on  the 
base  of  one  is  an  inscription  covered 
with  whitewash.  To  this  temple  mar- 
ried people  desirous  of  offspring  re- 
pair ;  if  their  wish  be  granted,  the 
children  are  dedicated  to  the  service 
of  the  goddess  Yellamd,  a  circumstance 
which  leads  to  the  most  atrocious  im- 
morality.   Processions  of  hundreds  of 


Sect.  II. 


Route  11. — Belgdoh  to  Dhdrwdd. 


237 


naked  women  used  to  be  made  to  this 
temple,  but  these  have  now  been 
stopped  by  the  (Government.  Great 
numbers  of  people,  however,  stiU  re- 
sort to  the  place,  which  is  a  hot-bed  of 
infamy. 

Suli, — 9  m.  to  the  N.E.  of  Saundatl 
is  the  village  of  Hull,  where  is  a 
temple  of  Panchalinga  Deva,  of  which 
Mr.  Burgess,  in  his  admirable  Report 
of  the  first  season's  operations  in  the 
Belg&on  and  Ealadgi  Districts,  has 
given  a  photograph.  The  temple  is 
91  ft  long,  and  71  ft.  broad.  It  was 
built  by  the  Jains,  who  have  hewn  off 
all  the  lintels  except  that  over  the  en- 
trance to  the  shrine  at  the  S.  end, 
which  has  the  finest  door.  The  temple 
faces  the  E.  On  2  pillars  of  the  outer 
Mandap  are  2  Eanarese  inscriptions. 
The  temple  probably  dates  from  1100 
A.D.  At  the  foot  of  the  hill  to  the  N. 
of  the  village  is  a  group  of  ruined 
temples ;  one  built  of  hard  compact 
bluish  stone  has  a  Mandap  43  ft.  from 
N.  to  S.  The  4  central  pillars  are 
similar  to  those  at  Belg4on,  only  the 
snake  is  wanting  on  the  bracket.  The 
short  pillars  on  the  screen  are  very  va- 
ried, hexagonal,  octagonal,  and  circu- 
lar. The  door  of  the  shrine  is  of  por- 
phyry, richly  carved,  and  on  the  lintel 
is  Shri  or  Lak^hmi,  with  elephants 
pouring  water  over  her.  Near  the 
ruins  of  an  old  temple  close  by  is  a 
large  inscription,  and  all  around  are 
fragments  of  buildings,  slabs  of  gra- 
nite and  porphyry,  and  pieces  of  in- 
scriptions. *•  There  are  carved  stones 
enough  to  furnish  a  museum  or  illus- 
trate a  mythology."  At  6  m.  to  the 
N.W.  from  Huli  is  the  village  of  Ma- 
nauli,  where  are  8  temples  to  Pancha- 
linga Deva,  of  coarse-grained  stone, 
no  way  remarkable  for  carving.  The 
snake  head  on  the  bracket  and  their 
general  style  would  lead  us  to  assign 
these  temples  to  the  same  age  as  those 
at  Belgdon,  that  is,  to  the  end  of  the 
12th  century.  From  Manauli  to  BA- 
dAmi  is  2  marches,  but  BddAmi  will 
be  described  in  a  different  Route. 


ROUTE    11. 

BELGAON  TO  KITTtrE  AND  DHIRWAD. 

The  stages  to  DhArwAd  are  as  fol- 
lows : — 


Prom 


Belgdon 
Halaga      .    , 
Bagalwadf 
M.  K.  Hubli, 
Hnlikatta 
Kittilr      .    , 
Tegiir    . 
Yanketpiir    , 
Mominkatta . 


To 


Halaga  . 
Bagalwa^i         i 
MugutKhdiiHuLli 
Hulikatta 
Kittdr       . 
Tegur     . 
Yanketpur 
Mominkattii  . 
Dharwii^  . 

Total     . 


Miles. 


6 

a 

6 

0 
(5 
4 
2 
G 
6 


48 


At  1  m.  beyond  the  village  of 
Mugut  KhAn  ki  Hubll  the  Malparba 
river  must  be  crossed,  with  very  deep 
sand  on  the  W.  bank,  and  in  the  dry 
season  about  1^  ft.  of  water.  After 
this  the  road  becomes  more  hilly  and 
woody,  with  large  trees  and  tufts  of 
bambii  by  the  river  side,  where  there 
is  a  short  but  steep  ascent.  Before 
reaching  Kittiir,  at  \  m.  from  the 
Tappa,  there  is  a  temple  on  the  right- 
hand  side  of  the  road. 

Xittiir.— To  see  the  fort  of  Kittiir 
the  traveller  will  turn  down  to  the 
left  for  about  1  m.  He  wiU  proceed 
along  JumWAt  BAzAr,  passing  the 
post-office,  school,  and  police-station. 
He  will  then  come  to  a  gate-way, 
and  turning  to  the  right  beneath 
it,  will  see  a  Mafh,  or  religious  house, 
and  the  cemetery  where  the  DesAl 
Mall  Shivaji  and  his  wives  are  buried. 
About  100  yds.  beyond  this  he  will 
come  to  another  gateway,  and  about 
160  yds.  from  that  will  turn  to  the 
left  and  find  the  ruins  of  the  fort. 
Kittiir  was  the  fief  of  a  DesAf  who 
received  investiture  from  the  RAjA  of 
KolhApiir.    When  Col.  Wellesley  was 


238 


Houte  11. — Belgdoh  to  DMnodd, 


Sect.  XL 


marching  on  Fund  in  1803,  this  chief, 
Mall  Shivaji,  was  of  great  service  to 
him  (see  Wellington's  Despatches, 
vol.  iii.,  p.  252),  but  the  PeshwA  was 
anxious  to  obtain  the  fort,  and  Col. 
Wellesley  wm  obliged  to  remonstrate 
with  our  Government  to  save  the 
Desdf  from  being  dispossessed.  In 
September,  1824,  Shivajl  died  without 
children,  and  the  British  Government 
having  annexed  the  Peshwd's  do- 
minions claimed  the  reversion  of  the 
lief.  The  family  applied  for  per- 
mission to  adopt,  which  Mr.  Thacke- 
ray, the  Collector,  refused  to  grant 
without  the  sanction  of  the  Bombay 
Government.  He  assumed  charge  of 
the  district,  and  was  directed  to  retain 
it  pending  inquiry.  On  the  morning 
of  the  23rd  of  October,  1824,  he  was 
encamped  without  the  walls  of  the 
fort  with  a  company  of  N.  Artillery 
and  one  of  N.  I.,  when  the  gates  of  the 
fort  were  shut,  and  on  his  attempting 
to  force  an  entrance  the  garrison  sal- 
lied out  and  overwhelmed  his  party. 
Mr.  Thackeray,  Capt.  Black,  and 
Lieut.  Dighton,  commanding  the  es- 
cort, were  killed,  Capt.  Sewell  mor- 
tally wounded,  and  Messrs.  Stevenson 
and  Elliot,  assistants  to  the  Collector, 
carried  prisoners  into  the  fort,  where 
they  were  threatened  with  death  in 
case  of  an  assault.  On  this,  a  force 
consisting  of  H.M.'s  46th  regt.,  1 
Bombay  European  regt.,  the  3rd,  6th, 
14th,  and  23rd  N.  L,  a  brigade  of  Ma- 
dras and  Bombay  artillery,  and  the 
4th  and  8th  L.  C,  under  Lieut.-CoL 
Beacon,  were  sent  to  reduce  the  place. 
On  the  3rd  of  December  an  attempt 
was  made  to  storm,  when  John  Col- 
lins Munro,  C.S.,  nephew  of  Sir  T. 
Munro,  was  mortally  wounded.  On 
the  evening  of  the  4th,  the  walls  having 
been  breached,  the  garrison  sur- 
rendered on  condition  that  their  lives 
should  be  spared.  In  1832  another 
formidable  insurrection  occun-ed, 
which  was  suppressed  by  the  zeal  and 
courage  of  2  Patels,  named  Linga 
Gowah  and  Krishna  Rdo,  who  were 
rewarded  with  grants  of  land.  A  line 
of  stones  shows  where  the  gateway  was 
and  where  Thackeray  fell.  There  is  a 
ditch  here  about  16  ft.  deep,  partly 


filled  up  with  herbage.  About  80  yds. 
beyond  this  is  a  2nd  ditch  and  re- 
mains of  the  fort  walls,  and  part  of  a 
stone  gateway,  solidly  built ;  pro- 
ceeding E.  you  pass  a  temple  very 
recently  built,  a  very  shabby  struc- 
ture, and  you  come  to  a  stone  cJui- 
butrahf  or  terrace,  under  2  magni- 
ficent trees,  a  tamarind  and  a  pipal 
tree.  About  150  yds.  E.  of  this  are 
the  ruins  of  the  fort  palace,  and 
the  fort  extends  some  way  beyond 
them,  and  is  at  this  point  defended  by 
a  wet  ditch.  Although  so  completely 
ruined,  it  may  still  be  seen  that  it  was 
a  strong  place  ;  the  reason  of  its  utter 
demolition  in  so  short  a  time  is  that 
the  people  of  the  town  carried  away 
the  stones  and  building  materials  to 
construct  new  houses.  About  100  yds, 
beyond  the  fort  is  a  place  where  the 
R&nls  are  said  to  have  had  a  palace, 
where  the  disturbance  began.  Beyond 
this,  going  S.,  is  a  most  curious  build- 
ing, a  temple  built  by  Dharamapa, 
an  oilman,  a  subject  of  the  last  Bdja 
of  Kittiir.  There  is  a  sort  of  gallery 
about  20  ft.  from  the  ground,  which 
passes  along  the  centre  of  the  building 
and  projects  2  wings  which  come  to- 
wards the  road.  In  this  gallery  are  a 
number  of  figures.  In  the  centre  is 
the  Bdja,  and  on  his  left  his  2  wives, 
Chinnawa  and  Trawa,  who  caused  the 
death  of  Thackeray  and  the  other 
officers.  On  the  RdjA's  right  are  the 
statues*  of  his  ministers.  At  the  end 
of  each  group  is  the  statue  of  an 
English  officer  in  knee-breeches  and  a 
round  hat.  Beyond  this  is  the  police- 
station,  and  at  a  Uttle  distance  the  S. 
gate  of  the  town.  The  pop.  of  the 
town  is  7166.  Beyond  the  S.  gate  is  a 
very  extensive  tank,  and  beyond  it 
the  road  turns  W.  and  joins  the  main 
road  to  DhtovAd.  There  is  a  very 
good  T.  B.  at  Tegiir.  The  red  dust 
along  this  road  is  very  trying. 

Bhdrwdd. — The  T.  B.  here  is  1  m. 
W.  of  the  fort,  and  is  a  well-built,  red 
house,  with  nice  grounds  around  it.  To 
the  N.,  50  yds.  off,  is  an  obelisk  to  Mr. 
Thackeray,  28  ft.  high.  There  is  a 
Persian  inscription  on  the  S.  side,  a 
Kanarese  on  the  W.  side,  one  in  the 
Sanskrit  on  the  N. ,  and  one  in  Eng- 


Sect.  IJ. 


Eoute  11. — DMrwdd. 


239 


lish    on    the 
follows  : — 


E.,  which    last    is    as 


Erected  by  their  Friends 
to  the  Memory  of 

ST.   JOHN   THACKERAY,   ESQ., 

Principal  Collector  and  Political  Agent, 

S.  Mardtha  Dodb, 

Killed  in  the  Inaorrection  at 

Kittur,  October  23rd,  1824, 

and  of 

JOHN   COLLINS   MUNBO,  ESQ., 

■    Sub-Collector, 
Who  died  December  16th,  of  a  wound 
received  at  the  reduction 
of  that  place. 

DhdrwAd  is  a  large  open  town,  with  a 
pop.  of  27,136.  It  is  in  a  plain  and  was 
once  defended  by  a  low  mad  wall  and  a 
ditch  of  no  strength.*    On  the  N.  is 
the  fort,  which  is  strong,  though  the 
defences  are  of   mud  and  irregular. 
It  has  a  double  wall,  and  an  outer  and 
inner  ditch  from  26  to  30  ft.  wide,  and 
nearly  as  many  ft.  deep.    It  was  taken 
from  the  Mar^thas  by  Gaidar  'All  in 
1778,  and  stood  a  siege  in  1789  from  a 
British  force  co-operating   with  the 
Mardtha  army  under  Parshurdm  Bhdo. 
It  then  belonged  to  Tlpii,  and  one  of 
his    ablest   generals,    Badru*z-zam4n, 
with  7000  regulars  and  3000  irregulars, 
having    thrown  himself  into  it,  de- 
fended it  with  great  spirit.    The  first 
operation  took  place  on  October  30th, 
when  an  attack  was  made  on  a  party 
of  the  garrison  that  had  advanced  out- 
side the  town.    They  were  driven  in, 
with   the  loss  of  3  guns  and  many 
killed  and  wounded.   The  native  town 
was  then  taken  by  storm,  in  which 
Capt.  Little  and  Lieut.  Forster,  who 
first  mounted  the  wall,  were  wounded, 
the   latter    mortally.     Besides   these, 
the  British  lost  62  killed  and  wounded. 
Iliey  made  over  the  place  to  the  Ma- 
rathas,  and  returned  to  camp,  and  had 
no  sooner  done  so  than  the  garrison 
rallied,  and,  after  a  severe  conflict,  in 
which  600  Mardthas  were  killed,  and 
at  least  as  many  of  their  own  party, 
re-occupied  the  town.    After  a  truce 
to  bum  and  bury  the  dead,  the  fight 
was   renewed,  and  the  Mardthas  re- 
took the  place.    The  English  had  no 
battering  guns,  and  the  fort  was  too 
strong  to  be  taken  by  assault,  but  a 

*  Grant  Duff,  vol.  iii.  p.  48. 


regt.  of  Europeans  and  a  native  corps 
were  sent  under  Lieut.-Col.  Frederick, 
of  the  Bombay  Army,  to  reinforce  the 
besiegers.  Col.  Frederick  reached 
Dhdrwdd  on  Bee.  28th,  and  immedi- 
ately took  command  and  commenced 
operations.  As  fast  as  the  Mardtha 
guns,  which  were  now  manned  b^  the 
English,  made  a  breach,  the  enemy 
repaired  it ;  and  when  the  Briti^ 
troops  advanced  to  the  assault  on  Feb. 
7th,  they  were  repulsed  with  the  loss 
of  86  men.  Col.  Frederick  died  of 
chagrin  at  the  failure,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Major  Sartorius,  and  at 
length,  after  a  protracted  siege  of  29 
weeks,  the  brave  Badru'z-zamdn  sur- 
rendered on  condition  of  being  allowed 
to  march  out  with  all  the  honours  of 
war.  The  alHes  took  possession  of  the 
fort  on  April  4th,  and  the  Mar^thas 
then  attacked  Badru'z-zamdn  as  he 
was  marching  away,  wounded  him, 
and  made  him  prisoner,  with  many 
others,  and  dispersed  the  rest  of  his 
forces  on  pretext  of  his  having  de- 
stroyed some  of  his  stores  after  he  had 
suiTcndered.  In  September,  1801,* 
Col.  Wellesley,  afterwards  Buke  of 
Wellington,  expressed  his  opinion  that 
Dh^w^d  could  be  taken  by  a  coup  de 
main,  and  he  drew  up  a  plan  of  attack 
on  the  S.W.  side.  In  1803  Col.  Wel- 
lesley gave  a  very  remarkable  proof  of 
his  confidence  in  Bdbiiji  §indhia,  who 
then  held  the  fort  with  very  dubious 
iiitentions  as  regarded  the  British. 
He  invited  Col.  Wellesley  to  an  enter- 
tainment in  the  fort,  and  his  invita- 
tion was  accepted,  to  the  surprise  even 
of  BAbiijl  himself,  who,  in  remarking 
afterwards  that  he  had  not  taken  ad- 
vantage of  it,  said,  "  For  I  am  still  a 
MarAtha."t  In  1814  the  same  Kiladdr, 
having  come  to  pay  his  respects  to 
Bdjl  Rdo  PeshwA,  was  told  to  give  up 
the  fort  to  Trimbakjl  DAnglia.  His 
answer  was  worthy  a  chivalrous  baron 
of  feudal  times.  "If  your  Highness 
will  send  a  gentleman  to  relieve  me  in 
the  command,  or  if  you  will  send 
my  secretary,  in  your  own  name, 
I  will  deliver  the  keys  to  him,  but  I 
will  never  give  over  the  fort  to  such 

*  Despatches,  vol.  I.  p.  860. 
t  Despatches,  vol.  iii.  p.  405. 


240 


Eoute  11. — Bdgdoh  to  Dhdrtodd, 


Sect.  II. 


a  person  as  Trimbakjl  DAnglia."  For 
this  speech  he  was  seized  as  soon  as  he 
left  the  PeshwA's  tent,  bound  and 
tortured  by  Trimbakjl,  until  a  promise 
of  surrender  was  extorted.  He  then 
gave  the  keys  to  his  secretary,  a  Br&h- 
man,  on  whom  he  could  rely,  and  the 
latter,  accompanied  by  a  body  of 
troops,  proceeded  to  Dhdrwdd.  No 
sooner,  however,  had  he  reached  the 
gate  than  he  asked  leave  to  go  a  little 
in  advance,  and  as  soon  as  he  had 
entered  he  oaused  all  the  gates  to  be 
closed,  and  opened  such  a  fire  upon 
Trimbakjl  and  his  men  as  compelled 
them  to  retire  with  precipitation.  In 
1837  DhirwM  was  the  scene  of  such 
violent  feuds  between  the  Brdhmans 
and  Ling^yats  that  Government  was 
compelled  to  interfere.  The  cemetery 
at  Dhdrwid  is  a  little  to  the  S.W.  of 
the  fort.  Here  are  buried  Capt.  Black 
and  Lieuts.  SeweU  and  Dighton,  of  the 
Madras  H.  Artillery,  *•  who  lost  their 
lives  in  gallantly  attempting  to  quell 
the  insurrection  at  Kittiir,  on  the  23rd 
of  October,  1824."  Their  monument 
was  erected  "by  their  tliree  friends 
who  witnessed  their  devoted  conduct 
at  that  unfortunate  affair."  The  tablet 
to  the  nephew  of  Sir  T.  Munro  is  thus 
inscribed  : — 

To  the  Memory  of 

JOHN   COLLINS    MUNllO,    ESQ., 

of  the  Madras  Civil  Service, 

Who,  being  present  with  the  force 

assembled  for  the  reduction  of  Kittiir, 

was  unfortunately  carried  by  his 

ardent  temper  to  share  in  the  storm  of 

the  enemies'  works, 

on  the  3rd  of  December,  1824, 

when  he  received  a  mortal  wound, 

of  which  he  died  on  the  11th  of  December, 

1824. 
At  the  early  age  of  26  years. 


This  Monument  was  erected  by  his  Uncle, 
Major-Qeneral  Sir  Thomas  Munro. 

The  church  at  BhirwAd  is  about  1  m. 
to  the  S.  of  the  T.  B.  It  belongs  to 
the  Basle  German  Evangelical  Mission, 
was  built  in  1844-45,  and  dedicated 
Bee.  14th,  1845.  It  is  76  ft  long,  42 
broad,  and  24  high.  The  tower  is 
40  ft.  high.  The  service  by  the  mis- 
sionaries is  in  Kanarese,  and  once  on 
Sunday  in  English.  There  is  a  small 
cemetery  att<v»hed,  in  which  several  of 


the  missionaries  and  their  wires  and 
children  are  buried.  The  cantonments 
for  the  native  infantry,  to  the  N.W. 
of  the  fort,  are  quite  2  m.  off.  The 
fort  itself  looks  very  desolate  and 
wretched,  and  there  is  nothing  re- 
markable to  be  seen  either  there  or  in 
the  town. 

Ddndilli, — 3  stages  on  the  road  to 
Goa,  in  N.  Eanara,  and  34  m.  S.W.  of 
Dh^i^rwAd,  are  the  jungles  of  Dindilli, 
teeming  with  every  sort  of  game  the 
pursuit  of  which  can  amuse  and  ex- 
cite the  sportsman.  Here  tigers  and 
wild  buffaloes  are  to  be  found  in 
plenty,  and  elephants  are  said  to  come 
up  from  the  S.  after  the  rains.  Here 
the  most  renowned  sportsman  in  W. 
India,  Col.  Peyton,  resides,  and. has  for 
many  years  killed  with  his  own  gun  15 
to  20  tigers  annually.  The  traveller 
may  proceed  to  Goa  this  way,  and 
then  by  Bombay  to  sea.  The  stages 
are : — 


Dh4rwa4  Fort 

Gate 
Ealkerra 
Hallihdl     .    . 

D&ndiUi  . 
Jagalpet.h  (no 

supplies) 
X  KondAptir  r. 
Kond&piir 
Funda        .    . 

S.  Jago   . 


Ealkerra 

HaUihil     .    . 
Ddndilli      (no 

supplies) 
Jagalpeth 
CMndaw&4i  . 


Fundi    . 

S.  Jago  on  the 

island  of  Goa 
Faiyim,        or 

New  Goa 

Total      . 


X. 

F. 

10 

U 

11 

12 

? 

12 
18 

6 

1 

15 
10 
11 

1 
6 
6 

8 

4 

110 

5i 

Sect.  II. 


Route  12. — UaUi, 


211 


ROUTE   12. 
dhAbwad  to  hubli,  gadak,  Am) 

LAKKUNDi. 

•      ■ 

The  stages  are  as  follows : — 


From 


lUyapiJLr 

Hubli 

Silgupa 

NeUiirl 

A'nikeri 

Halkofa 


To 


R&yapiir . 
Hubli 
Silgupd  . 
Nelluri 
A'nikerl  . 
Halko^     . 
Gadak     . 

Total 


Miles. 


6 
6 
8 
6 
7 
6 
8 


47 


The  road  as  far  as  Huhlf  R4ydn,  or 
Boyal  Hahli,  is  very  good. 

Hitbli. — ^This  is  a  most  flourishing 
and  increasing  town,  with  a  pop.  of 
37,961.    The  Pdrsl  mail  contractor  has 
a  house  |  of  m.  from  the  outskirts  of 
the  town  and  from  the  road  to  Gadak. 
The  post-oflBice  is  within  a  few  yds. 
of  this  house,  and  here  the  traveller 
will  change  horses.    Near  Hubli  and 
for  the  rest  of  this  route  the  most  re- 
markable objects  are  the  Jain  temples. 
A  full  account  of  this  curious  sect  will 
be  found  in  Prof.  H.  H.  Wilson's  paper 
in  the  "Asiatic  Researches,"  vol.  xvii., 
and  Mr.  Erskine's  **  Literary  Trans,  of 
Bombay,"  vol.  iii.,  p.  494.    It  is  suffi- 
cient here  to  say  they  hold  an  inter- 
mediate place  between  the  Buddhists 
and  the  Brahmanists,  but  approach 
more  closely  to  the  Buddhists.    Like 
the  Brdhmans,  they  have  castes,  their 
priests  never  eat  flesh,  and  do  not 
venerate  the  relics  of  saints.    On  the 
other  hand,  like  the  Buddhists,  they 
disavow  the  Yedas  and  the    Hindii 
deities,  and   in   place  of   them    the 
Jains  worship  the  24  Tirthankars  or 
Jinas,  i.e.,   sanctified  teachers.     The 
Jains,  like  the  Buddhists,  lived  origi- 
nally in  celibacy  in  monasteries.  They 
select  their  priests  from  the  children 
of  all  classes  of  the  community,  pre- 
serve as  their  sacred  language  the  PAll 
or  Prdkfit,  a  dialect  closely  resembling  I 

[^owiSay— 1880.] 


the  Magadhl  or  vernacular  tongue  of 
S.  Bahdr,  have  nearly  the  same  tradi- 
tional  chronology,  do   not  eat  after 
sunset,  and  sweep  the  spot*  on  which 
they  sit  down,  for  fear  of  destroying 
animal  life.    Both  sects,  too,  maintain 
in  common  with  the  school  of  Ean4da 
the  doctrine  of  eternal  atoms  or  ele- 
ments.   The  Buddhists  have  entirely 
disappeared  from  India,  but  the  Jains 
remain   in  considerable   numbers   in 
Mdrwdd,  Gujar&t,  the  S.  Eonkan,  and 
S.  Mar&tha  coimtry,  Kanida,  and  Ma- 
labar.   Their   priests  may  be  known 
by  a  covering  over  the  mouth  to  pre- 
vent them  destroying   insect  life  in 
breathing,  and  by  carrying  a  broom 
to  sweep  their  path  and  i)lace  where 
they  sit,  with  the  same  object.     It  is 
remarkable  that,  though  so  absurdly 
chary  of  animal  and  insect  life,  they 
regarded    the  infanticide  once    pre- 
valent in  E4thiawdd,  where  they  are 
very  numerous,  with  complete  indif- 
ference.!   The  T.  B.  at  HubU  is  on  the 
Gadak  road,  just  as  you  turn  off  to  the 
right  to  go  to  the  mail-contractor's. 
Hubli  is  one  of  the  principal  cotton 
marts  of  the  S.  Mardtha  country,  and 
is  also  interesting  as  having  been  the 
seat  of  one  of  the  earliest  English  fac- 
tories, which  in  1763  was  plundered  by 
Shivajl    of    goods    to    the  value    of 
27,629  rs.    In  the  old  fort  is  a  curi- 
ous   well  SO  ft.  deep,  the  water  of 
which  has  a  strong  mineral  taste.  The 
water  of  all  the  other  wells  is  excel- 
lent.    The  old  town  of   Hubli   was 
built  some   centuries  ago,   the   new 
town  by  Chintdman  Rdo  Patwardan 
of  Sdngli,  about  the  beginning  of  this 
century. 

SIGHTS  IN  THE  VICINITY  OP  HUBLf 

• 

If  the  traveller  is  curious  about 
temples,  he  may  spend  a  few  days  in 
going  from  Hubli  to  BankAptir,  Sa- 
vaniir,  Hangal,  Dewgiri,  Moti  Benniir, 
Chatr  and  Rdni  Benniir.  From  Hubli 
to  BankdpilLr  is  30  m.,  almost  due  S. 
along  an  excellent  road.  Bankapiir 
was  a  very  flourishing  place,  under  the 
Muljiammadan  Kings  of  the  Bakhan. 
It  is  now  desolate,  but  there  are  beau- 

*  Jour.  As.  Soc.  Bomb.,  1844,  vol.  ii.  p.  81. 
t  WilBon  on  InfiEuiticide,  p.  71. 


242 


EotUe  12. — Dhdrwdd   to  Iliihlt,  etc. 


Sect.  IT. 


t  if  111  temples  and  mosqnes  which  have 
never  been  described.*  At  Savaniir, 
0  m.  to  the  N.E.  of  Bankdptir,  there 
are  6  temples,  also  midescribed.  At 
HAngal,t  14  m.  to  the  S.W.  of  Bankiptir, 
there  is  a  large  and  yery  ancient  tem- 
ple dedicated  to  Jarkeshwara.  The 
carving  is  remarkable.  Opposite  the 
idol  is  a  place  c^ed  by  the  natives 
the  Katnal  or  "  lotus  of  Hdngal."  It 
is  an  octagonal  building,  and  the 
ceiling  is  formed  by  one  immense 
stone  20  ft.  in  diameter,  cut  into  the 
shape  of  a  lotus  and  resting  on  8 
pillars.  On  8  stones  adjoining  the 
pillars  are  sculptured  the  afh^adik- 
pdlaiiUf  or  guardians  of  the  eight  cardi- 
nal points.  Thousands  of  other  figures, 
some  seated,  some  standing,  are  sculp- 
tured in  various  parts  of  the  temple. 
According  to  Paur^nik  legend,  the 
B4kj^has,  or  demon,  E^chaka,  was 
destroyed  at  this  place.  Bengal  is 
surrounded  by  extensive  gardens  of 
betel  and  cocoa-nut  trees.  The  sugar 
cane  is  also  very  largely  cultivated. 
The  method  of  betel  culture  is  as  fol- 
lows : — ^When  the  betel  nuts  are  quite 
ripe  they  are  gathered  and  planted, 
with  the  husks  on,  at  intervals  of  4  ft. 
from  each  other,  and  in  square  patches. 
In  6  months  the  stem  begins  to  appear, 
and  in  about  12  years  it  reaches  the 
height  of  20  ft.,  when  it  throws  out 
branches  with  nuts.  In  its  full  growth 
it  is  60  ft.  high,  but  never  thicker 
than  5  or  6  inches  in  diameter.  In 
February  and  March  a  thick  green 
cover,  called  by  the  natives  adkihaliy 
forms  at  the  top  of  tiie  tree.  This  dries 
and  falls  off,  and  is  then  4  feet  long 
and  2  J  broad,  brown  outside  and  white 
in.  It  is  very  strong,  particularly 
after  having  been  soaked  in  water,  and 
is  used  by  the  natives  for  bags.  In  this 
cover  is  a  shell,  at  first  2  or  3  inches, 
and,  when  full  grown,  2  ft.  long.  As 
the  nuts  in  the  shell  get  ripe  it  gives 
way  and  falls  down.  Out  of  it  bursts 
a  large  bunch  of  nuts  divided  into  3 

*  For  the  inscriptions,  which  date  as  far  back 
as  1066  A.D.,  see  Mr.  Fleet's  Paper,  Ind.  Aiiti- 
quai^  vol.  iv„  p.  203. 

t  Hi&ngal  is  one  of  the  most  ancient  places 
In  the  I)h&rw^4  districts.  It  is  mentioned  in 
the  Purdnas,  under  the  name  of  "  Virdtnagara," 
the  city  of  King  Yizita. 


branches.  Each  bunch  contains  from 
3  to  4  sers  of  nuts.  The  tree  bears 
fruit  once  a  year,  and  shoots  out  two 
or  three  branches  at  a  time.  Each  of 
the  nuts  is  covered  with  a  shell  like 
that  of  a  cocoa-nut,  which  is  easily  re- 
moved by  the  gardeners.  When  fully 
ripe  the  nut  is  fit  for  seed,  bu^  not  to 
eat.  When  three-fourths  ripe  it  is  only 
eaten  by  the  poor,  and  is  then  called, 
in  Eanarese,  hettedike.  When  half 
ripe  it  is  the  chikni  adki,  and  is  then 
at  its  best  flavour,  and  sells  from  6 
to  8  rupees  per  man.  It  is  cut  into 
wafers  or  small  pieces,  and  is  then 
boiled  and  dried,  after  which  it  is 
called  the  Mfad  adki.  The  trees  live 
about  60  years. 

The  sugar  cane  is  of  four  kinds — 
white,  black  or  red,  the  raJtiiUif  s-nd 
the  huchch  or  mad.  There  are  two 
species  of  the  white  cane,  the  huls  and 
the  het.  The  huU  is  about  half  an 
inch  in  diameter,  and  contains  little 
juice,  but  the  best  gul  or  molasses  is 
made  from  it.  Bet  is  the  hardest  of 
all  the  canes,  and  grows  10  ft.  high ; 
its  juice  is  superior  to  that  of  the  pre- 
ceding kind.  The  black  or  red  sugar 
cane  is  three  times  as  thick  as  the 
white,  and  gives  more  juice,  but  of  a 
difEerent  flavour.  It  grows  to  12  ft. 
The  rastdli  is  divided  into  white  or 
guHf  and  striped.  The  white  raatdli 
is  much  thicker  than  the  red,  and 
contains  more  juice  than  any  cane. 
Its  juice  is  a  delicious  drink,  but  when 
inspissated  makes  the  worst  gul.  It 
is  BO  soft  as  to  be  easily  eaten.  The 
striped  sort  is  exactly  the  same  as  the 
other  species,  except  in  color.  It 
grows  to  15  ft.  The  hvchch  is  good 
only  for  cattle,  and  elephants  are  very 
fond  of  it.  The  other  sorts,  when  fuU 
grown,  are  cut  up,  and  have  the  juice 
expressed  by  two  rollers,  and  this  is 
then  inspissated  by  boiling  it  in  large 
iron  basins,  when  it  is  called  gul,  Ee- 
duced  to  powder,  this  is  the  native 
sugar,  and  is  sold  in  this  district  at 
8  dn&s  per  Tnan, 

Chik  Nargwnd  or  Little  Nargund, — 
Here  the  traveller  may  halt  for  a  day 
in  order  to  see  a  very  remarkable  pass 
about  7  m.  off,  and  about  3  m.  &om 
a  place  called  Saundatti,    Here  the 


Sect.  II. 


Boute  12. — Nargund — Anikeri, 


243 


MalparM  (MAlaprabhd,  Ind.  Ant..yol. 
iv.  p.  139)  rashes  through  a  narrow 
precipitous  gorge  in  the  range  of 
sandstone  hUls  between  the  towns  of 
SaundatU  and  Manaull.  This  gorge 
is  about  1^  m.  in  length,  and  is  most 
wild  and  picturesque.  The  sides  of  the 
rayine  are  precipitous,  and  the  bottom 
is  strewed  with  huge  blocks  of  sand- 
stone, which  have  fallen  away  from 
the  cliffs  on  either  side,  and  among 
these  the  river  dashes  furiously  forward. 
This  singular  passage  was  probably 
cut  by  the  river  worldng  back  through 
the  hills  by  such  a  waterfall  as  is  now 
seen  at  Gok^k.  The  course  of  the 
ravine  is  winding,  or,  at  least,  irregu- 
lar, and  not  in  a  direct  line,  as  would 
have  been  the  case  had  it  originated 
in  a  split  in  the  strata  occasioned  by 
an  earthquake.  The  ravine  is  called 
the  JViavil  TLrth,  or  "  Peacock  shrine," 
and  the  legend  is  that  when  first  the 
Malparbd  came  rushing  through  the 
plain  above  the  hill  it  turned  this  way 
and  that  to  look  for  an  outlet.  Sud- 
denly a  peacock  from  the  summit  of 
a  hill  caUed,  "  Come  hither  I  come 
hither  1"  when  the  hill  split  in  two, 
and  the  river  ran  joyously  down  the 
wild  passage  that  had  thus  miracu- 
lously been  made  for  its  escape. 

From  Chill  Narg'tmd  a  visit  may  be 
paid  to  Nargund,  lately  the  capital  of 
a  petty  B^jd,  and  the  scene  of  a  bar- 
barous massacre  during  his  revolt. 
The  chief  of  Nargund  had  long  been 
plunged  in  pecuniary  difficulties,  and 
his  estates  were  all  heavily  mortgaged. 
In  this  desperate  state  of  his  circum- 
stances he  imagined  he  saw  a  means 
of  escape  by  joining  the  insurrection 
against  tlie  English  ;  and,  on  the  30th 
of  May,  Mr.  C.  Manson,  the  Political 
Agent  in  the  S.  Mardtha  country, 
having  proceeded  to  Nargund  to  dis- 
arm the  inhabitants  with  a  few  horse- 
men, was  set  upon  by  the  Kajd's 
orders,  and  he  and  all  his  escort  were 
murdered.  Their  deaths  were  soon 
avenged.  On  the  31st  a  body  of  the 
S.  Mardtha  horse,  under  Colonel  Mal- 
colm,* and  two  companies  of  the  74th 

•  See  the  HoToevxird  Mail  for  July  the  19th, 
1S58,  where  a  fall  account  of  the  whole  affoir 
will  he  found. 


Highlanders,  with  a  company  of  the 
283i  N.  I.  and  two  guns,  under 
Capt.  Paget,  marched  from  Dhdrwdd, 
and  on  the  1st  of  June  advanced 
against  Nargund.  The  fort  is  on  a 
rock  about  800  ft.  high,  and  was  for- 
merly famous  for  its  strength,  having 
on  more  than  one  occasion  defied  the 
armies  of  Tipii.  The  town  lies  at  the 
base  of  the  rock,  and  the  enemy,  about 
1 500  in  number,  were  encamped  outside 
it.  The  advance  of  the  English  troops 
was  very  feebly  opposed,  and  by  7  A.M. 
of  the  2nd  the  town  and  fort  were  in  their 
possession.  They  had  but  six  wounded, 
while  the  rebels'suffered  very  severely. 
On  the  evening  of  the  same  day,  the 
chief,  with  six  of  his  principal  fol- 
lowers, were  captured  in  the  jungle ; 
and  on  the  12th  he  was  hanged,  and 
the  neighbouring  Rdjd  of  Dambal  was 
blown  from  a  gun,  and  six  of  his 
accomplices  hanged.  On  the  2nd  of 
June  the  strong  fort  of  KopAl  also 
was  taken  by  Major  Hughes,  who  had 
but  eight  of  his  men  wounded.  These 
operations  entirely  crushed  the  insur- 
rection in  this  district. 

At  Dewgiri,  9  m.  S.B.  of  BankApiir, 
are  6  temples  ;  at  Moti  B^nni!ir,  10  m. 
S.E.  of  Dewgiri,  are  5  temples ;  and 
at  Rdnl  B6nmlr,  12  m.  S.E.  of  Motl 
B6nniir,  are  several ;  and  between  the 
two  last  places  is  Chatr,  where  are  3 
temples ;  and  none  of  all  these  have 
been  described. 

At  3  m.  from  Hublf ,  the  road  changes 
from  red  to  white,  and  on  either  side 
of  it,  instead  of  the  Indian  fig-tree, 
are  rows  of  the  mimosa.  The  soil,  ofE 
the  road,  is  black,  and  there  is  much 
cultivation,  chiefly  of  cotton.  Strings 
of  carts,  laden  with  bales  of  cotton, 
are  met  all  along  this  road,  and  greatly 
impede  progress,  as  they  are  always  on 
the  wrong  side. 

AnilterU — There  is  a  very  good  T.  B. 
at  this  place,  a  little  oS.  the  road  to  the 
right.  The  principal  temple  is  1  m. 
from  the  T.B.,  and  to  reach  it  you 
have  to  pass  a  tank  on  the  left  witii  a 
most  mephitic  smell.  It  is  sacred  to 
Amriteshwar  or  Shiva.  The  usual 
entrance  has  been  blocked  up  with 
a  fragment  of  a  pillar  and  another 
huge  stone,  and  it  is  difficult  to  squeeze 


2i:i:    RoiUel2. — Dhdrwad  to  IIuhlL  Gadak,  and  LaJchumii.    Sect.  IT. 


past.  The  principal  entrance,  now 
disused,  is  by  a  colonnade  of  6  pil- 
lars on  either  side,  8  ft.  10  high, 
t  Ending  on  a  stjlobate,  2 J  ft.  high. 
There  is  a  large  tasteless  Bath,  or  idol 
car,  outside.  Goyemment  allows  this 
temple  201^  rs.  a  year,  and  it  has  170 
acres  of  In'^m  land.  At  about  70  yds. 
fi*om  the  entrance  outside,  is  a  gate- 
way of  two  stories,  with  18  pillars,  and 
beyond  it  a  small  Mandap  with  pillars 
of  black  basalt.  The  temple  itself  is 
122  ft.  long  from  B.  to  W.  It  is 
massively  built,  and  decorated  with 
pilasters.  There  is  a  porch  opposite 
the  colonnade,  the  roof  of  which  is 
pyramidal  and  supported  by  6  pillars. 
This  porch  is  12  ft.  from  N.  to  S.  and 
8  ft.  10  from  E.  to  W.  The  tower  over 
the  VimAnah  is  60  ft.  high.  This  ap- 
pears to  be  a  very  old  temple,  probably 
of  the  12***  century,  but,  as  regards 
architecture,  it  is  scarcely  worth  a 
visit.  The  milestones  on  this  road  are 
reckoned  from  K^rwdr,  the  131st  being 
at  Amkeri. 

Gadak,  anciently  Kratuka,  is  a  town 
of  10,319  inhabitants.  The  assistant 
collector's  bangU  serves  as  the  T.B., 
and  is  to  the  E.  of  the  town.  Some 
account  of  the  temples  here  will  be 
found  in  "Oriental  Christian  Spec- 
tator" for  July,  1839,  p.  306.  In  the 
N.W.  comer  of  the  town  is  a  Vai^hna- 
vite  temple.  The  entrance  is  under  a 
Gopurah  with  4  stories  and  50  ft.  high. 
The  door  is  handsomely  carved  with 
16  rows  of  figures  in  relief  on  either 
side.  It  opens  into  a  paved  inclosure 
in  which  is  the  temple,  a  quite  plain 
building,  with  a  well.  S.W.  of  this, 
800  yds.  off,  is  a  LingAyat  temple  to 
Kdri  Dev,  "  Black  God."  The  doors 
are  handsomely  carved,  as  is  the  out- 
side of  the  Adytum.  This  temple 
resembles  the  principal  temple  at 
Lakkundl,  and  is  built  of  the  same 
bluish  stone.  At  30  yds.  S.  of  this,  is 
another  small  Jain  temple.  At  the 
S.W.  corner  of  the  town  is  the  Kdrwdr 
company's  cotton  press  and  factory. 
Close  to  this  is  the  Government  Te- 
legraph Office  and  the  MAmlatdAr's 
Kacheri.  In  the  S.  quarter  of  the 
town  is  the  principal  temple,  the  only 
one  worth  coming  from  a  long  distance 


to  see.     It  is  dedicated  to  Trimba- 
keshwar  or  Trikuteshwar,  "the  Lord 
of  the  thi'ee  peaks."     Entering  from, 
the    N.    you    approach    the    temple 
along  a  narrow  street,  on  either  side 
of  which  are  remains  of  old  buildings, 
and    carved    stones   which   once  be- 
longed  to  them   protrude  here   and 
there  from  the  existing  houses.     At 
the  entrance  to  this  street  is  a  covered 
gateway,  and  250  ft.  beyond  it  is  the 
porch  of  the  temple  court,  which  pro- 
jects outside  from  the  wall  of  the  court 
27  ft.      The   breadth    throughout    is 
16  ft.,  and  it  extends  into  the  court 
12  ft.    The  court  has  originally  been 
surrounded  by  a  wall,  forming  an  in- 
closure 316  feet  from  E.  to  W.  and  200 
ft.  from  N.  to  S.     The  wall  is  still 
almost  entire,  and  is  very  massive.    On 
the  right  as  you  enter  the  court  is  a 
tall  stone  like  a  tombstone,  with  an 
inscription  in  old  Eanarese.     There 
are  9  inscriptions  at  this  temple,  one 
of  which,  translated  by  Mr.  Fleet,  Ind. 
Ant.  vol.  ii.  p.  298,  gives  the  date  Shaka 
984=A.D.  1062.     On  the  right,  also, 
is  a  dharmsdld,  a  low  stone  building 
without  ornament,  in  which  the  Hindil 
employes   of    Government   sometimes 
lodge.    The  first  door  of  the  principal 
temple  faces  the  visitor  at  a  distance 
of  36  ft.  from  the  porch.    There  is  first 
of  all  an  antechamber  25  ft.  deep,  then 
comes  the  main  part  of  the  temple, 
measuring  64  ft.  from  E.  to  W.  and  68 
from  N.  to  S.    The  outside  is  one  mass 
of  most  elaborate  carving.  Two  rows  of 
figures  run  along  the  entire  front  and 
back  ;  those  of  the  lower  row  are  2  ft.  9 
high,  including  their  canopy,  and  are 
166  in  number.    In  the  upper  row  are 
104  figures,  13  inches  high,  62  in  the 
front,  and  the  same  in  the  back  ;  the 
rest  of  the  wall  is  also  ornamented. 
Bound  the  outside  of  the  E.  ante- 
chamber are  niches  for  figures,  but 
only  1  figure  remains  whole.      It  is 
delicately  carved  and  2  ft.  2  high,  and 
represents  Ndrdyan.    It  has  a  beauti- 
fully designed  canopy.    The  front  of 
the  temple  to  the  spectator's  right  is 
hidden  by  a  modem  addition,  which  is 
quite  out  of  keeping  with  it.    The  roof 
of  the  temple  is  flat.     Standing  at  the 
entrance,  the  visitor  can  look  right 


Sect.  II. 


Boute  12. — Gadah — Lakkundu 


245 


through   the    temple,    between    two 
rows  of  pillars,  6  on  either  side,  in  a 
line  with  2  pilasters.    The  four  pillars 
nearest  the  centre  are  massiye  and 
ornamented,  bat  not  carved.   They  are 
8  ft.  9  high  and  5^  in  girth.    Towards 
the  E.  and  W.  are  6  other  pillars,  4  in 
one  row,  2  in  the  other,  their  height  to 
the  roof  in  the  centre  is  12J  ft.    Be- 
tween the  4  pillars  on  the  E.  is  a 
colossal  bull.      The  visitor  will  also 
observe  two  circular  carved  ornamental 
pillars  which  are  placed  on  the  right 
of  the  doorway.    They  touch  the  wall, 
but  support  nothing.     The  building 
extends  towards  the  W.,  but,  from  the 
plain  and  unadorned  style  of  this  part, 
both  outside  and  inside,  one  is  led  to 
think  that  this  is  no  part  of  the  original 
building.      Passing  through   a   large 
doorway,  the  visitor  enters  this  exten- 
sion, and  finds  himself  in  a  chamber 
19  X  21  ft.    The  roof  is  supported  by  4 
plain  massive  pillars  with  4  pilasters, 
1  at  each  comer.    In  the  centre  of  this 
chamber  is  a  small  stone  bull.  Beyond 
this  room  is  the  adytum,  a  building  of 
peculiar  construction.    The  Lingam  is 
in   a   most  elaborately  carved  star- 
shaped  sanctuary,  which  is  surrounded 
on  the  N.,  S.  and  W.  sides  by  a  high 
wall,  which   forms   a   wide   covered 
passage  and  is  almost  totally  dark. 
The  roof  is  supported  by  10  pillars, 
*'  the  gradual  tapering  of  the  Sanc- 
tum to  a  truncated  top,"  says  Colonel 
Meadows   Taylor,    "  being    managed 
in  a  peculiar  but  ingenious  fashion 
by  a  beautifully  arranged  series  of 
courses  and  gradations.    It  is  at  this 
temple  that  Yira  Ballata  commemo- 
rated by  an  inscription  the  victory 
obtained  by  his  general  Bomma  over 
Ballamadeva  Y4dava  of  Devagiri,  cap- 
turing  60  elephants  and  destroying 
the  ships  of  the  S.  country.    Another 
inscription  in  the  temple  records  its 
restoration  in  Shaka  900=A.D.  978  by 
a  prince  of  the  Ch^lukyas  ;  but  the 
Brdhmans  claim  for  it  a  far  greater 
antiquity,   extending  back  into  the 
silver  age,  the  edifice  having,  as  they 
allege,  been  originally  constructed  of 
precious  metals."     None  but  Hindi!is 
are  allowed  to  enter  this  part  of  the 
temple.  The  conical  roof  appears  above 


the  flat  roof  of  the  passage,  and  is 
beautifully  carved  and  ornamented. 
Immediately  behind  the  main  portion 
of  the  first  temple,  in  the  right-hand 
part  of  the  inclosure,  is  a  temple  to 
Saraswatl.  The  porch  is  the  finest 
part  of  it ;  it  contains  18  pillars  and 
6  pilasters.  The  3  first  of  the  2  centre 
rows  of  pillars  are  of  black  basalt, 
and  deserve  particular  notice  for  their 
elegance  of  design  and  exquisite  carv- 
ing.* This  porch  is  27  ft.  broad 
and  25  deep.  Beyond  it  is  a  deep 
recess  27  ft.  long  by  10  broad,  at  the 
end  of  which  is  the  image  of  the 
goddess,  8  ft.  4  high,  and  3  feet  across 
the  knees.  The  porch  is  14  ft.  3  high 
in  the  centre.  The  capitals  of  some  of 
the  pillars  are  exquisitely  carved.  On 
the  facade  is  one  row  of  figures  similar 
to  those  in  the  other  temple.  The  walls 
of  the  inner  recess  are  of  great  thick- 
ness, and  suggest  the  idea  that  other 
recesses  at  the  sides  may  have  been 
built  up.  These  walls  are  also  finely 
carved,  but  all  the  niches  are  empty. 
Around  are  chambers  for  priests,  and 
stalls  for  visitors  and  pilgrims.  There 
are  one  or  two  small  shrines  in  the  open 
court.  To  the  W.  is  another  entrance, 
with  a  porch  similar  to  that  on  the  N. 
There  is  also  in  the  inclosure  a  fine 
well,  faced  with  solid  stone,  and  with 
steps  leading  down  to  the  water.  There 
are  numerous  inscriptions  at  this  place, 
one  of  which  has  the  date  Shaka  790 « 
A.D.  868. 

Lakkuf^di  (anciently  Lokkikandi). 
— The  road  to  this  town  passes  first 
through  fields  and  then  along  the 
main  road  to  Balldri.  At  about  3  m. 
from  Gadak  you  turn  off  to  the  left, 

*  Col.  M.  Taylor  says,  "  It  is  impossible  to 
describe  the  exquisite  finish  of  the  pillars  of 
the  interior  of  this  temple,  which  are  of  black 
hornblende,  nor  to  estimate  how  they  were 
completed  in  their  present  condition,  without 
they  were  turned  in  a  latibe ;  yet  there  can  be 
little  doubt  that  they  were  set  up  originally 
as  rough  masses  of  rock,  and  afterwards  carved 
into  their  present  forms.  The  carving  on 
some  of  the  pillars  and  of  the  lintels  and 
architraves  of  the  doors  is  quite  beyond  de- 
scription. No  chased  work  in  silver  or  gold 
could  possibly  be  finer,  and  tlie  patterns  to 
this  day  are  copied  by  goldsmiths,  who  take 
casts  and  moulds  from  them,  but  fail  in 
representing  the  sharpness  and  finish  of  the 
original." 


24G 


Houte  12. — Dhdrwdd  to  Lakkundi, 


Sect.  11. 


into  a  stony  and  difficult  path,  fall  of 
deep  ruts,  holes,  and  huge  stones,  and 
this  continues  for  about  4  m.  more. 
Tongas  have  passed  along  this  road, 
but  not  without  much  risk  of  breaking 
down.  Entering  the  town  from  the 
W.,  jou  come  at  once  upon  a  temple. 
There  is  a  very  neat  Mandir  here,  with 
2  pillars  Q^ft.  high  at  each  comer. 
It  has  brond  eaves  made  of  granite, 
and  from  their  edges  to  the  top  of  the 
roof  is  4J  ft.  A  few  yds.  fiim  this 
Mandir  is  a  temple,  in  the  door  of 
which  is  a  huge  bar  of  black  basalt 
2  ft.  10  round,  built  into  the  walls  on 
either  side.  This  bar  is  to  preyent 
animals  from  entering,  and  is  yery 
much  worn,  showing  the  great  anti- 
quity of  the  temple.  Just  beyond  is 
another  temple,  now  disused  for  wor- 
ship. The  granite  of  which  these 
temples  are  built,  is  brought  from  a 
hill  called  Tirappagudi,  3  m.  to  the  S. 
The  traveller  will  now  proceed  100 
yds.  to  the  E.,  and  come  to  a  temple, 
in  the  inner  chamber  of  which  is  a 
figure  of  Ndrdyan,  canopied  by  a  figure 
of  Narsingh.  The  length  of  this  temple 
from  N.  to  S.  is  25  ft.  5,  and  from  E.  to 
W.  24  ft.  6.  The  ceiling  is  divided 
into  9  compartments,  besides  the 
centre,  and  each  of  the  9  has  a  square 
inscribed  in  a  square,  so  that  the 
angles  of  the  inner  square  touch  the 
middle  of  the  sides  of  the  outer  square. 
The  centrepiece  has  4  rows  of  similar 
squares,  and  is  11  ft.  high.  There  are 
6  pillars  and  2  pilasters  7  ft.  2  high. 
On  cither  side  of  the  door  of  the  inner 
chamber  is  an  empty,  handsomely 
carved  niche  for  a  DwArp^.  The 
next  chamber  is  SJft.  from  E.  to  W., 
and  8. ft.  from  N.  to  S.  The  second 
inner  chamber  is  8  ft.  9  from  E.  to  W., 
and  10  ft.  from  N.  to  S.  Here  is  a 
Lingam,  which  they  call  Ishwara. 
At  100  yds.  to  the  E.  of  this  temple  is 
another  to  Gokameshwar,  a  form  of 
Kiri^hna.  There  is  nothing  remark- 
able here.  Further  on,  about  10  yds., 
is  a  temple  to  Mahdbaleshwar,  a  name 
of  Shiva.  Over  the  door  of  this 
temple,  and  all  the  other  temples 
here,  is  a  rude  sculpture  in  relief,  of  2 
elephants  pouring  water  over  Lak- 
§hml.    S.  of  this,  about  200  yds.  ofP, 


is  Kdshl  Vishwandth's  temple.-  The 
facade  has  been  supported  by  4  pil- 
lars, of  which  that  to  the  N.  has  gone. 
This  faQade  is  26  ft.  3  long  from  N.  to 
S.     The  door  is  elaborately  carved, 
and   has   2   flat   pieces   of   carving, 
divided  into  rectangular  portions,  with 
headings  in  the  centre.    Then  comes 
a  pilaster,  followed  by  2  more  flat 
pieces,    and    then    another   pilaster. 
Most  of  these  oblongs  have  figures, 
also  in  relief,  but  only  the  lowest  are 
distinct.    The  roof  of  the  portal  to 
this  temple  is  10  ft.  8  from  the  ground. 
The  pointed  roof  above  the  portol  may 
have    been  16  ft.  high,  but   is  now 
ruined.    On  either  side  the  entrance 
is  a  figure,  very  indistinct,  but  pro- 
bably meant  for  Narsingh  trampling 
on  snakes.    The  first  chiunber  is  21  ft. 
from  N.  to  S.,  and  29  ft.  2  from  E.  to 
W.    There  are  3  pillars  of  black  basalt 
7  ft.  7  high  on  either  side.    The  roof 
is  9  ft.  above  the  floor.    The  inner 
chamber  is  12  ft.  10  from  E.  to  W.,  and 
12  ft.  from  N.  to  S.,  and  is  9ft.  7  high. 
It  is  full  of  bats,  and  the  odour  is 
almost  insupportable.    Observe  in  the 
first  chamber,  on  the  left-hand  side, 
figures  like  those  of  men,  which  re- 
present the  Naw  Grahd,  or  9  constel- 
lations.    There  is  an  inscription  in 
old  Kanarese  on  the  ledge  of  the  2nd 
division  of  the  ceiling.     On  the  E. 
side  is  a  finely-carved  door,  but  it  has 
been  blocked  up,  probably  to  keep  it 
from  falling.     It  has  4  flat  sidings, 
then   a   pilaster,  and   then  4    more 
carved  flat  sidings.    With  these  carv- 
ings, the  door  is  8  ft.  9  wide,  and  9  ft. 
10  high,  but  the  actual  entrance  is 
only  6  ft.  9  high,  and  2  ft.  8  wide. 
Five  steps  lead  up  to  the  platform  on 
which    the    temple    stands,    and    on 
either  side  is  a  wall  with  a  lion  in 
relief.    The  temple  consists  of  3  parts, 
an  oblong  faQade  placed  breadthways, 
an  oblong   body  lengthways,  and  a 
slightly  curving   terminus,  which  is 
the  Adytum.  The  roof  is  quite  ruined. 
The  carving  outside  is  very  elaborate, 
and  altogether  this  temple  is  by  far 
the  handsomest  in  Lakkundi,  and  well 
worth    seeing ;    but    being    built    of 
coarse  granite,  the  carving  is  not  so 
clear  and  shaiply  defined  as,  for  in- 


Sect.  II. 


Soute  12. — ZakkundL 


247 


stance,  in  the  Abii  temples.  To  the 
W.,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  road,  is 
a  temple  to  Nandeshwar,  or  "  Shiva, 
lord  of  the  bull  Nandi."  In  front  of 
it  is  a  sort  of  colonnade  20  ft.  4  long, 
formed  of  4  rows  of  2  pillars  each  6  ft. 
10  high.  The  chamber  to  which  this 
colonnade  leads  is  12  ft.  6  from  E.  to 
W.,  and  12  ft.  8  from  N.  to  S.  The 
next  chamber  is  7  ft.  10  from  E.  to  W., 
and  6  ft.  6  from  N.  to  S.  Beyond  it  is 
a  chamber  8  ft.  2  from  E.  to  W.,  and 
7  ft.  3  from  N.  to  S.,  and  8  ft.  high. 
In  the  2nd  chamber  are  4  pillars  and 
2  pilasters.  There  is  a  Kanarese  in- 
scription on  the  ledge  of  the  W.  divi- 
sion of  the  roof,  between  the  4  pillars. 
This  temple  stands  on  the  N.  side  of  a 
tank,  which  it  overlooks.  At  200  yds. 
to  the  S.  is  a  temple  to  Basava.  The 
inside  is  28  ft.  broad  from  N.  to  S., 
and  34 J  ft.  from  E.  to  W.,  but  only 

7  ft.  high.  It  is  a  plain  building,  but 
prettily  situated  on  the  E.  side  of  the 
tank,  which  is  a  well-known  place  for 
wild  ducks  and  other  water-fowl,  in- 
cluding snipe.    The  inner  chamber  is 

8  ft.  sq.  Inside  the  town,  200  yds.  to 
the  W.,  is  a  temple  to  MallikArjuna,  a 
deity  of  the  LingAyats,  but  the  people 
at  Lakkundi  say  it  is  the  name  of  a 
mountain  at  Tlrupatl.  There  is  a 
portal,  supported  by  2  rows  of  pillars, 
8  without  and  4  within.  Further  to 
the  W.  100  yds.  is  a  temple  to  Ish- 
wara,  the  roof  of  which  has  fallen  in. 
This  is  a  very  old  temple  ;  the  exterior 
is  handsomely  carved,  and,  as  usual,  is 
said  to  be  the  work  of  Jakanachdrya. 
The  traveller  will  now  pass  along  a 
narrow  path,  thickly  shaded  for  about 
100  yds.,  to  what  is  called  a  BAorl,  or 
"  well,"  but  it  is  in  fact  a  small  tank, 
the  sides  of  which  are  faced  with 
stone.  There  are  flights  of  steps  to 
the  water  on  3  sides,  consisting  of  10 
steps  each,  and  on  either  side  of  the 
first  step  is  an  elephant,  so  well  carved, 
that  the  natives  may  be  believed  when 
they  say  that  it  is  the  work  of  Jaka- 
nacharya.  There  is  one  small  alli- 
gator in  the  tank,  which,  of  course, 
must  on  no  account  be  touched.  About 
200  yds.  from  this,  on  the  W.  side  of 
the  tower,  is  a  temple  to  Minikeshwar, 
a  name  of  Krishna,  so  callod  because 


every  day  he  gave  to  Rddhd.  a  jewel 
called  a  Mdnik,  that  is  a  ruby.    A 
very  pretty  small  tank  adjoins  the 
temple  to  the  -S.    It  is  faced  with 
stone,  and  there  are  several  handsome 
buttresses  projecting  into  the  water, 
said  to  be  carved  by  Jakan&charya. 
The  entrance  into  the  temple  is  by  a 
portal  on  the  S.  side,  which  on  either 
side  has  4  pillars  of  black  basalt.    The 
E.  face  is  58  ft.  long,  and  from  E.  to 
W.  it  is  35 J  ft.    The  interior  is  only 
9  ft.  4  high.    There  is  nothing  in  the 
inner   chamber,  but  it  is  decorated 
outside  with  2  pillars,  and  the  roof  iB 
pyramidal.    Part  of  the  outer  wall  is 
falling.    This  temple  is  surrounded  by 
beautiful   trees  of   great  size.     The 
traveller  may  return  to  Gadak  by  a 
road   more   to  the   E.,  through   the 
village  of  Betagari,  and  this  perhaps 
is  better  than  the  one  already  men- 
tioned.   Should  the  traveller  return 
to  Belg^oii  from  Gadak,  the  cost  of  a 
special  tonga  from  Belg^n  to  Gadak 
and  back  ^1  be  Rs.  100,  but  he  may 
perhaps  like  to  go  on  from  Gadak  to 
Hamp^  to  see  the  wonderful  temples 
there,  and  the  ruined  city  of  Blj^nagar, 
which  are  fully  described  in  the  Madras 
Handbook,  p.  349.    In  that  case  the 
stages  will  be  as  follows  : — 


Prom 


Gadak  .  . 
Dambal 
Hesanir  .  . 
Hampesagar. 
Balahansi  . 
Hospef. 


To 


Dambal     . 
Hesan^ 
Hampesagar     . 
BalahanBl     . 
Hospet     . 
Hamp^,  or  B^&nagar 

Total    . 


Miles. 


13 

18 

7J 
15 
11 

8 


72^ 


There  is  a  T.  B.  at  Dambal,  but  no 
furniture.  At  Hesan!ir  there  is  a  bangle 
with  furniture.  From  Hesanir  the 
road  is  very  bad,  rocky,  and  sandy ; 
between  it  and  Hampesagar  you  cross 
the  TungabhadrA  river  by  a  ford  in 
dry  weather,  and  by  a  ferry  when  the 
river  is  full.  There  are  large  alli- 
gators in  this  river.  There  is  a  T.  B. 
at  Hampesagar,  and  the  road  from 
thence  is  good.  There  are  banglds  at 
the   other    stations,    except    Hospe^. 


248 


l^oute  13. — Gadak  to  Bdddmi, 


Sect.  11. 


Nothing  need  be  added  to  the  descrip- 
tion of  Bij^nagar  in  the  Madras  Hand- 
book, except  that  the  oldest  part  is 
that  called  H41&  Patna,  which  is 
furtiiest  to  the  W. 


ROUTE    13. 

GADAK  TO   bAdAmI. 

This  expedition  cannot  be  a  com- 
fortable one,  whatever  road  is  taken. 
Europeans  so  seldom  travel  to  Bdddmi, 
Ihat  supplies  are  dijQicult  to  procure, 
find  the  roads  are  bad.  It  will  be  well 
to  leave  Gadak  very  early  in  the 
morning,  and  horses  should  be  changed, 
if  relays  can  be  got,  at  the  village  of 
Ndndpi!ir,  just  beyond  the  12th  mile- 
stone. At  13^  m.  you  pass  the  fort  of 
Umarjf.  Just  beyond  that,  the  road 
branches  E.  to  Ndrikal,  a  town  with  a 
ruined  fort  and  a  large  tank.  This  is 
a  much  longer  way  than  if  the  road  to 
the  N.  is  taken,  which  passes  through 
Abegiri.  Close  to  the  24th  milestone 
is  the  town  of  Ron.  There  is  a  toler- 
able bangld  here,  to  reach  which  you 
must  turn  off  to  the  left  about  300  yds. 
At  Ron  horses  are  not  procurable,  and 
the  traveller  will  probably  have  to 
proceed  in  a  domni.  The  first  change 
of  bullocks  will  be  at  Eottabal,  which 
is  about  3  m. ;  the  next  place  is  the 
small  village  of  Hariar,  also  3  m., 
where  it  will  be  as  well  to  change 
bullocks  again  if  possible.  This  is  the 
frontier  village  of  the  Dhdrwdd  Col- 
lectorate,  and  the  traveller  now  passes 
into  the  Kaladgl  ZlFa.  From  this  to 
Bdddmi  is  12  m.,  and  is  a  very  severe 
journey  for  bullocks,  so  that  the  utmost 
exertion  should  be  made  to  obtain  a 
relay  on  the  other  side  of  the  Malparbd 
river,  which  is  about  7  m.    The  col- 


lector of  Kaladgl  should  be  written  to 
for  bullocks.  In  the  rains  the  Mal- 
parbd is  over  100  yds.  wide,  and  is  not 
f ordable  ;  but  in  the  dry  weather  it  is 
little  more  than  25  yds.  wide,  with  a 
depth  of  2  ft.  6.  The  road  down  the 
bank  to  the  water  is,  however,  very 
steep,  and  on  the  N.  shore  there  are 
many  large  pieces  of  rock  in  the  water, 
which,  particularly  at  night,  render 
an  upset  quite  probable.  There  are  a 
few  alligators,  but  accidents  do  not 
occur.  The  ascent  on  the  N.  bank  is 
also  steep,  but  not  so  bad  as  on  the  S. 
side.  There  is  a  small  village  on  the 
N.  side,  but  neither  bullocks  nor  sup- 
plies are  obtainable.  From  the  Mal- 
parbd to  Bdddmi  is  nearly  4  m.  There 
is  a  large  dharmsdld  at  Bdddmi,  off 
the  road  about  ^  of  m.  to  the  right. 
The  whole  journey  from  Gadak  to 
Bdddmi  with  bullocks  will  take  about 
6hrs. 

Bdddmi.— Th^  N.  fort  of  Bdddmi  is 
to  the  N.E.  of  the  town,  and  on  the 
heights  above  are  some  picturesque 
temples.  To  the  S.  is  another  rocky 
hill,  in  the  face  of  which  are  4  cave- 
temples.  The  2  hills  approach  so  close 
to  each  other  as  to  leave  only  a  gorge, 
into  which  the  town  extends  from  the 
N.W.,  and  is  bounded  also  to  the  B. 
by  a  fine  tank.  The  hills  are  not  less 
than  400  ft.  high,  and  are  very  steep, 
in  places  perpendicular.  They  form 
the  W.  end  of  a  ridge  which  extends 
E.  from  them  about  5  m.,  but  is 
nowhere  so  high  as  these  hills.  The 
forts  are  no  doubt  of  extreme  anti- 
quity, and  in  some  shape  or  other 
probably  existed  as  long  back  as  the 
Christian  Era,  Little  or  nothing  is 
known  of  the  ancient  history.  3  m. 
to  the  E.  of  Bdddmi  is  a  place  called 
Mahdktit,  where  is  a  fine  tank  faced 
with  stone  ;  in  it  is  a  very  old  lingam 
with  5  heads,  3  of  which  are  Bralund, 
Yi$hnu,  and  Mahddeo.  It  is  called 
the  Panchmukha,  "6-faced."  There 
is  also  a  large  fallen  column,  a  mono- 
lith, with  3  long  inscriptions.  One, 
probably  the  most  modem,  is  Chd- 
lukyan,  of  about  A.D.  600 ;  another  is 
of  dubious  meaning  and  date,  and  a 
third  is  in  an  altogether  unknown 
language,  of  which  Mr.  Fleet,  C.S.,  the 


Sect.  II. 


Sfnite  13. — Bdddmi. 


249 


distinguished  Sanskrit  and  Kanarese 
scholar,  could  not  read  a  word.  This 
is  alone  enough  to  prove  the  remote- 
ness of  the  period  at  which  this  locality 
was  first  peopled.  In  1786  BAddmi 
was  in  the  possession  of  Tipii  ^d^ib, 
and  was  attacked  by  the  armies  of 
Niz&m  'All  and  the  PeshwAMhddu  RAo. 
"  Operations  began  on  May  1st.  After 
battering  the  walls  of  the  town  for  3 
weeks,  they  were  very  little  injured  ; 
but  it  was  determined  to  try  the  effect 
of  an  escalade.  On  the  morning  of 
the  20th  of  May,  20,000  infantry  of 
the  confederate  armies  were  drawn 
up  for  that  service.  The  garrison, 
consisting  of  upwards  of  3,500  men, 
manned  the  works  to  oppose  them ; 
and  when  the  assailants  advanced, 
which  they  did  with  great  resolution, 
they  found  the  ditch  and  covered  way 
full  of  mines,  which  were  fired,  and 
proved  exceedingly  destructive ;  but 
the  Mardthas  and  Mughuls,  vicing 
with  each  other,  rushed  forward  in  a 
most  impetuous  though  tumultuous 
manner,  applied  ladders,  mounted  the 
walls  in  various  places,  and,  except  a 
slight  check  sustained  at  the  citadel, 
carried  all  before  them  within  the 
town.  The  garrison  fled  to  the  forts 
above,  closely  followed  by  the  assail- 
ants ;  but  the  pursuers  did  not  succeed 
in  entering  with  the  fugitives.  They, 
however,  continued  to  crowd  up  the 
face  of  the  hills,  though  huge  stones 
were  rolled  down,  and  a  heavy  fire  of 
musketry  opened  upon  them.  Their 
casualties  were  numerous,  but  the  gar- 
rison, becoming  intimidated  at  their 
furious  and  persevering  attack,  offered 
to  surrender  if  their  lives  were  spared, 
a  condition  which  was  immediately  ! 
granted."  (See  Gnmt  Duff,  vol.  iii.,  | 
p.  10.)  The  fort  was  taken  by  the  : 
British  under  Sir  Thomas  Munro  in 
1818.  To  view  the  forts  the  traveller  ' 
will  start  very  early  in  the  morning  i 
and  proceed  to  the  gate  of  the  lower  i 
fort,  which  faces  to  the  S.W. ;  and 
soon  after  passing  it,  and  leaving  i 
on  the  left  a  temple  of  Hanumdn, 
will  ascend  120  ft.  to  a  temple  of 
Mahadeo,  Avhence  he  will  have  an 
excellent  view  over  the  town  and 
hills.      He   will    then    see   that   the  I 


hills  which  loomed  before  him  in  a 
dark  blue  line  as  he  came  from  Hon 
are  separated  by  the  Malparbd  river, 
and  that  the  ridge  on  the  N.  side 
divides  at  its  W.  end  into  the  2  hills 
between  which  lies  the  town  of  Bd- 
ddmi. The  temple  is  very  massively 
built  of  hard  sandstone.  There  is  a 
portal  in  front  of  it,  with  4  sq.  pillars 
8  ft.  8  in  periphery,  and  9  ft.  5  high  to 
the  top  of  the  capital.  The  chamber 
within  the  temple  has  also  4  pillars, 
and  measures  20  ft.  from  N.  to  S.,  and 
22  ft.  from  E.  to  W.  The  chamber  is 
vacant,  but  in  the  faQade  are  2  dw&r- 
pals.  The  fort  is  a  little  to  the  N.  of 
the  dharmsdla,  and  in  its  lower  part 
much  of  the  town  is  included,  and  this 
part  is  defended  by  a  ditch  50  ft.  deep. 
Above  the  temple  of  Mahddeo  rises  a 
scarped  rock  90  ft.  high,  round  the 
edge  of  which  runs  part  of  the  wall  of 
the  upper  fort,  which  is  now  quite 
deserted,  and  only  1  iron  gun,  about 
10  ft.  long,  remains.  There  are  2  or  3 
other  temples,  mostly  in  the  upper 
fort,  which  have  a  very  picturesque 
appearance.  The  S.  hill  is  also  crowned 
with  a  fort,  and  contains  in  its  W.  face 
4  cave-temples,  which  have  rendered 
Bdddmi  celebrated,  though  the  natural 
beauties  of  the  scenery  might  well 
have  done  so  without  assistance  from 
Art.  Descend  now  from  the  temple 
of  Mahddeo,  and  pass  along  to  the  E. 
portion  of  the  town,  and  close  to  the 
S.  hill  will  be  seen  2  tombs  of  Muslims 
and  a  mosque.  There  are  several  in- 
scriptions in  the  Tughrd  character 
about  2  centuries  old.  There  is  another 
gate  in  this  quarter  through  which  the 
traveller  will  pass,  and  ascend  the  S. 
hill.  The  1st  cave  is  about  30  ft.  from 
the  ground,  and  faces  W.  Mr.  Burgess 
has  given  views  of  these  caves,  and  an 
excellent  account  of  them ;  he  says, 
"  they  stand  as  to  arrangement  of 
parts  between  the  Buddhist  Vihdras 
and  the  later  Brdhmanical  examples 
at  Eliira,  Elephanta,  and  Salsette. 
The  front  wall  of  the  Buddhist  Vihdra, 
with  its  small  windows  and  doors, 
admitted  too  little  light ;  and  so  here, 
while  retaining  the  verandah  in  front, 
and  further  protecting  the  cave  from 
rain  and  sun  by  projecting  eaves,  the 


250 


Houte  13, — Gadak  to  Bdddnd, 


Sect.  11. 


front  of  the  ShAla,  or  "hall,"  was 
made  quite  open,  except  the  spaces 
between  the  walls  and  the  Ist  pillars 
from  each  end.  In  the  sculptures,  at 
least  of  the  2nd  and  3rd  caves,  Vi§hnu 
oecupies  the  most  prominent  place, 
but  the  shrines  of  all  3  contain,  or 
have  once  contained,  the  Linga  of 
Shiva:  this,  however,  is  probably  a 
later  substitution  in  the  3rd  cave,  and 
in  the  2nd  there  is  only  a  Chavarangay 
or  altar  pedestal.  In  style  they  vary 
much  in  details,  but  can  scarcely  differ 
much  in  age ;  and  as  the  3rd  contains 
an  inscription  of  Mangaleshvara,  dated 
Shaka  500=A.D.  578,  we  cannot  be 
far  wrong  in  attributing  them  all  to 
the  6th  century.  The  importance  of 
this  date  can  scarcely  be  over  esti- 
mated, as  it  is  the  first  of  the  kind  yet 
discovered  in  a  BrAhmanical  cave," 
In  the  faQade  of  the  1st  cave  are  4 
pillars  and  2  pilasters.  The  2  pillars 
to  the  S.  have  been  broken  by  light- 
ning, and  are  now  supported  by 
wooden  blocks.  The  pillars  are  square, 
8  ft.  8  high,  and  6  ft.  7  in  circumfer- 
ence. They  are  slightly  carved  in 
relief,  to  about  half  way  from  the  top. 
On  the  left  of  the  cave  is  a  dwdrpAl, 
with  a  Nandi  over  him.  Opposite  this 
dwdrpdl  is  a  figure  of  Shiva,  6  ft. 
high,  with  18  arms.  There  is  a  head 
of  a  bull  to  his  left,  and  to  the  right 
are  Ganpati  and  musicians.  Beyond 
the  facade  is  a  passage,  or  verandah, 
41ift.  from  N.  to  S.,  7  ft.  10  broad, 
and  11 J  ft.  high.  On  the  left  is 
Vi§hnu  or  Harihara,  7  ft.  9  high,  with 
4  hands,  holding  the  usual  symbols. 
On  the  right  is  Lakshml,  with  an  at- 
tendant. The  whole  rests  on  a  stylo- 
bate,  along  the  front  of  which  are 
Ganas  (dwarf  attendants  of  Shiva)  in 
all  sorts  of  attitudes.  On  a  platform 
to  the  right  is  Shiva  with  Pdrvati  and 
Nandi.  On  the  back  wall  is  a  figure 
of  MaheshAsurl  or  Durg4  destroying 
the  buffalo-demon  Mahesh^ur.  She 
is  4  ft.  7  high,  has  4  arms,  and  holds 
up  the  buffalo  by  the  tail  while  her 
spear  head  transfixes  its  neck.  In  one 
hand  she  holds  the  discus  or  Chakra, 
in  another  the  spear,  in  the  3rd  a 
conch,  and  in  the  4th  the  buffalo's 
tail.    In  the  air  above  are  2  floating 


figures  of  attendants.  On  the  right 
wall  is  Gkinpati,  3  ft.  4  high,  and  on 
the  left  Skanda,  2  ft.  11  high.  Other 
figures  are  mentioned  in  Mr.  Burgess's 
account.  Beyond  the  passage  is  a 
chamber,  with  2  pillars  carved  from 
the  capitals  to  the  middle.  Inside  are 
2  rows  of  4  sq.  pillars.  This  chamber 
is  41}  ft  from  N.  to  S.,  and  25  ft.  5 
from  B.  to  W,  The  ceiling  of  the 
passage,  as  weU  as  that  of  the  chamber, 
is  carved  in  relief.  There  is  a  small 
recess  in  the  centre  of  the  inner  wall, 
containing  the  Lingam,  From  this 
temple  a  staircase,  very  much  broken 
at  one  end,  and  containing  45  steps, 
leads  to  a  flight  of  6  more  steps,  by 
which  you  arrive  at  the  2nd  cave- 
temple.  From  the  platform,  thus 
reached,  is  a  fine  view  over  the  tank, 
and  to  the  N.  fort.  The  facade  of  the 
2nd  temple  has  4  pillars  8  ft,  10  high, 
and  1  ft.  7}  square,  carved  from  the 
middle  upwards,  and  4  scalloped 
arches.  It  faces  N.  In  front  of  it 
are  3  pinnacles  of  perpendicular  rock. 
The  first  chamber  is  24  ft,  from  B.  to 
W.,  and  32  ft.  ^  from  N.  to  S.  The 
facade  is  about  3  ft.  above  the  level, 
and  is  entered  by  3  steps.  There  are 
2  dwdrpdls  5  ft.  10  high,  each  with  a 
female  attendant.  At  the  B.  end  of 
the  verandah,  to  the  left  of  the  spec- 
tator, is  the  Yardha,  or  3rd  Incar- 
nation of  Vishnu,  in  which  he  assumed 
the  form  of  a  boar.  He  holds  in  his 
hand  a  pedestal,  on  which  is  the  figure 
of  Lakshml.  .  Below  are  She^ha,  the 
1,000-headed  snake,  depicted  with  a 
human  head,  and  a  female  figure,  pro- 
bably meant  for  the  wife  of  She^ha. 
At  the  other  end  of  the  verandah  is  a 
figure  5  ft.  1  high,  with  4  arms,  and 
his  foot  raised,  which  Mr.  Burgess 
takes  to  be  Virdtriipa,  the  demiurge 
of  Vishnu,  but  which  perhaps  may  be 
Shiva  dancing  the  T^ndev.  On  the 
base  of  this  sculpture,  and  on  that  of 
the  facade,  are  a  row  of  Ganas.  In  a 
compartment  above  is  a  10-armed 
figure.  On  the  ceiling,  in  front  of 
this,  is  Ghatur  Bhuj,  that  is  Vishnu 
with  4  arms,  riding  on  Garuda.  On 
the  top  of  the  wall,  in  a  frieze,  Vi§hnu 
is  sleeping  on  Shesha,  with  figures  at 
his  feet.     In  the  central  square  of  the 


Sect.  II. 


Saute  13. — Bdddmi, 


251 


ceiling  is  a  lotus  with  16  fishes  round 
it.  Bound  them  is  a  circle  inscribed 
in  a  square  held  by  12  small  figures 
in  an  outer  square.  The  brackets  sup- 
porting the  beams  of  the  yerandah  are 
strange  vampire-like  figures.  The 
frieze  of  the  cornice  all  round  is  carved 
with  groups  of  figures.  The  entrance 
to  the  inner  chamber  from  the  verandah 
is  like  that  of  cave  1,  with  2  pillars 

8  ft.  6J  in.  high.  The  roof  of  this 
chamber  is  supported  bj  8  pillars  9  ft. 
6i  high,  in  4  rows  of  2  each  from  front 
to  back,  with  corresponding  pilasters. 
The  chamber  measures  33  ft.  4  wide 
by  23ft.  7  deep,  and  is  lift.  4  high. 
The  brackets  are  lions,  human  figures, 
vampires,  elephants,  &c.  The  adytum 
measures  8  ft.  9  by  7  ft.  5 J,  and  has 
only  a  square  Chavaranga  or  altar. 
The  verandah  is  30  ft.  4  by  6  ft.  7,  and 
is  9  ft.  11  high.  On  the  architrave,  in 
the  middle  compartment,  are  several 
groups,  such  as  a  woman  on  a  couch 
nursing  a  child.  The  figures  that  sup- 
port the  cross  beams  are  some  of  them 
very  spirited. 

A  sloping  ascent  of  ruined  steps 
60  ft.  long  leads  to  another  flight 
of  14  steps,  in  tolerable  preserva- 
tion, and  from  9  to  10  inches  high. 
These  steps  lead  to  a  platform,  and 
have  on  their  right,  concealed  in  the 
rock,  a  flight  of  exceedingly  steep 
steps  which  lead  to  the  fort  at  the  top 
of  the  hill.  Following  the  main  line, 
you  ascend  another  flight  of  13  steps 
which  lead  to  a  doorway.  On  the 
right  of  the  door  is  an  inscription  in 
old  Kanarese.  Then  comes  another 
flight  of  13  steps  which  lead  to  a  plat- 
form in  front  of  the  3rd  cave.  Above 
the  fa9ade  of  this  cave  is  a  scarp  of 
100  ft.  of  perpendicular  rock.  This 
cave,  says  Mr.  Burgess,  is  *'  by  far  the 
finest  of  the  series,  and,  in  some  re- 
spects, one  of  the  most  interesting 
Brahmanical  works  in  India."  The 
facade  is  72  ft.  from  N.  to  S.  and  has 
6  pillars  and  2  pilasters  12j^  ft.  high. 
They  are  square,  and  their  periphery  is 

9  ft.  Eleven  steps  lead  from  the  plat- 
form to  the  floor  of  the  cave,  and  thus 
a  stylobate  is  formed  on  which  Ganas 
are  represented  in  relief.  Each  pillar 
has  3  brackets,  one  on  either  side  and 


one  to  the  inside  of  the  verandah.  The 
side  brackets  represent  male  and 
female  figures,  and  the  inside  bracket 
is  a  tall  female  figure.  The  shoulders  of 
the  columns,  as  in  the  other  caves,  are 
carved  with  elaborate  festoons,  and  on 
each  side  of  the  lower  portions  of  the 
shafts  are  medallions  with  groups  of 
figures.  Traces  of  painting  are  visible 
on  the  under-side  of  the  eaves  and  the 
roof  of  the  verandah.  Mr.  Burgess 
has  given  photographs  of  the  brackets: 
that  on  the  E.  side  of  the  second 
column  represents  Arddhandrishvara, 
the  male-female  deity,  the  right  side 
being  male,  the  left  female.  Shiva, 
the  male,  has  a  skull  and  crescent- 
moon  in  his  cap,  and  P4rvati,  the 
female,  holds  a  mirror  in  her  upper 
hand,  and  has  rings  on  her  wrist,  arm, 
and  ankle.  At  the  W.  end  of  the 
verandah  is  a  statue  of  Narsingh, 
the  4th  incarnation  of  Vi§hnu,  a  very 
spirited  figure,  11  ft.  high.  At  his 
right  is  a  Pishdcha  or  demon,  3  ft.  6 
high,  with  thick  lips  and  a  tortoise  as 
a  brooch.  Left  of  Narsingh  is  a  figure 
4  ft.  9  high,  with  a  turban  and  jewelled 
girdle.  Beside  this  figure,  on  the  back 
wall,  is  Shiva,  of  the  same  height.  At 
the  E.  end  is  Ndrdyan,  seated  under 
She^hndg.  The  carving  of  the  upper 
part  of  NdrAyan,  particularly  the  face, 
is  of  unusual  excellence.  The  features 
are  very  good  and  have  an  excellent 
expression  of  repose,  but  the  legs  are 
clumsy  and  seem  to  be  unfinished. 
On  the  left  of  this  figure  is  the  VarAha 
incarnation.  To  the  right  of  this  figure 
is  an  inscription  in  Kanarese.  The 
chamber  is  35  ft.  from  E.  to  W.  and 
38  from  N.  to  S.  and  16J  ft.  high.  It 
has  4  fluted  pUlars  and  2  pilasters  in 
front,  and  then  a  row  of  6  pillars,  and 
then  2  rows  of  2  pillars  each,  carved 
half  way  down  ;  a  very  deep  eave  pro- 
jects in  front  of  the  verandah,  with  an 
alto-rilievo  carving  of  Garuda.  On  the 
rock  to  the  left  of  the  cave  is  an  inscrip- 
tion, and  there  are  some  others  in  other 
places.  E.  of  this  cave  is  a  wall  7  ft. 
high,  which  separates  the  4th,  or  Jain 
cave,  from  the  other  3,  which  arc 
BrAhmanical.  A  ladder  is  required  to 
cross  this  wall,  after  which  proceed 
20  yards  to  a  platform,  from  which  9 


252 


Route  13. — Gaddk  to  Bdddmt 


Sect.  II. 


steps  lead  to  the  4th  care.  The  plat- 
form overlooks  the  lake  or  tank,  the 
descent  being  very  steep  and  covered 
with  bushes.  A  broad  overhanging 
cave  about  1  yd.  in  dip  has  been  cut 
out  of  the  rode  in  front  of  this  cave. 
It  has  Garuda  as  its  central  ornament 
in  the  inside.  In  the  faQade  are  4 
pillars  and  2  pilasters,  carved  all  the 
way  down,  square  and  8  ft.  4  high, 
with  a  periphery  of  6  ft.  2.  Between 
these  pillars  are  scalloped  arches.  On 
the  left  of  the  verandah  is  a  Jain  divi- 
nity, with  bands  round  his  thighs,  and 
cobras  coming  out  below  his  feet.  On 
the  right  of  the  verandah  is  a  Buddha, 
with  the  She§h  NAg  over  his  head. 
The  verandah  is  32  ft.  from  N.  to  S., 
and  6  ft.  9  from  E.  to  W.  The  cham- 
ber is  26  ft.  from  N.  to  S.  and  6  ft.  2 
from  E.  to  W.  There  are  2  pillars  in 
front,  and  2  richly  ornamented  pilas- 
ters. There  are  «dso  4  rows  of  figures, 
with  Buddha  in  the  centre.  Beyond 
is  the  Adytum,  a  recess  in  which  is 
Buddha,  4  ft.  6  high  and  3  ft.  8  broad 
across  the  knees.  In  the  verandah  is 
a  flight  of  64  steps,  leading  up  to  the 
door  of  the  fort,  and  there  are  25  more 
steps  beyond.  Visitors  iu  descending 
will  not  fail  to  be  amused  with  the 
monkeys,  which  come  out  on  the 
scarped  face  of  the  rock,  and  sometimes 
endeavour  to  push  one  another  down 
the  precipice.  At  the  head  of  the  lake 
a  large  mass  of  the  rock  has  fallen, 
and  forms  what  may  be  called  a 
5th  cave.  The  entrance  is  by  a 
hole,  through  which  one  must  crawl. 
Against  the  rock  at  the  back  are  a 
large  and  a  small  figure  of  Jain  execu- 
tion. A  little  to  the  N.W.  of  this  is  a 
small  shrine  built  against  the  rock,  on 
which  is  carved  Vi§hnu  resposing  on 
Shc§ha  and  surrounded  by  deities.  To 
the  N.W.  and  N.  are  numerous  other 
sh